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AGENDA SETTING

THEORY
TYPOLOGY OF MEDIA EFFECTS
INTENTIONALITY
Planned Effects


Propaganda
• Individual response • Diffusion in
development
• Media
campaign • News
• News diffusion
• Diffusion of innovation
learning •
Framing • Distribution of
• Agenda knowledge
Shor Long
TIME

t setting term
term • Social control
• Socialization

• Individual • Event
reaction outcomes• Reality
• Collective
reaction defining
• Institutional
• Media
violence change
• Cultural
Unplanned Effects change
TYPOLOGY OF MEDIA EFFECTS
 Agenda-setting
Proses dimana perhatian diberikan pd
item2/ isu2 dlm liputan media
mempengaruhi urutan tatanan
kesadaran publik pd isu2 & atribusi yg
signifikan
 Framing
Pengaruh pd publik pd news angles,
kerangka tafsir & ‘spin’ yg
mengkontekstualisasikan peristiwa2 &
laporan2 berita
TEORI AGENDA-SETTING
 MAXWELL MC COMBS & DONALD SHAW
 Pokok pemikiran teori ini berkaitan dg fungsi
belajar dr media massa. Diasumsikan bahwa
khalayak tidak hanya mempelajari isu-isu
pemberitaan, tp jg mempelajari seberapa besar
arti penting diberikan pd suatu isu atau topik
berdasarkan cara media massa memberikan
penekanan thdp isu atau topik tsb
 Hal-hal yg dipandang penting oleh media,
kemudian dipandang penting jg oleh khalayak.
Dengan kata lain agenda media kemudian
menjadi agenda khalayak/ publik
 Efek agenda-setting
 Level 1: agenda-setting (what to think)
 Level 2: priming (how to think about)
TEORI AGENDA-SETTING
ISSUES DIFFERENTIAL CONSEQUENT PUBLIC
MEDIA ATTENTION PERCEPTION OF
ISSUES
X1 X1
X2
X2
X3 X3
X4
X4
X5 X5

X6
X6
AGENDA AGENDA
MEDIA PUBLIC
TEORI AGENDA-SETTING
Rogers & Dearing’s model of differential agenda-
setting
MEDIA
GATEKEEPERS & INFLUENTIAL

PERSONAL EXPERIENCE &


INTERPERSONAL

MEDIA PUBLIC POLICY


AGENDA AGENDA AGENDA

REAL-WORLD INDICATORS OF THE


IMPORTANCE OF AN AGENDA ISSUES OR
EVENT
FRAMING THEORY
(Norris, Kern, Just, 2003)

 The essence of framing is selection to prioritize


some facts, images, or developments over others,
thereby unconsciously promoting one particular
interpretation of events
 News frame
 refers to interpretive structures that journalists
use to set particular events within their
broader context
 Bundles key concepts, stock phrases, & iconic
images to reinforce certain common ways of
interpreting developments
MODEL PROSES FRAMING TERORISME
Personal experience & interpersonal
communications
Governmen
S t frame
o
c
i
a Terrorist NEWS Public Policy
l event FRAME opinion agenda

C
u Group
l frame
t
u
r
e Real-world
indicators

(Norris, Kern, Just, 2003)


MEDIA PRIMING
 Priming
 The link between agenda-setting effects & the
subsequent expression of opinions about public
figures or other objects
 The psychological basis of priming is the
selective attention of the public. People do not
& cannot pay attention to everything
 Refers to the effect of some preceding stimulus
or events on how we react, broadly defined, to
some subsequent stimulus
 Media priming --- the effects of the content of
the media on people’s later behavior or
judgments related to the content
TERIMA KASIH