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Crading and Reporting Crading and Reporting

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Kandngan Kandngan
1. 1. Pengenalan Pengenalan
2. 2. DeIinisi DeIinisi penggredan penggredan dan dan pelaporan pelaporan
3. 3. Tujuan Tujuan penggredan penggredan dan dan pelaporan pelaporan
4. 4. Elemen Elemen dalam dalam penggredan penggredan dan dan pelaporan pelaporan
5. 5. Kaedah Kaedah Penggredan Penggredan dan dan pelaporan pelaporan
6. 6. Standard Standard Penggredan Penggredan dan dan pelaporan pelaporan
7. 7. Cabaran Cabaran penggredan penggredan dan dan pelaporan pelaporan
8. 8. Kesimpulan Kesimpulan
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Pengenalan Pengenalan
When reporting on student work, educators When reporting on student work, educators
need a clear, comprehensive grading system need a clear, comprehensive grading system
that shows how students are that shows how students are measuring up measuring up
to standards. to standards.
Thomas R. Guskey (2001) Thomas R. Guskey (2001)
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Pengenalan Pengenalan
P & P P & P Penilaian Penilaian//pentaksiran pentaksiran
Penggredan Penggredan
pelaporan pelaporan
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efinisi efinisi Penggredan Penggredan
Penggredan Penggredan ialah ialah proses proses memberi memberi gred gred
keatas keatas jawapan jawapan atau atau skor skor murid murid dan dan biasa biasa
nya nya gred gred diberi diberi dalam dalam bentuk bentuk abjad. abjad.
Gred Gred yang yang akan akan diberikan diberikan kepada kepada murid murid sepatut sepatut
nya nya melambangkan melambangkan sejauh sejauh mana mana objektiI objektiI peng peng
ajaran ajaran dan dan pembelajaran pembelajaran telah telah dicapai, dicapai, dan dan se se
patutnya patutnya selari selari dengan dengan polisi polisi sekolah sekolah atau atau
negara negara
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%ujuan %ujuan penggredan penggredan dan dan
pelaporan pelaporan
The principal purpose oI the grading and reporting The principal purpose oI the grading and reporting
oI student progress is to engage educators, oI student progress is to engage educators,
students, and parents in the process oI increasing students, and parents in the process oI increasing
student achievement. student achievement.
Parents Parents shall be provided any relevant shall be provided any relevant
inIormation concerning their child that will inIormation concerning their child that will
enhance their understanding oI the child`s ability, enhance their understanding oI the child`s ability,
eIIort, success, or progress in the school program. eIIort, success, or progress in the school program.
Thomas R. Guskey (2001) Thomas R. Guskey (2001)
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!:rposes of Crading !:rposes of Crading
ommunicate the Achievement Status of ommunicate the Achievement Status of
Students to %heir Parents and Others Students to %heir Parents and Others
Provide Information for Student Self Provide Information for Student Self- -
Evaluation Evaluation
Select, Identify, or Group Students for Select, Identify, or Group Students for
ertain ertain Educational Programs Educational Programs
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!:rposes of Crading !:rposes of Crading
ocument Students` Performance to ocument Students` Performance to
Evaluate the Evaluate the Effectiveness of Instructional Effectiveness of Instructional
Programs Programs
Provide Evidence of Students` Lack of Provide Evidence of Students` Lack of
Effort or Effort or Inappropriate Responsibility Inappropriate Responsibility
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Crading Elements Crading Elements
ajor Exams or ompositions ajor Exams or ompositions
lass Quizzes lass Quizzes
Reports or Projects Reports or Projects
Student portfolio Student portfolio
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Crading Elements Crading Elements
omework ompletion omework ompletion
omework Quality omework Quality
lass Participation lass Participation
Work abits and Student Portfolios Work abits and Student Portfolios
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Crading Elements Crading Elements
W Exhibits of Students` Work
W Laboratory Projects
W Students` Notebooks or 1ournals
W lassroom Observations
W Oral Presentations Neatness
W
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Crading Elements Crading Elements
WEffort Put Forth
W lass Attendance
W Punctuality of Assignments lass Behavior
or Attitude
WProgress ade
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Penggredan Penggredan dan dan pelaporan pelaporan
1. Grading and Reporting are 1. Grading and Reporting are % % Essential Essential
to the Instructional Process to the Instructional Process
%eachers can teach without grades. %eachers can teach without grades.
Students can and do learn without grade Students can and do learn without grade
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Penggredan Penggredan dan dan pelaporan pelaporan
hecking i hecking is Essential ! s Essential !
hecking is iagnostic hecking is iagnostic
Grading is Evaluative Grading is Evaluative
- - %eacher is a %eacher is a :dge :dge
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No One ethod of Grading and No One ethod of Grading and
!:rposes Well ! !:rposes Well ! Reporting Serves Reporting Serves
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Grading and Grading and reportng reportng
Kesan gred dan pelaporan kepada murid dan bapa
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%PE OF GRAING %PE OF GRAING
etter Grades etter Grades
Percentage Grades Percentage Grades
Standards Standards- -Based (Checkst of Sks) Based (Checkst of Sks)
Narrat;es Narrat;es
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etter Crades etter Crades
Sistem Sistem Abjad Abjad
1. 1. Kaedah Kaedah paling lama paling lama dan dan paling popular paling popular
2. 2. Lima Lima abjad abjad biasa biasa diguna diguna (A, B, C, D, E, F) (A, B, C, D, E, F)
3. 3. Penggredan Penggredan abjad abjad diguna diguna utk utk penilaian penilaian
somatiI somatiI
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etter Crades etter Crades
Kaedah Kaedah penggredan penggredan sistem sistem abjad abjad
1. 1. Menukarkan Menukarkan markah markah mentah mentah (raw curve) (raw curve)
kepada kepada skor skor Z & T Z & T
2. 2. Bina Bina graI graI kekerapan kekerapan untuk untuk mendapatkan mendapatkan min, min,
median, mod median, mod dan dan sisihan sisihan piawai piawai..
3. 3. Median Median atau atau min min sebagai sebagai garisan garisan
rujukan rujukan//penengah penengah untuk untuk gred gred C. C.
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etter Crades etter Crades
Kaedah Kaedah penggredan penggredan sistem sistem abjad abjad
4. 4. Gred Gred B B berada berada min min di di atas atas gred gred CC
5. 5. Gred Gred A A berada berada 1 min 1 min di di atas atas gred gred CC
6. 6. Gred Gred D D berada berada pada pada min min di di bawah bawah gred gred CC
8. 8. Gred Gred F F berada berada ~1 min ~1 min di di bawah bawah gred gred CC
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contoh contoh..
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contoh contoh..
Median Median 0.1 0.1 sisihan sisihan piawai piawai atau atau skor skor Z 0.1 Z 0.1
Skor Skor T T 51 51
Maka Maka
gred gred A A utk utk markah markah ~24 ~24
gred gred B B utk utk markah markah 22 22 24 24
gred gred C C utk utk markha markha 19 19 21 21
gred gred D D utk utk markah markah 16 16 18 18
gred gred F F utk utk markah markah 16 16
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etter Crades etter Crades
advantages/Kelebihan advantages/Kelebihan
1. 1. udah udah ditafsir ditafsir sebagai sebagai pencapaian pencapaian
pelajar pelajar mengikut mengikut kategori kategori pencapaian pencapaian
. Generally Understood . Generally Understood
kelemahan/ kelemahan/isadvantages: isadvantages:
1. 1. %idak %idak menggambarkan menggambarkan secara secara tepat tepat
penguasaan penguasaan kandungan kandungan pelajaran pelajaran. .
. ut . ut- -offs are Arbitrary offs are Arbitrary
3. Easily isinterpreted 3. Easily isinterpreted
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!!ercentage Grades ercentage Grades
Kelebihan/ Kelebihan/Advantages: Advantages:
1. Provide Finer iscriminations 1. Provide Finer iscriminations
Increase Variation in Grades Increase Variation in Grades
kelemahan/ kelemahan/isadvantages: isadvantages:
1. 1. %idak %idak menggambarkan menggambarkan secara secara tepat tepat
penguasaan penguasaan kandungan kandungan pelajaran pelajaran. .
. ut . ut- -offs are Arbitrary offs are Arbitrary
3. Easily isinterpreted 3. Easily isinterpreted
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$tandards $tandards- -Based Based
(Checklist of $kills) (Checklist of $kills)
Advantages: Advantages:
1. lear escription of Achievement 1. lear escription of Achievement
isadvantages: isadvantages:
1. Often %oo omplicated for Parents to 1. Often %oo omplicated for Parents to
Understand Understand
. Seldom ommunicate the . Seldom ommunicate the
appropriateness appropriateness of Progress of Progress
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$tandards $tandards- -Based Based
(Checklist of $kills) (Checklist of $kills)
Steps n De;eopng Standards Steps n De;eopng Standards- -Based Gradng Based Gradng
dentify the major learning goals or dentify the major learning goals or
standards standards that students will be expected to that students will be expected to
achieve at each grade level or in each achieve at each grade level or in each
course of study. course of study.
Establish performance indicators Establish performance indicators for the for the
learning goals or standards. learning goals or standards.
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$tandards $tandards- -Based Based
(Checklist of $kills) (Checklist of $kills)
Steps n De;eopng Standards Steps n De;eopng Standards- -Based Gradng Based Gradng
Determine grad:ated levels of performance Determine grad:ated levels of performance
benchmarks) for assessing each goal or benchmarks) for assessing each goal or
standard standard
Develop reporting forms that comm:nicate Develop reporting forms that comm:nicate
teachers' teachers' judgments of students` learning judgments of students` learning
progress and culminating achievement in progress and culminating achievement in
relation to the learning goals or standards relation to the learning goals or standards
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arratives arratives
Narrat;es Narrat;es
Advantages: Advantages:
1. lear escription of Progress and Achievement 1. lear escription of Progress and Achievement
. Useful for iagnosis and Prescription . Useful for iagnosis and Prescription
isadvantages: isadvantages:
1. Extremely %ime 1. Extremely %ime- -onsuming for %eachers to onsuming for %eachers to
evelop evelop
. ay Not ommunicate Appropriateness of . ay Not ommunicate Appropriateness of
Progress Progress
3. omments Often Become Standardized 3. omments Often Become Standardized
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$:bjectivity in $:bjectivity in grading grading
and reporting and reporting
Grading and Reporting Will Grading and Reporting Will ays ays nvolve nvolve
Some egree of Some egree of Subfect;ty Subfect;ty
In General, Reporting is In General, Reporting is ore ore Subjective: Subjective:
%he ore %he ore Detailed the Reporting ethod Detailed the Reporting ethod
%he ore %he ore nalytic the Reporting !rocess nalytic the Reporting !rocess
%he ore %he ore Effort' is Considered Effort' is Considered
%he ore %he ore Behavior' nfl:ences Behavior' nfl:ences
:dgments :dgments
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owever, ore owever, ore Detailed and nalytic Detailed and nalytic
Reports are Better Reports are Better
earnng Toos earnng Toos
Chaenge. Chaenge.
%o Balance %o Balance Reporting eeds with Reporting eeds with
nstr:ctional !:rposes nstr:ctional !:rposes
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Grades have Some Value as Grades have Some Value as Rewards, Rewards,
NO NO Value as Value as !:nishments ! !:nishments !
o Not Use Grades as o Not Use Grades as Weapons Weapons
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Reference in Grading and Reference in Grading and
Reporting Reporting
6 Grading and Reporting should 6 Grading and Reporting should lways be lways be
done done in reference to in reference to earnng Crtera earnng Crtera,,
Gradng Crtera Gradng Crtera
1. 1. !rod:ct Criteria !rod:ct Criteria
. . !rocess Criteria !rocess Criteria
3. 3. !rogress Criteria !rogress Criteria
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Grade istributions Reflect Grade istributions Reflect Both: Both:
1. Students` Level of Performance 1. Students` Level of Performance
. %he Quality of the %eaching . %he Quality of the %eaching
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Reporting Reporting
Report ards are but Report ards are but ne Way of ne Way of
ommunicating with Parents ! ommunicating with Parents !
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Reporting Reporting
orms of Reportng to Parents Incude. orms of Reportng to Parents Incude.
Report ards Report ards
Notes with Report ards Notes with Report ards
Personal Letters Personal Letters
omework omework
Standardized Assessment Reports Standardized Assessment Reports
Weekly / onthly Progress Reports Weekly / onthly Progress Reports
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Reporting Reporting
Phone alls Phone alls
School Open ouses School Open ouses
Newsletters Newsletters
Evaluated Assignments or Projects Evaluated Assignments or Projects
Portfolios or Exhibits Portfolios or Exhibits
School Web Pages School Web Pages
omework otlines omework otlines
Parent Parent- -%eacher onferences %eacher onferences
Student Student- -Led onferences Led onferences
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Reporting Reporting
In Reportng to Parents. In Reportng to Parents.
1. Include 1. Include !ositive Comments !ositive Comments
. escribe . escribe $pecific earning Coals or $pecific earning Coals or
Expectations Expectations Include Samples of the Include Samples of the
Student`s Work) Student`s Work)
3. Provide 3. Provide $pecific $:ggestions on What $pecific $:ggestions on What
!arents !arents an o %o elp. an o %o elp.
4. Stress 4. Stress !arents' Role as !artners in the !arents' Role as !artners in the
earning earning Process. Process.
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igh !ercentages igh !ercentages are are % the same as % the same as
gh Standards gh Standards
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Guidelines for Guidelines for Better Better Practice Practice
in greding and reporting in greding and reporting
1. 1. Begin with a Begin with a Cear Statement of Cear Statement of
Purpose Purpose
Why Grading and Reporting Are one? Why Grading and Reporting Are one?
For Whom the Information is Intended? For Whom the Information is Intended?
What are the esired Results? What are the esired Results?
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Guidelines for Guidelines for Better Better Practice Practice
in greding and reporting in greding and reporting
. Provide . Provide cc:rate cc:rate and and Understandable Understandable
escriptions of Student Learning escriptions of Student Learning
ore a Challenge in Effective ore a Challenge in Effective
Comm:nication Comm:nication
ess an Exercise in Q:antifying ess an Exercise in Q:antifying
chievement chievement
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Guidelines for Guidelines for Better Better Practice Practice
in greding and reporting in greding and reporting
3. Use Grading and Reporting to 3. Use Grading and Reporting to Enhance Enhance
%eaching and Learning %eaching and Learning
Facilitate ommunication Between Facilitate ommunication Between
%eachers, Parents, and Students %eachers, Parents, and Students
Ensure Efforts to elp Students are Ensure Efforts to elp Students are
armonious armonious
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n Important Dstncton. n Important Dstncton.
anagers know how anagers know how to do things right. to do things right.
eaders eaders know know the right things to do! the right things to do!
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Kesimpulan Kesimpulan
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