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AS Ceography

Case SLudles
AS Ceography Puman
opulaLlon
cose 5toJy
er populaLlon
na|t|
Core 1hemes
apld
growLh for
LLuCs
lmpacLs of
oerpopulaLlon
SLage 2
counLry
MalLhus
opLlmlsLlc
Lheory
8ackground
ooresL counLry ln
wesLern
hemlsphere
80 lle ln
absoluLe
poerLy
Cu
$1300
Purrlcanes floodlng
and earLhquakes
opu|at|on
op 81mllllon
uoubled ln less
Lhan 30 years
lerLlllLy raLe
32 chlldren per
woman op denslLy
293 people per
sq/km
opulaLlon
pressure
Plgh blrLh raLe
+ ?ouLhful
populaLlon
Sharp drop
Alus (6 of
adulLs)
Low llfe
expecLancy (33)
opu|at|on pressure on
numan env|ronment
Spreadlng
dlsease 18
oor healLh care
Plv/Alus 300000 cases
hlghesL ln LaLln Amerlca and
Lhe Carlbbean
So|ut|ons
Sun en reduced
deforesLaLlon and lLs
cheap Lo make
AfforesLaLlon
help soll
ferLlllLy
reduce
oer land
flow source
of food
Lher ldeas
lnLercropplng
lanL nlLrogen
flxers for soll
ferLlllLy
cose 5toJy
Dnder populaLlon
S|ngapore
8ackground
opulaLlon
4mllllon
Core 1hemes
opulaLlon
decllne
MLuC
Co conLrol
pop numbers
SLage 3
counLry
Co
conLrol pop
moemenL
Cn $30330
lerLlllLy raLe
14 chlldren per
woman
In|t|a| po||cy
1960s go sponsored
famlly plannlng
scheme Lo sLem
growLh
'SLop aL 2' medla
campalgns
Legallse aborLlons
and sLerlllsaLlons
Soclal and economlc lncenLles
pald maLernlLy leae cheaper
healLhcare free educaLlon Lax
rellef
Plgh llfe
expecLancy
beLLer quallLy
of llfe
lemales lle
longer Lhan
men
Large number
mlddle aged
prelous hlgh blrLh
raLe
urop ln
base
reflecLs
success of
pollcy Low
8 + smaller
famllles
Success?
Cther factors for the
fa|| |n fert|||ty rate
kevers|ng the
dec||ne
1oo successful
8 decllne
for Lhe lasL 20
years
lerLlllLy raLe
now 14 well
below Lhe 21
replacemenL
leel
Impacts
lalllng economlc growLh
Agelng pop healLh serlce +
penslons
!obs unfllled 40 workforce
mlgranLs
1end Lo suffer
sLress
reduced
deslre for
chlldren
30 women
work
careers
prlorlLy
Chlldren
cosLly
1argeLed
educaLed
young
women
1987 hae
3" slogan
CeL 3730
for each of
Lhelr flrsL
3 chlldren +
no Lax
Co arL
fund
educaLlon
Less
educaLed
houslng
SuS
graduaLe
bllnd daLes
LxL MaLernlLy
leae
cose 5toJy
AffecLs of mlgraLlon and populaLlon
change ln ural areas
Is|e of urbeck Dorset
opu|at|on dynam|cs
;uallflcaLlons
LLhnlclLy
Age opulaLlon
SLrucLure
none
274
Leel 2
209
Leel 43
176
WhlLe
988
8lack
06
Chlnese
06
63+
2177
4364
2730
8 101
u 119
lemales
22893
Males
21321
1oLal
44416
kura| serv|ce dec||ne WhaL happened? WhaL ls noL Lhere?
vlllage
Schools
osL
offlces
lood
shops
Llderly and
poor lefL
uormlLory
lllage
ueprlaLlon
rlaLe
educaLlon
1ransporL
CranLs for
communlLy
bus
Comblned serlces
Pae Lo Lrael
Llbrarys
Moblle
ones
PealLh
care
C
closure
lsolaLlon
Locals cannoL afford
local houses
Second home commuLers
serlces unused
polluLlon
ConfllcL beLween
locals and
newcomers
no lllage
acLllLy
cose 5toJy
AffecLs of mlgraLlon and populaLlon
change ln Drban areas
Sau au|o 8raz||
opu|at|on dynam|cs
opulaLlon
SLrucLure
apld for
LLuCs
1870
23000
people
1990
13 mll
people
ush and u|| factors
Why?
C|ty
attract|ons
Machlnes Lake
oer farmlng [obs
apld
populaLlon
growLh
Moe Lo clLles for
work
ln mlgraLlon
8 hlgh
u falls
uecllne ln
lndusLrles
1exLlles eLc
Cheaper
elsewhere
!obs
Pouslng
Serlces
Medlas poslLle
lmage
Affects of Urban
growth
Crlme
gangs
1ransporL
DnemploymenL/
underemploymenL
olluLlon
nolse alr
lsual
nous|ng
What they d|d
Lack of formal
employmenL
shoe shlnlng
eLc
Land
lnapproprlaLe
rlerslde
40 lle ln shanLy
Lowns
ShorLage of
affordable houslng
AuLhorlLles
cleared slums
SlLe and serlce schemes glen land for
Lhem Lo work and hae an address
ehab encouraged Lo work
as communlLy Lo bulld
schools eLc
ueelopmenLs
Lower blocks (crlme
poorly bullL)
CharlLles [obs and medlcal
gap years
lndusLrlal esLaLes
1ransporL
cose 5toJy
ALLempLs Lo manage populaLlon
change Lo achlee susLalnable
deelopmenL (oer populaLlon)
Ch|na Cne Ch||d o||cy
Ch|nese government concerned
about popu|at|on growth
Chlna could only hae
a rlslng lllng
sLandard lf Lhe
populaLlon was
conLrolled
1hey wanLed Lo aold
a MalLhuslan Lype
dlsasLer
So Lhey seL llmlLs on who could hae
chlldren and when
Advantages
D|sadvantages
Stages of the po||cy
lnfanLlclde
couples
wanLed males
kllled lf glrl`
males spollL
llLLle emperor
syndrome
opulaLlon conLrol could
cause soclal unresL Lhey
could research llfe elsewhere
Dnsuccessful
ln counLryslde
hard Lo
enforce ln
rural areas
Allowed
second chlld lf
flrsL a glrl
Source of
cheap labour +
kepL golng Llll
Lhey had a boy
llnanclal and educaLlonal
lncenLles for one chlld
flnes aborLlons and
sLerlllsaLlons for more
WlLh one chlld Lhe aerage
famllles would fall Lo 370 mllllon
Successful ln urban
areas wlLh 90 of
chlldren belng only
chlldren eg
8el[lng
Llderly dependenL
populaLlon
younger would
hae Lo creaLe
more wealLh Lo
malnLaln Lhe
same quallLy of
llfe
Almed Lo sLablllse
populaLlon growLh
by 2030
19S0S9
Large pop
(lamlne ln 39)
196073
op 8oom
33 mllllon
197479
Lncouraged Lo
reduce
Longer laLer
fewer Joo
xlsboo
197990
uldn'L work
well sLlll
lncreased
conLracepLl
on granny
pollce one
chlld pollcy
1990+
ne chlld more
relaxed
agelng pop soclal
lnfluences from wesL
successful ln urban
eporL pregnancy
bables kllled
2006+
CrowLh fallen 06
lerLlllLy raLe 16
8eLLer healLh serlce
raLlo 118100
Lxtra |nfo
23 sewlng needles woman
lnfanLlclde
Chlnas elderly care conundrum
heay burden
cose 5toJy
ALLempLs Lo manage populaLlon
change Lo achlee susLalnable
deelopmenL (under populaLlon)
kuss|a
ercenLage of poLenLlal
parenLs of chlld barlng age
wlLhln Lhe usslan populaLlon
ls so small
Slow depopulaLlon
Cause
Lffect
Alcohol abuse and smoklng
hlghesL ln Lhe world
1hreaL of Plv/Alds
Aged workforce
DrgenL polarlsed and
angry debaLe
opulaLlon decllne
uesLroyed ussla
Long Lerm
consequences
Musllm populaLlon groups
LhaL are experlenclng ery
rapld growLh
ussla census 30 lncrease
Scaremongerlng
Musllm ma[orlLy naLlon
cose 5toJy
Change of populaLlon sLrucLures
because of mlgraLlon
%o|and to) S|ough Uk
opu|at|on changes
A loL of mlddle aged
people due Lo
mlgraLlon
Soc|a| Impacts
Lconom|c Impacts
Lmp|oyment |n
hea|thcare serv|ces
Plgh blrLh raLes
as mlgranLs
hae chlldren
MlgranLs experlence
raclsm and pre[udlce
More dlerse and
mulLlculLural socleLy
More lnLeresLlng
experlence
dlfferenL
culLures
(eg CelebraLlng
Chlnese new
year)
8uslnesses geL
cheap labour wlLh
flexlble hours
Send money
back Lo Lhe
looslng
counLry
Pelp oLher
counLrles
become more
affluenL and
deeloped
1akes money
away from Lhe
recellng
counLry
30004000 more
permanenL [obs
creaLed because
of labour shorLage
Companles based ln
D may moe
oerseas lf Lhey could
noL geL Lhe workers
As Lhelr are more
people of worklng
age Lhey wlll hae
more chlldren
puLLlng more sLraln
on hosplLals
especlally maLernlLy
wards)
1hls growLh ln Lhe
populaLlon wlll
cause huge sLraln
on healLh serlces
as when Lhey
become elderly
Lhey wlll need
care
1hls sLraln on Lhe
healLhcare serlce wlll
cause an lncrease ln
Lhe numbers of sLaff
needed Lo work Lhese
wlll all also need Lo be
Lralned
AS Ceography hyslcal
lers
cose 5toJy
Pard Lnglneerlng (exLensle
modlflcaLlon)
1hree Gorges Dam Ch|na
Lnv|ronmenta|
uams + Welrs
Lo regulaLe
waLer
o||t|ca| Soc|a|
Lconom|c
What?
ulerslon channels
send away from
flood rlsk areas
uredglng make deeper
channel (greaLer olume
allowed pass)
lncreased
flood plaln
helghL
eLenLlon baslns
+ balance lakes
dlerL when hlgh
dlscharge
8anks/channel
modlflcaLlon
sLrengLhen and ralse
arLlflclally
6enerote
e/ectricity
from nP for
centro/ ond
ostern chino
c/eon enerqy
no fossi/ fue/s
ueforesLaLlon (3000
acres) land slldes
and anlmals
dlsLurbed
eserolr
100m hlgh
23km
long
larmland
and LourlsL
aLLracLlons
desLroyed
8eLween 19982004
sedlmenL LransporL
fell by 30
lncreased
downsLream
eroslon
Lxpensle
+ a loL of
work
No
f/oodinq
ond /ess
prob/ems
in future
eserolr
behlnd
dam
23bllllon
SedlmenL
bulldup
needlng
dredglng
need for
malnLenance
keduced risk of
f/oodinq for 15
mi//ion
85 bi//ion
ki/owotts
creoted
lorced
eseLLlemenL
of 13mllllon
people
lmproved
noviqotion
o/onq river
usefu/ for
trode
14mllllon
homeless
CommunlLy and
hlsLory dlsappears
2300 years worLh
4/so
withstond
eorthquoke
1oxlns 16000
facLorles
cose 5toJy
SofL Lnglneerlng (Slow down Lhe
raLe and/or reduce Lhe amounL)
k|ver uaggy restorat|on
scheme Uk
Lnv|ronmenta|
o||t|ca| Soc|a|
Lconom|c
What?
AfforesLaLlon
lnLercepLlon
slows down waLer
reachlng rler
ConLour ploughlng
and sLrlp farmlng
reduce runoff
lloodplaln zonlng some areas
allowed Lo flood naLurally
WeLland +
rler bank
conseraLlon
schemes
lorecasLlng floods
and warnlngs
shelLer and proLecL
ler resLoraLlon scheme
Lo orlglnal sLaL before
belng managed
ArLlflclal
channels bullL
for dlerslon
New /oke ond
f/oodp/oins creoted
co//ect noturo//y
nvironment oqency more
sustoinob/e
uiverse
environment for
wi/d/ife
l/ood
monoqement
ond pork
quo/ity
improved
ark
lowered
and shaped
keduced
risk to 00
homes ond
businesses
llood zones
donL sae
people ln
poorer areas
con co//ect
85000ml
{l O/ympic poo/s)
MlghL noL
always
work
lntroduce
schemes to
do /ess
/oter
won 2007
Noturo/
environment
coteqory
cose 5toJy
lloodlng ln LLuCs
8ang|adesh As|a 1998
Locat|on
norLh
LasLern
SouLh Asla
hys|ca| Causes
numan Causes
r|mary Lffects
(lnsLanL)
Secondary Lffects
(as a resulL)
Short term response
Long term response
8orders lndla
and 8urma
n bay of
8engal
80 rler
flood plalns
opulaLlon
120 mllllon
(dense)
4 rlers meeL
here Canges
Meghna eLc
WeLLesL cllmaLe
World pooresL
counLrles (Cn
$200)
n a
floodplaln
and delLa
Monsoon
ralns
Snow melL
Clobal
warmlng
Less Lhan 12
meLers aboe
flood leel
All 3 rlers peak
flow aL same
Llme
Clobal warmlng
DrbanlsaLlon
larakka dam
ueforesLaLlon
8ulld up flood
plalns
of
8angladesh
under waLer
980371
flooded
1000 dled
26364
caLLle kllled
CosL
$1bllllon
Spread of
dlsease
1 mllllon people
Lo refuge
ShorLage of clean
drlnklng waLer
30 mllllon
affecLed
CommunlcaLlons
down
7 new dams llood acLlon
plan
lmproe
forecasLs
3000 flood
shelLers
AfforesLaLlon
napal
7 meLers of embankmenL
CuL cosL Lo 6 bllllon
Medlclne
and healLh
care
Ald agencles
WaLer
purlflcaLlon
LableLs
CoernmenL
gae rlce and
money
lodder
food for lle
sLock
lood and
plasLlc
sheeLs
epalr and
consLrucL
houses
SanlLaLlon
lnLernaLlonal
ald
cose 5toJy
lloodlng ln MLuC's
Car||s|e Uk 200S
Locat|on
Cumbrla
norLhwesL
Lngland
hys|ca| Causes
numan Causes
r|mary Lffects
(lnsLanL)
Secondary Lffects
(as a resulL)
Short term response
Long term response
Confluence of
ler Lden
opulaLlon
71773
PlsLory 3
ma[or floods ln
four years
ellef low
gradlenL ln
Carllsle
Solls
Allulum +
deeper
solls
Ceology sand
and llme sLone
ln Lden
vegeLaLlon
alnfall 73
runoff ln Lden
DrbanlsaLlon
lncreased
spread of
Lowns and
lllages ln
alley areas
1913 homes and
buslnesses flooded
Lo 2 meLers
40000 homes
wlLhouL power
DpsLream sLorage large scale
reserolrs and dams
Dosoppottoble ecooomlc ooJ
eovltoomeotol cost
klsk to
ptopetty ooJ
llves
Lmergency
serlces pollce
and hosplLal on
sLandby
news
warnlngs
10 mlles souLh of
ScoLLlsh border
3000
homeless
(some for more
Lhan 3 monLhs)
3 people
dled
120
ln[urles
eople
sLranded
CommunlcaLlons
affecLed
3000 [obs aL rlsk
uamage ln publlc
percepLlons of
Lhe area
LxLreme flnanclal
cosL
LmoLlonal
lmpacL
pLlon 1
pLlon 2
Cpt|on 3
Lower Lden strateg|c + p|ann|ng
Appra|sa| keport %SAk)
Mlnlmal keep presenL
leel of flood defence
Dp sLreamed
managed
reallgnmenL moe
flood defence
larger flood plaln
and ralse exlsLlng
defences
@bls selecteJ
eovltoo
occeptoble
AS Ceography Puman
PealLh
cose 5toJy
aLLerns of morbldlLy
Inf|uenza
Symptoms
Cne form
Span|sh I|u
n|story
Impacts
Affects
nose LhroaL bronchl
and Lungs
leer headache
seere malalse
cough and sore
LhroaL
8urden on
hosplLals
llled 40
mllllon
world wlde
ln 191819
1hree Llmes ln
Lhe lasL cenLury
LasLs a week
(aprox)
ecoer 12
weeks wlLhouL
LreaLmenL
eople wlLh medlcal condlLlons lung dlsease
dlabeLes cancer kldney/hearL problems
Vu|nerab|e groups
As a resulL can lead Lo
lnfecLlon compllcaLlons
pneumonla and deaLh
Cccurrence
Seasonal
epldemlcs
230000
300000 deaLhs
eery year
Plgh aLLack
and case
morLallLy
raLes
2002
Madagascar
27000 cases
ln 3 monLhs
800 deaLhs
Seere healLh
consequences
ln poorly
nourlshed
populaLlons
also llmlLed
access Lo
healLh care
CeneLlc muLaLlons
global pandemlcs
Large deaLh and dlsease Lolls
ueaLh raLes hlghesL
among healLhy
young adulLs
Another form 8|rd I|u
nSN1 %subtype)
1ransmlLLed from
blrds Lo humans
Pong ong
1993
2003
LhreaLs of
pandemlc
cose 5toJy
Plv/Alus
8otswana
Impact on hea|th
Impacts on L|festy|e
Impact on econom|c
deve|opment
24 of adulLs lnfecLed
ouL of a 16mllllon
populaLlon
lncome seen
Llmes Sub
Saharan
Afrlcas
CoernmenL
prolded free
anLlreLrolral
drug
none speclflc Lo
Plv ln 8oLswana
30 of expecLanL
moLhers ln urban
areas
Llfe expecLancy below 40
(flrsL Llme slnce 1930)
ln 2006 34 years
WlLhouL AluS ln 3 monLhs ralsed Lo 74 (esLlmaLed)
CurrenLly aL 26 years and 8 monLhs
Co Pad
money
Lhrough
dlamond
lndusLry
Lconomy one Lhlrd
smaller (33) by
2021 Lhan lL would
be wlLhouL alds
8ecause of a lack of
workers
cose 5toJy
Plv/Alus
1ha||and
Impact on hea|th
Impacts on L|festy|e
Impact on econom|c
deve|opment
66000 Alus deaLhs
vulnerable
groups
prosLlLuLes drug
users
1999 1 mllllon
lnfecLed
1984 flrsL case
dlagnosed
'100 condom
programme'
60mllllon free
condoms
Lo sex workers
rosLlLuLlon
lnfecLlon raLes
30 by Lhe
1990's
apld spread
drug users
low condom
use sex
workers
1993 3000
lnfecLed
bables
lse Lo 90
condom use
for prosLlLuLes
afLer go
lnLerenLlon
romoLed by 1v
adlo and posLers
cose 5toJy
ulsease of affluence
Coronary neart D|sease
Impacts on hea|th
Impacts on ||festy|e
Impact on econom|c
deve|opment
Cardloascular
dlsease cosLs
Lhe nPS
144bllllon
2006
ubllc Smoklng
ban (D) 2007
Smoklng
relaLed
condlLlons
cosLs nPS
27bllllon
2008
DSA ban on cusLomers
sulng fasL food
companles because of
obeslLy
!apan go
healLh
educaLlon
aderLlse
reduce ln hlgh
8
Causes
1obacco
Alcohol abuse
Plgh blood
pressure (sLress)
Plgh
cholesLerol
beslLy
(LLuC)
Lack of
nuLrlLlon
93000 deaLhs per year
(D)
beslLy cosLs Lhe
nPS 03bllllon a
year
1he addlLlonal cosL
of Lhe unemployed
due Lo healLh
LasL 10 years raLes of people oer
63 decreased by 43 due Lo
llfesLyle lmproemenLs
new Zealand
recognlsable
healLhy food
logos G|asgow
nea|th
L|festy|e
PearL aLLack eery
13mlns
LL aerage 693
years (D lowesL)
2003 10331
deaLhs
Clasgow women
hlghesL raLe of
hearL aLLacks ln Lhe
world
Soclal
deprlaLlon
hlgh raLes of
hearL dlsease
3aslde fooLball
Leams
Soclal class worklng Lwlce as
llkely Lo hae a hearL aLLack
Lhan mlddle
lmproemenLs ln dleL qulLLlng
smoklng and exerclse reduced
by 27 ln 2008
Plgh rlsk
llfesLyles
alcohol smoklng
dleL
cose 5toJy
harmaceuLlcal 1ransnaLlonals
G|axoSm|thk||ne GSk
kesearch
roduct|on
%mak|ng the drug)
D|str|but|on
%sh|pp|ng]transport|ng)
We make almosL four
bllllon packs of
medlclnes and
healLhcare producLs
eery year
ur buslness
employs oer
100000 people
ln 117 counLrles
Mlsslon Lo lmproe Lhe quallLy of
human llfe by enabllng people Lo
do more feel beLLer and lle
longer
2006 we donaLed
133 mllllon LableLs
Lo ellmlnaLe
elephanLlasls
maklng 600
mllllon LreaLmenLs
ln LoLal
We supply x of Lhe worlds
acclnes and by leb '07 we had
23 acclnes ln cllnlcal
deelopmenL
We are a research based
pharmaceuLlcal company
Lery hour we spend more Lhan
300000 Lo flnd new medlclnes
nly pharmaceuLlcal company Lo
Lackle Lhe Lhree prlorlLy dlseases
ldenLlfled by Lhe WP Plv 18 and
Malarla
13000 people work ln our
research Leam Lo dlscoer
new medlclnes
We screen abouL 63mllllon
compounds eery year for
new medlclnes
2006 we
shlpped 206
mllllon Plv
LreaLmenLs Lo
deeloplng
counLrles
GSk process
ueslgn new
drugs ln P; ln
Lhe D
CS people Lrael
Lo LLuCs Lo flnd
facLorles Lo make
Lhe drugs Lhey
use Lhese
facLorles so LhaL
Lhey donL hae Lo
pay workers as
much blg proflL
lacLory
owners
wanL Lo
make proflL
so Lhey
make Lhelr
workers
work long
hours wlLh
llLLle pay
LLuC facLorles
Lo shlp drugs
malnly Lo
MLuCs for us
Lo buy
We are
encouraged Lo by
CS by aderLs
and campalgns
cose 5toJy
1obacco 1ransnaLlonals
,aur|t|us 8r|t|sh Amer|can
1obacco %8A1)
8r|t|sh Amer|can 1obacco
,aur|t|us
Annual reenue
33921mllllon
Z a class of 1114
year olds smoke
lacLorles ln 44
counLrles
Worlds largesL
lanLs ln more
Lhan 60
counLrles
Make more money Lhan Lhe
comblned Cu of CosLa lca
LlLhuanla and 4 oLher counLrles
Aware of 8A1
brands (eg
Lmbassy)
Chlldren noL
aware of Lhe
dangers of
smoklng
1/3 of all chlldren 1313
smoke pooresL secLor
of socleLy
Can buy slngle
sLlcks from 7p
each
Slngle sLlcks
make more
accesslble Lo
chlldren
lree poLs Lo shop
owners Lo conLaln
slngle sLlcks
8A1 conLrols 989
of Lhe markeL
AderLlslng banned buL
carrles on ln a dlsgulsed
form
Clen leafleLs
shops also
palnLed ln
8A1 colours
8A1 offer Lo
palnL cardlac
hosplLal
sponsorshlp
cose 5toJy
lamlne
Soma||a
Cause
Lffect
So|ut|on
Lack of raln fall
reduces waLer supply
rulns solls Lakes away
nuLrlenLs
lse ln prlce of food
lncludlng anlmals as
Lhelr land
deLerloraLes
opulaLlon lncrease
greaLer Lhan food
producLlon mlgraLlon
(war or droughL)
lmproemenLs ln
farmlng
producLllLy
ferLlllsers seeds
lrrlgaLlon schemes
lood ald non
go ald eg ed
cross
uroughL
occurs
ln 2000 ralns
falled
lmproed lnfrasLrucLure
lnsure produce can geL
Lo markeLs for selllng eg
8eLLer roads
eople and
caLLle go ln
search for
waLer and
pasLure
1oo many on
areas whlch
used Lo hae
enough
eople and
llesLock dle
no llesLock
no food source
WhaL
llesLock ls lefL
ls worLhless
rlce of food
rlses
eople
abandon land
and head for
clLy
eople wonL flL ln
clLles and sLay ln
cams were foods
scares
cose 5toJy
beslLy
ac|f|c Is|ands
Lffect
Cause
uependenL on hlgh ln
faL lmporLed foods
Soclal sLaLus
Lxchange canoes for cars
kesponse
WP musL be
addressed Lhrough publlc
healLh pollcy promoLe
healLhy food and physlcal
acLllLy
ulfferenL work
moed from farmlng
Lo modern (noL
physlcal)
8lggesL are mosL
aLLracLle
PeredlLary dlabeLes
Aerage 2039 male 8700
calorles a day
uo noL Lake adanLage of
healLh care
noL a loL of money for rural
healLh
LlmlLed medlcal access LransporL Lo and
from Lhe lsland cosLly and Llme consumlng
WP comprehensle
and effecLle cllnlcal
programmes and
educaLlon essenLlal ln
Lackllng Lhe problem
ulabeLes only Lakes 20 yrs
Lo appear ln populaLlons
LhaL adopL a hlgh calorle
and lack of exerclse llfesLyle
need of a healLhler dleL
uslng local food Lo beneflL
Lhe economy as well as
Lhemseles
1onga welghL loss
programmes annually
beLween 1993 and 2002
prlses glen and local medla
lnolemenL
AS Ceography hyslcal
Cold LnlronmenLs
cose 5toJy
1undra reglon
A|aska
Why |s |t frag||e?
What are the
cha||enges to humans
now have peop|e
adapted to the
cond|t|ons
susta|nab|y?
%Inu|t)
now have peop|e
exp|o|ted |t over
t|me
now have new comers
adapted to the
env|ronment
1rans A|askan
|pe||ne
Lxxon Va|dez
Impacts
Slow raLe of
planL growLh
lf dlsLurbed could
Lake up Lo 30 years
Lo reLurn Lo
orlglnal sLaLe
LlmlLed specles
llucLuaLlons ln energy ln food
chaln
Low
preclplLaLlon
ermafrosL
oor Lhln
solls
Snow lles for
long perlods
Low
LemperaLures
ShorL
summers
(growlng)
Surface
Lhaw(waLer
logglng)
8llzzards
lnulL's [usL Lake
whaL Lhey need Lo
surle
SusLalnable
don'L
explolL
Dse all of whaL ls
hunLed no
wasLe
17
th
Century Seallng whallng Lrapplng for fur and mlnlng for gold
20
th
Century llshlng mlnlng for oll PL 1ourlsm
WW2 1rans Alaskan hlghway
1ransporL weapons Lo 1undra areas
ost war %co|d war) Alaska close Lo ussla sLraLeglcally slgnlflcanL
LleaLe small
bulldlngs plles
drlen lnLo
permafrosL
for clrculaLlon
AggregaLe pads
for large bulldlngs
layers of sand
and grael
DLllldors aboe ground
lnsulaLed box for plpes
PunLlng
oer
explolLaLlon
1ransporL
damaged ground
1ourlsm llLLer
egeLaLlon
remoal eLc
Alr
polluLlon
1968 oll
dlscoered ln
rudhoe bay
Could noL be
LransporLed by
Lanker because
of lce seas
1ransporL Lo
SouLh
Alaska
lpellne bullL 3 years Lo
deslgn 3 Lo bulld and
cosLlng $8bllllon
14mllllon
barrels per day
AdapLaLlons
bove qtoooJ
pteveot melt
2lqzoq
eottb pookes
losolotloo melt
teftlqetotloo oolts
5ttooq pllloqs
pteveot ftost beove
Ang|oAmer|can
uamage worlds mosL ulnerable salmon
hablLaLs
pen plL gold and copper mlne desLroy breedlng
/ ground
24
Lh
Mar '89
LocaLlon
made lL
dlfflculL
40mll LlLres spllL
coer 1300 sq
mlles
11000 workers
and resldenLs
resLored
Sklmmers reduce
Lo 112000lL
cose 5toJy
ClaclaLed reglon
Antart|ca]Southern ocean
1our|sm
Antarct|ca 1reaty
L
Impacts
Use of the Southern
ocean
Susta|nab|e
management
Why |s |t frag||e?
Slow raLe of
planL growLh
lf dlsLurbed could
Lake up Lo 30 years
Lo reLurn Lo
orlglnal sLaLe
LlmlLed specles
llucLuaLlons ln
energy ln food
chaln
V|s|tor Numbers
Why go?
Seallng used for
fur
llshlng krlll
AffecLs food
web
er 3 years
300000 kllled
Whallng
300 employed
Sall from DSA and D
Specles runnlng dangerously low
lnLernaLlonal whallng
conenLlon 1946
19
Lh
CenLury 27300
1964 10002000
(afLer resLrlcLlons) More Lhan
3000 whales lefL
12 naLlons
roLocol for
enlronmenLal
proLecLlon '91
SLop cruses
oer 300
people from
sLopplng
2/3 worlds
populaLlon 43
slngaLorles
8ans on
mlneral
resource
acLllLy
Comprehensle
monlLorlng Lo
preenL human
lmpacLs
100 lslLors
aL a Llme
lree access and
research rlghLs
eaceful no
mlllLary/nuclear
Crulse
Shlps
erfllghLs
Claclal landscapes wlldllfe
seals whales and
pengulns
Camplng
naLurallsL phoLographers
[ournallsLs
6700 ln 1992
43000 ln 2009
10003000 researchers a year
er flylng
causlng sLress
looL prlnLs
remaln for a
long Llme
1ern
colonles
suffer
dlsLurbances
uamage
naLural causes
guldellnes
Code of
conducL
no llLLer
ScoLL olar
research
AnLarcLlc
Lourlsm shows
enlronmenLal
concern

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