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Histidine Isoleucine Leucine Lysine Methionine Phenylalanine Threonine Thryptophan Valine

Argentine Tyrosine Cystine Glycine Serine Glutamic acid Aspartic acid

Alanine Proline Norleucine Citrulline Hydroxyglycine Hydroxyproline


FORTIFICATION addition of AA so that food contains more than what originally exists e.g. lysine added to bread ENRICHMENT to restore what was lost during the milling process SUPPLEMENTATION addition of CHON rich foods to regular diet to increase total protein and improve its standards COMPLEMENTATION combination of food proteins such that one lacking in an essential AA is provided by another rich in that AA.


BIOLOGIC VALUE (BV) measures the amount of nitrogen kept in the body after digestion, absorption and excretion reveals how available the protein of that food is to the human body e.g. egg 100 (all of the egg protein can be used) NET PROTEIN UTILIZATION (NPU) Measures retention of food protein consumed PROTEIN EFFICIENCY RATIO (PER) compares weight gain to protein intake PER = wt gain / protein intake

GROWTH AND MAINTENANCE CREATION OF COMMUNICATORS AND CATALYSTS ACID BASE BALANCE Some hormones are proteins. They act Due to its structure, an amino acid can as communicators to alert different function either as an acid or base parts of the body to changes. Eg depending on its medium. insulin. TRANSPORTATION Enzymes are also proteins Proteins act as pump, assisting the IMMUNE SYSTEM RESPONSE movement of nutrients in and out of Antibodies are made up of proteins the cell FLUID AND ELECTROLYTE Protein carriers: hemoglobin, REGULATION myoglobin they maintain body fluid and SOURCE OF ENERGY electrolyte balance by keeping water appropriately divided among the different compartments Proteins and minerals attract water, creating osmotic pressure

SPECIFIC ROLES OF AMINO ACIDS Methionine is a methylating agent and helps form the heme of RBCs. Phenylalanine is the precursor of tyrosine. Both are essential for thyroxine and epinephrine production. Thyptophan is a precursor for niacin. Glycine combines with toxic substances to render them harmless


determine your weight in kilograms

multiply your weight by 0.9g/kg to determine your protein RDA (ADULT)

EXCESSIVE PROTEIN INTAKE gives extra load to the kidneys, liver and circulatory system any extra protein in a diet adequate in carbohydrates and fats will yield additional calories and can be stored as body fats


BODY SIZE - use IBW when computing for any condition demanding protein the recommended nutrient intake replacement will require more dietary protein (eg fever, burns, surgery) EFFECT OF GROWTH infants 1.5 2.2 g CHON/kg body wt EFFECT OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY building period of their muscle in the case children 1.6 2 g of boxers, weight lifters, wrestlers early adolescent- 1.5 g QUALITY OF PROTEINS older teenager 1.25 g proteins from animal sources are said to EFFECT OF PREGNANCY AND be high quality whereas those from plant LACTATION sources are lower due to lack of two EAA growing fetus and protein synthesis in the ( lysine and methionine) pregnant womans body increases protein ADEQUACY OF CALORIES requirement (increase of 30gm adequate calories from CHO and fats recommended) must be supplied to prevent usage of as much as 15 g CHON is secreted daily protein for energy so they can do their in the breast milk ( 18-23 gm primary function of building and recommended; average:20g) repairing EFFECT OF AGING need for increase protein STATE OF HEALTH

Introduction def, hx, digestion Basic tools CHO CHON
Multiple choice, computations Bring your own calculator, permit