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BKAF 3083 Accounting Theory & Practice

Presenter:
Rusni Shafiya Bt Ruslan Azromy Bin Abdullah Nor Atikah Bt Mustapa Sayukarina Agnes Yumpin 125938 125839 125897 125910

Articles:

Earning management Ethics Economic Consequences Game Theory

Ethics
Ethics, also known as moral philosophy, is a

branch of philosophy that addresses questions about morality. ethical behaviour in organizations is defined as conduct fair and just above and beyond constitutional laws and applicable government regulations. The concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong, virtue and vice, justice and crime.

Accounting ethics
primarily a field of applied ethics, the study of moral values and judgments as they apply to

accountancy.
Importance of ethics 1. They can use the information of financial statements of a company to make an informed decision. 2. Knowledge of ethics can help accountants and auditors to overcome ethical dilemmas, allowing for the right choice.

The factors ethical failures


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

self interest failure to maintain objectivity and independence inappropriate professional judgment lack of ethical sensitivity improper leadership and ill-culture failure to withstand advocacy threats lack of competence lack of organizational and peer support lack of professional body support.

Fraudulent accounting can arise from a variety

of issues. firm's corporate culture as well as the values it stresses may negatively alter an accountant's behaviour.

ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES

THE RISE OF ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES By Stephen A. Zeff (1978)

Defines EC as an impact of accounting report on decision making behavior of business, government,

1) 2)

unions, investor and creditor American accounting profession has been aware of the increasing influence of outside forces in the standard setting process 2 parallel development have marked this trend: individual or group that rarely show interest in the setting accounting standard These parties began to invoke argument other than those which have traditionally been employed in accounting discussion

Stress on third party intervention Early uses of EC argument:

- when US corporation willing to reduce reported earning by implementing replacement cost accounting The standard- setting bodies respond - use of exposure draft of proposed new standard to get feedback from variety constituencies

EC as a substantive issues

- growth in the information of EC The dilemma facing the FASB - what are the implication of the economics consequences movement for the FASB?

Changes in management accounting practices in Malaysia By Tuan Zainun Tuanmat, Malcolm Smith

Purpose:
- To determined how changes in management accounting

practice in Malaysia manufacturing companies took place in response to a changing business environment and the effect of changes on performances.
Increase in changes might due to :

1) Competitive environment
2) Manufacturing technology

Rely on both technique (traditional and advance MAS) in order to cope significant changes in business environment

Failure to provide appropriate information may contributed to ineffective resource management and decline in performance
The changes include both technique which are: 1) Use existing techniques 2) Replacement the existing techniques with new ones

3) Modification of the use of existing techniques