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Interface

8088 I/F with basic IO, RAM and 8255

Topics

Timing diagram
Address Bus, R/W, Data Memory Map I/O

Address Decoding
CPU is addressable lager than devices.

Chip Supports
TTL : De-multiplexer, Latch, Buffer

Timing Diagram : Read Cycle

Timing Diagram : Write Cycle

BUS Buffering and Latching

Basic Architecture

Dr.Jim Plusquellic, University of Maryland, Baltimore County http://www.csee.umbc.edu/~plusquel/310/

Bus Architecture

Address:
If I/O, a value between 0000H and FFFFH is issued. If memory, it depends on the architecture:
20 24 25 32 36

-bits -bits -bits -bits -bits

(8086/8088) (80286/80386SX) (80386SL/SLC/EX) (80386DX/80486/Pentium) (Pentium Pro/II/III)

Bus Architecture

Data:
8 -bits (8088) 16 -bits (8086/80286/80386SX/SL/SLC/EX) 32 -bits (80386DX/80486/Pentium) 64 -bits (Pentium/Pro/II/III)

Control:
Most systems have at least 4 control bus connections (active low). MRDC (Memory ReaD Control), MWRC , IORC (I/O Read Control), IOWC

Bus Standards

ISA (Industry Standard Architecture): 8 MHz


8-bit (8086/8088) 16-bit (80286-Pentium)

EISA : 8 MHz
32-bit (older 386 and 486 machines).

PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect):


33 MHz 32-bit or 64-bit (Pentiums)

VESA (Video Electronic Standards Association):


32-bit or 64-bit (Pentiums), Runs at processor speed. Only disk and video. Competes with the PCI but is not popular.

Bus Standards

USB (Universal Serial Bus):


12 Mbps / 480 Mbps, Serial connection to microprocessor. For keyboards, the mouse, modems and sound cards. To reduce system cost through fewer wires.

IEEE 1394
400 Mbps, primary target is audio/visual consumer electronic devices

AGP (Advanced Graphics Port): 66MHz


64-bits for 533MB/sec, Fast parallel connection, video cards. To accommodate the new DVD (Digital Versatile Disk) players.

Memory : Blank Layout

Memory : Blank Layout

Memory : Blank Layout

Basic I/O Architecture

Interrupt Vector : DOS PC

IO Space

Basic I/O Interface : Input

Basic I/O Interface : Output

I/O Port Decoding

MEMORY

Memory Types

Two basic types:


ROM: Read-only memory RAM: Read-Write memory

Four commonly used memories:


ROM Flash (EEPROM) Static RAM (SRAM) Dynamic RAM (DRAM)

Memory Chips

The data pins are typically bi-directional in read-write memories.


The number of data pins is related to the size of the memory location. For example, an 8-bit wide (byte-wide) memory device has 8 data pins.

Each memory device has at least one chip select (CS) or chip enable (CE) or select (S) pin that enables the memory device.

This enables read and/or write operations. If more than one are present, then all must be 0 in order to perform a read or write.

SRAM vs. DRAM

SRAMs
SRAMs used for caches have access times as low as 10ns .

DRAMs
SRAMs are limited in size (up to about 128Kb). DRAMs are available in much larger sizes, e.g., 64M X 1. DRAMs MUST be refreshed every 2 to 4 ms Since they store their value on an integrated capacitor that loses charge over time.

Memory Address Decoding

Memory Address Decoding


The processor can usually address a memory space that is much larger than the memory space covered by an individual memory chip. In order to splice a memory device into the address space of the processor, decoding is necessary. For example, the 8088 issues 20-bit addresses for a total of 1MB of memory address space.

Ex. Memory Address Decoding


The BIOS on a 2716 EPROM has only 2KB of memory and 11 address pins. A decoder can be used to decode the additional 9 address pins and allow the EPROM to be placed in any 2KB section of the 1MB address space.

Ex. Memory Address Decoding

To determine the address range that a device is mapped into:

Ex. Memory Address Decoding

This 2KB memory segment maps into the reset location of the 8086/8088 (FFFF0H). NAND gate decoders are not often used. Rather the 3-to-8 Line Decoder (74LS138) is more common.

3-to-8 Line Decoder

G2A, G2B, and G1 must be active. Each output of the decoder can be attached to an 2764 EPROM ( 8K X 8 ).

EPROM 2764 x 8

More on Address Decoding

Yet a third possibility is a PLD (Programmable Logic Device).


PLDs come in three varieties: PLA (Programmable Logic Array) PAL (Programmable Array Logic) GAL (Gated Array Logic)

A PAL example (16L8) is commonly used to decode the memory address, particularly for 32-bit addresses generated by the 80386DX and above.

PLD as address decoder

AMD 16L8 PAL decoder. It has 10 fixed inputs (Pins 1-9, 11), two fixed outputs (Pins 12 and 19) and 6 pins that can be either (Pins 13-18).

8088 Memory Interface

The memory systems "sees" the 8088 as a device with:


20 address connections (A19 to A0). 8 data bus connections (AD7 to AD0). 3 control signals, IO/M, RD, and WR.

Interfacing the 8088 with:


32K of EPROM (at addresses F8000H-FFFFFH). 512K of SRAM (at addresses 00000H-7FFFFH).

8088 Memory Interface: EPROM

8088 Memory Interface: EPROM

The EPROM will also require the generation of a wait state.


The EPROM has an access time of 450ns . The 74LS138 requires 12ns to decode.

The 8088 runs at 5MHz and only allows 460ns for memory to access data. A wait state adds 200ns of additional time

8088 Memory Interface: RAM

8088 Memory Interface: RAM

The 62256s on the previous slide are actually SRAMs. Access times are on order of 10ns . Flash memory can also be interfaced to the 8088. However, the write time ( 400ms !) is too slow to be used as RAM.

8088 I/F with Programmable Peripheral Interface 8255


Part I

PPI : 82C55

The 82C55 is a popular interfacing component, that can interface any TTL-compatible I/O device to the microprocessor. It is used to interface to the keyboard and a parallel printer port in PCs (usually as part of an integrated chipset). Requires insertion of wait states if used with a microprocessor using higher that an 8 MHz clock. PPI has 24 pins for I/O that are programmable in groups of 12 pins and has three distinct modes of operation. In the PC, an 82C55 or its equivalent is decoded at I/O ports 60H-63H.

8255 Block Diagram

Pin layout of 8255

Interfacing 8255 PPI

Thats all