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The Communication Technique in Community

M. Rum Rahim Thursday, May 22, 2009 In Regular Class Block of Community Medicine

Hendrik L. Blum
Genetic

HS

Degree of Public Health

Environment

Behavioral

Lawrence Green
Behavioral

Perilaku: *Knowledge *Attitude *Practise

Health Education

Individual
Guidance & Counseling Interview

Group
Large group Small group

Public

Group
Large group > 15 person

Ceramah Seminar

Small group

group discussion brain storming snow balling bruzz group role play simulation game

Baik untuk yg berpendidikan tinggi & rendah 1. Persiapan Success kuasai materi Pelajari materi dgn sistimatika yg baik susun dalam skema & diagram Siapkan alat bantu: makalah singkat, slide, transparan, sound system, LCD dsb.

Baik untuk yg berpendidikan tinggi & rendah 2. Pelaksanaan Sikap & penampilan meyakinkan Suara keras & jelas Pandangan tertuju ke seluruh peserta Berdiri di depan (di pertengahan), tidak boleh duduk. Gunakan AVA semaksimal mungkin

Sasaran: Kelompok besar dgn pendidikan menengah keatas


Adalah suatu penyajian (presentasi) dari satu ahli atau beberapa ahli tentang suatu topik yang dianggap penting & biasanya dianggap hangat di masyarakat.

Agar semua anggota kelompok bebas berpartisipasi: Atur formasi duduk (mis: lingkaran, segi4) berhadap-hadapan & saling pandang Pimpinan diskusi/penyuluh duduk diantara peserta Pimpinan diskusi mengatur/mengarahkan:
Intro dgn topik, pancing dgn pertanyaan Semua peserta dpt kesempatan, tdk ada dominasi diantara peserta.

Modifikasi diskusi kelompok, bedanya Awalnya pimpinan klpk memancing dgn satu masalah, kmd setiap peserta memberikan jawaban2 atau tanggapan. Tanggapan atau jawaban tsb ditampung & ditulis dlm flipchart atau papan tulis. Sebelum semua peserta mencurahkan pdptnya, tidak boleh dikomentari siapapun. Setelahnya boleh dikomentari

Klpk dibagi dalam pasangan2 (2 orang) Lontarkan pertanyaan/masalah + 5 menit, tiap 2 pasang bergabung diskusi Tiap 2 pasang (4 orang) bergabung dst. Sampai terjadi diskusi seluruh kelas.

Klpk langsung dibagi menjadi kelompok2 kecil Lontarkan masalah yang sama/tidak Masing2 klpk mendiskusikan Hasil diskusi dicari kesimpulannya

Dalam metode ini beberapa anggota kelompok ditunjuk sebagai pemegang peranan tertentu misalnya: Kepala Puskesmas, perawat, bidan dsb. Anggota lain sbgi pasien, anggota masyarakat, toma dll. Mereka memperagakan bagaimana interaksi/komunikasi sehari-hari dalam melaksanakan tugas.

Metode ini mrpk gambaran antara role play & diskusi kelompok. Pesan2 kesehatan disajikan dlm bentuk permainan, spt permainan monopoli dgn menggunakan dadu, penunjuk arah & papan main. Bbrp orang sbgi pemain & sebagian lagi berperan sebagai nara sumber.

Sasaran pendidikan bersifat umum Tidak membedakan golongan umur, jenis kelamin, pekerjaan, status ekonomi, tingkat pendidikan dsb. dirancang sedemikian rupa shg pesan kesehatan dpt ditangkap oleh massa

1.

2. 3.

4. 5. 6.

Ceramah umum (Public Speaking) pd acara2 tertentu spt: Hari Kesehatan Nasional, Safari KB. Pidato2 & diskusi melalui media elektronik. Simulasi, dialog antara pasien dgn dokter ttg suatu penyakit melalui TV & radio Praktek Dokter Herman Susilo Sinetron Dr. Sartika Tulisan/artikel di koran Billboard Ayo ke Posyandu

Focus group discussion


A rapid assessment, semi-structured data gathering method in which a purposively selected set of participants gather to discuss a list of issues.

Focus group discussion

Focus Group Discussion Team


Facilitator
Rapporteur

Participants

(7-10)

FGD Guide
1.

Specify objectives and information needs of FGD.

2.

Break down major topics into discussion points.


Prepare probe questions

3.

Guidelines in group selection & composition


1.

The optimal number of participants ranges from 7 to 10. If too small a group, then someone in the group may be dominant. If too big, it may be difficult to control. Group members should be representative of the target population.
Consider these characteristics in the choice of participants: sex income level educational level level of expertise in the topic area profession

2.

3.

Qualities of an FGD facilitator

Familiarity with the discussion topic

Ability to speak the local language


Cultural sensitivity Sensitivity to women Politeness

Steps in conducting FGD session


1.

After a brief introduction, explain briefly the purpose and scope of the discussion. - to relax participants - to establish ground rules - i.e., time allocation and that everyone will be given an opportunity to express his/her opinions - begin developing rapport with participants

2.

Ask participants to give their names.

Steps in conducting FGD session


3. Start the discussion, focusing on the key themes prepared in advance. 4. During the discussion, give all participants the opportunity to participate.

Steps in conducting FGD session


5.

Use a variety of moderating tactics to facilitate the group discussion. - Stimulate the participants to talk to each other, not necessarily to the moderator. - Encourage shy participants to speak.

- Discourage dominant participants through verbal and nonverbal cues.

Steps in conducting FGD session


Moderating tactics
- call on other participants - politely intervene by saying, Maybe we can discuss that in another occasion... - look in another direction

- take advantage of a pause and suggest that the subject can be discussed in detail in another session

Merupakan alat saluran (channel) untuk menyampaikan pesan kesehatan karena alat tsb mempermudah penerimaan pesan2 Berdasarkan fungsinya, dibagi 3: Media cetak Media elektronik Media papan (Billboard)

1.
2. 3. 4. 5.

6.
7.

Booklet Leaflet Flyer (selebaran) Flip chart (lembar balik) Rubrik Poster Foto

One of media to deliver health messages in books, in writing and pictures

The form of delivering the information or health messages through folded paper The content of the messages could be in sentences or pictures or both of them.

Like a leaflet but not in folded form

Media of delivering the information or health messages in form of flip chart. It is usually in form of a book that every sheet contains pictures and the back of it contains the messages or information about the pictures.

The writings on the newspapers or magazines about health problems and all things have relation with the health.

Print media that contains the information or health messages, it is usually stuck on the wall, public space, or in the public transportation.

To show the health information

1.
2. 3.

4.
5.

Televisi Radio Video Slide Film strip

Dipasang di tempat2 umum, Bus dsb.