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The ovarian & uterine cycles DR. Amany El-Agawany Ass. Prof. of Anatomy

The ovarian & uterine cycles

DR. Amany El-Agawany Ass. Prof. of Anatomy

THE OVARIAN CYCLE

THE OVARIAN CYCLE - It is the periodic changes which occur in the ovary under the
  • - It is the periodic changes which occur in the ovary under the control of pituitary hormones. The duration of each cycle is about 28 days (23-35).

  • - Ovulation is the most important events of the ovarian cycle.

  • - It is the release of an ovum from the mature Graafian follicle which occurs approximately the middle of each ovarian cycle.

Phases :

1- the follicular phase : ( pre- ovulatory phase)

Characterized by the growth of primordial follicle into mature Graafian follicle under the control of the follicle stimulating hormone ( F.S.H )of the pituitary .

The cells of the developing follicle (

theca interna & granulosa cells ) secretes oestrogen hormone .

The presence of oestrogen hormone in the ovary at this stage is responsible for the proliferative phase of the uterine cycle.

THE OVARIAN CYCLE - It is the periodic changes which occur in the ovary under the

HISTOLOGY OF OVARIAN FOLLICLES

HISTOLOGY OF OVARIAN FOLLICLES
HISTOLOGY OF OVARIAN FOLLICLES
 Now the uterine endometrium is transformed into what is called decidua of pregnancy to receive
 Now the uterine endometrium is
transformed into what is called decidua of
pregnancy to receive the blastocyst,
which reaches the uterine cavity 6 days
 If fertilization occurs , corpus luteum is
transformed into corus luteum of
pregnancy and continues to secrete
progesterone .
after fertilization .

THE OVARIAN AND MENSTRUAL CYCLE OF THE HUMAN FEMALE

2- ovulation :

  • This is the main event in the cycle . The Graafian follicle grows rapidly producing a bulge or cystic swelling on the ovarian surface

  • The Graafian follicle raptures and the secondary oocyte with follicular fluid is released in the peritoneal cavity.

  • The oocyte is covered by the zona pellucida and the corona radiata.

Time of ovulation :

  • The ovulation occurs approximately 14 days

(+_ one day) before the beginning of the next

menstruation regardless of the length of the

menstrual cycle .

3- the luteal phase :

It is also called the post ovulatory phase .

It is stimulated by L.H of the pituitary , it is characterized

 

by :

This phase occupy the second half of the cycle.

The ruptured follicule changes into corpus luteum.

The luteal cells secretes progesterone and estrogen which

suppress secretion of F.S.H. This secreated progesterone is responsible for the changes which take place in the

endometrium in the 2 nd half of uterine cycle.

Fate of corpus luteum :

  • Depends on whether fertilization ( pregnancy) occurs or not :

1- If fertilization does not occurs :

  • The corpus luteum lives for 9 days only after ovulation and then decreases rapidly in size , degenerates and transformed into mass of fibrous tissue called corpus albicans .

  • As the corpus luteum degenerates the progesterone level in blood decreases so menstruation occurs.

2- If fertilization occurs :

  • The corpus luteum continues to grow forming corpus luteum of pregnancy which lives for 4-5 months and secrets

progesterone hormone until placenta

becomes functioning then degenerates.

OVARIAN CYCLE - OVULATION

OVARIAN CYCLE - OVULATION
OVARIAN CYCLE - OVULATION

THE UTERINE ( MENSTRUAL) CYCLE

THE UTERINE ( MENSTRUAL) CYCLE  This is the periodical changes which occur in the endometrrium
  • This is the periodical changes which occur in the endometrrium in response to the changes in the level of the ovarian hormones.

Three phases can recognized in the uterine cycle:

1- The menstrual phase .

2- The proliferative phase ( post- menstrual)

. 3- The secretary phase (pre - menstrual) .

1- THE MENSTRUAL PHASE

1- THE MENSTRUAL PHASE  Menstruation is the shedding of the superficial layer of the endometrium
  • Menstruation is the shedding of the superficial layer of the endometrium with blood and mucus as vaginal discharge occurring every 28 days.

  • It is due to degeneration of the corpus luteum at

the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle .

  • It is about 3-5 days.

The blood consists of :

1- venous and arterial blood from degenerated vessels.

2- shedded epithelium of endometrium. 3- Secretions of degenerated uterine glands .

 Now the uterine endometrium is transformed into what is called decidua of pregnancy to receive
 Now the uterine endometrium is
transformed into what is called decidua of
pregnancy to receive the blastocyst,
which reaches the uterine cavity 6 days
 If fertilization occurs , corpus luteum is
transformed into corus luteum of
pregnancy and continues to secrete
progesterone .
after fertilization .

2-THE PROLIFERATIVE PHASE ( POST-

MENSTRUAL)

2-THE PROLIFERATIVE PHASE ( POST- MENSTRUAL)  Stimulated by estrogen hormone of the ovary.  Repair
2-THE PROLIFERATIVE PHASE ( POST- MENSTRUAL)  Stimulated by estrogen hormone of the ovary.  Repair
  • Stimulated by estrogen hormone of the ovary.

  • Repair of endometrium occurs following the menstruation and increase in endometrial

thickening.

  • It is about 10 days, occurs from 4-14 of the cycle.

The endometrium grows in this stage :

  • The endometrium becomes 3 mm thick.

  • The uterine glands become longer and straight like test tube .

3- THE SECRETARY PHASE (PRE -

MENSTRUAL)

  • Stimulated by progesterone and estrogen hormones .

  • Occurs from day 14-28 of the period.

  • The endometrium becomes thicker (5-7 mm)

  • The uterine glands become more convoluted and full of secretion ( mucus & glycogen)

  • The spiral arteries become dilated and tortuous.

  • The endometrium becomes edematous and soft .

3- THE SECRETARY PHASE (PRE - MENSTRUAL)  Stimulated by progesterone and estrogen hormones . 
3- THE SECRETARY PHASE (PRE - MENSTRUAL)  Stimulated by progesterone and estrogen hormones . 
 Now the uterine endometrium is transformed into what is called decidua of pregnancy to receive
 Now the uterine endometrium is
transformed into what is called decidua of
pregnancy to receive the blastocyst,
which reaches the uterine cavity 6 days
 If fertilization occurs , corpus luteum is
transformed into corus luteum of
pregnancy and continues to secrete
progesterone .
after fertilization .

THE OVARIAN AND MENSTRUAL CYCLE OF THE HUMAN FEMALE