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Chapter 9 & 10

Writing Negative and Persuasive Messages

Writing Negative Messages

When writing negative message consider the following:

Will the bad news come as a shock? Does the audience prefer short messages? How important is the news to the audience? Do you need to maintain a close working relationship? Do you need to get the audiences attention? What is your organizations preferred style? How much follow-up communication do you want?

Direct vs. Indirect Approach

Use the Direct Approach when:

Direct Approach Bad News Reasons Positive Close

Firmness is needed Bad news wont come as a shock Situation is routine or minor Audience prefers bad news first

Direct vs. Indirect Approach

Use the indirect approach when:

Indirect Approach Buffer Reasons Bad News Positive Close

Audience will be displeased Audience is emotionally involved

Using the Indirect Approach

A buffer is a neutral, non controversial statement that is closely related to the point of the message.

A buffer establishes common ground with your reader. A buffer validates the request.
Our department shares your goal of processing orders quickly. As a result of the last downsizing, every department in the company is running shorthanded.

Giving Negative Performance Reviews

When providing a negative performance review:

Confront the problem right away Plan your message Deliver the message in private Focus on the Problem not the person Ask for a commitment from the employee

Persuasive Messages

When writing persuasive messages, all of the following will help:

Using simple language Supporting your message with facts Identifying your sources Being an expert (or finding one to support your message Establishing common ground Being objective Displaying your good intentions

Structuring your Persuasive Messages

The AIDA model organizes your message into four phases:

Attention: your first intention is to encourage your audience to want to hear about your main idea. Interest: explain your message to your audience, paint a more detailed picture of the problem. Desire: help audience members embrace your idea by explaining how the change will benefit them. Action: suggest the action you want readers to make. (ie., please institute this program soon.)

Creating Appeals

Persuasive messages rely on appeals. An appeal can either be emotional or logical. Emotional appeals calls on feelings, basing the argument on audience needs or sympathies.

Words like: freedom, success, prestige all evoke feelings.

Creating Appeals

Logical Appeals call on reason; you make your claim and then support your claim with evidence.

Analogy: you reason from specific evidence to specific evidence. circling the wagons Induction: you work from specific evidence to a general conclusion. Deduction: you work from generalization to a specific conclusion. Use surveys that support your case

Marketing/Sales Messages

Assess Audience Needs Analyze Your Competition sales messages nearly always compete with their competition. Determine Key Selling Points features/benefits. Anticipate Purchase Objections

Features and Benefits

Develop a features/benefits chart that will assist you in developing your sales brochure:
Product Feature
Our easy financing plan includes no money down, no interest, and no payments for 24 months

Customer Benefit
You can buy what you want right now, even if you have limited cash on hand.

Our marketing communication audit You can find out whether your message accurately measures the impact of you is reaching the target audience and advertising and public relations efforts whether youre spending your marketing budget in the best manner The spools in our fly fishing reels are Go fishing with confidence. These machined from solid blocks of aircraft- lightweight reels will stand up to the grade aluminum. toughest conditions.

Purchase Objections

The best way to handle purchase objections is to handle them up-front and try to address as many as you can in your message.

If price is a major selling point, give it prominence in the message. Words such as luxurious or economical provide unmistakable cues about how your price compares to your competition.

Applying the AIDA model

Getting Attention:

Your products strongest benefit- Carry a tune or 2,000 (for Apple IPOD nano) A piece of genuine news Take entertainment to a whole new place (Verizons V cast service) A point of common ground An SUV adventurous enough to accommodate your spontaneity. The promise of savings Right now, you can get huge savings.. A solution to the problem This backpack is designed to endure all a kids dropping and dragging.

Applying the AIDA model

Building Interest:

Use the interest section of your message to build on the intrigue you created with your opening.
A thinner design. Five stylish colors. A brighter display. Up to 24 hours of battery life. Just about the only thing that hasnt changed is the name. In 2GB, 4GB, and 8GB models starting at $149, IPOD nano puts up to 2,000 songs in your pocket.

the key improvements in the new nano. Puts music capacity in a position of emphasis, since that not price is the major selling point of the Ipod nano.

Applying the AIDA model

Increasing Desire: to build desire continue to expand and explain what it offers.

On the Ipod nano page, Apple continues with more details about the features. Write This
The NuForm desk chair supports your lower back and relieves pressure on your legs.

Instead of This
The NuForm desk chair is designed to support your lower back and relieve pressure on your legs.

Applying the AIDA model

Motivating Action: make sure to ask for the sale.