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BBA 208: Computer Application II (Web Technology, HTTP and HTML concepts)

What is a Computer Network ???


A computer network is a group of computers that are connected to each other for the purpose of communication. A computer network allows sharing of resources and information among devices connected to the network.
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Types of Networking LAN ( Local Area Network) Privately owned Links devices in single office, building, campus Limited to a few Kilometers

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MAN ( Metropolitan Area Network)

Large Geographical area than LAN, ranging from large blocks of buildings to entire cities. Can span up to 50 Km. Used for Private and Public networks.
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WAN ( Wide Area Network) Wide Area Network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a broad area (i.e., any network whose communications links cross metropolitan, regional, or national boundaries .

WANs are used to connect LANs and other types of networks together .

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Internet ???
The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private and public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope that are linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies. Each computer on an internet is called a host computer or host.

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The Internet carries a vast array of information resources and services, for example the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support electronic mail.

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Servers & Clients


Many of the hosts on the Internet offers services to other computers on the Internet. Such computers that provide services for other computers are called Servers. The software run by server computers to provide services is called a server software.

A client is an application or system that accesses a remote service on another computer system (server), by way of a network.
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Some type of servers and clients are : i) Mail Servers : handle incoming and outgoing e-mails. Mail clients get incoming messages from and send outgoing messages to a mail server, and enables to read , write , save and print messages. ii) Web Servers : store web pages and transmit them in response to requests from web clients, which are usually called browsers. iii) FTP servers : stores files that can be transferred to or from from a computer which has an FTP client.
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What is Web ???


World wide web (WWW) or Web in short, is a system of Internet servers that support specially formatted documents. The documents are formatted in a markup language called HTML (HyperText Markup Language) that supports links to other documents, as well as graphics, audio, and video files. This means one can jump from one document to another simply by clicking on hot spots.

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It is a way of accessing information over the medium of the Internet. It is an informationsharing model that is built on top of the Internet. The Web uses the Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) to transmit data.

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Web Browser
A Web browser is a software application for retrieving, presenting, and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web. It is a client program that uses HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) to make requests of Web servers throughout the Internet on behalf of the browser user. Most browsers support e-mail and the File Transfer Protocol (FTP).

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Examples include: Mosaic Mozilla Firefox Google Chrome Microsoft Internet Explorer Netscape Navigator

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Internet Protocol ( IP) Address


Because the Internet is a global network of computers each computer connected to the Internet must have a unique address. Internet addresses are in the form nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn where nnn must be a number from 0 - 255. This address is known as an IP address (where IP stands for Internet Protocol) .

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IP addresses identify the host computers, so that the packets ( chunks of data to be transmitted) of information reach the correct computer. IP addresses are 32-bit numbers normally expressed as four "octets" in a "dotted decimal number." Eg. 70.42.251.42 The four numbers in an IP address are called octets because they can have values between 0 and 255 (28 possibilities per octet).
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When a computer is configured to use the same IP address each time it powers up, this is known as a Static IP address. In contrast, in situations when the computer's IP address is assigned automatically, it is known as a Dynamic IP address. If a computer is connected to the Internet using a dialup account, the Internet service provider (ISP) assigns the computer an IP address each time the internet is connected . If a high-speed DSL ( Digital subscriber line) or cable Internet account is used then the ISP may use a static (unchanging) IP address or may assign an address each time the internet is connected.
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Domain Name System


Every computer that hosts data on Internet has a unique numerical address called as the IP( Internet protocol ) address. So that people dont have to remember strings of numbers, host computers also have names called as the Domain name. Domain name is a unique, case-insensitive, name, consisting of a string made up of alphanumeric characters and dashes separated by periods, that the Domain Name System maps to IP numbers and other information.
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A domain name usually consists of two or more parts (technically labels), which are conventionally written separated by dots, such as example.com. DNS is an abbrevation for Domain Name System (or service or server). It is an Internet service that translates domain names into IP addresses. The ISP (Internet Service Provider) provides a DNS server to handle domain name translations.
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For example, the machine that we refer to as "www.google.com" has the IP address 74.125.45.100. Every time a domain name is used, the Internet's domain name servers (DNS)translate the human-readable domain name into the machine-readable IP address.

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DNS names are organized into a tree.


DNS root

com

net Example.net

us

jp

Top- level domains

Second-level domains trumansburg.ny.us www.trumansburg.ny.us


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Third-level domains www.example.net Fourth-level domains


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The tree can extend to any number of levels, but in practice it is rarely more than four or five levels deep. All names start at the root, above the set of toplevel domains. The root is considered to be at the right end of the name.

Below the top-level domains in the domain name hierarchy are the second-level domain (SLD) names. These are the names directly to the left of .com, .net, and the other toplevel domains.
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As an example, in the en.wikipedia.org, wikipedia second-level domain.

domain is the

Next are third-level domains, which are written immediately to the left of a second-level domain. There can be fourth- and fifth-level domains, and so on.
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The Top-level domains(TLD) are divided into three major categories: Generic Country Specialized Generic top-level domains(gTLDs)Generic domains permit anyone from any part of the world to register.
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Some of these are : com originally for commercial organizations, but now used by individuals, government agencies , and non-profits as well. net Internet service providers and other network-related companies org non-commercial organizations biz this is an alternative to com that opened in 2001. In theory, its for business , but in practice anyone can register. info This new TLd was opened in 2001. Anyone can register name this is for peoples names eg, john.smith.name. It opened in early 2002.
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Country-code top level domains( ccTLDs): These are two letter long domains, reserved for a country. Some of the ccTLDs are : us U.S ca Canada in India uk United Kingdom fr franceWeb Technology 05/05/12

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Specialized Domains: The DNS has always a few domains that are restricted to particular kinds of organization. If one doesn't qualify, he cannot get it. Eg. edu normally for four year degree colleges and universities. gov originally for any kind of government in the U.S. New registrations are limited to the federal government. this is for U.S military This is for international treaty organizations like the cross.
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mil int red

How DNS works


DNS implements a distributed database to store the name and address information for all public hosts on the Internet. The DNS database resides on a hierarchy of special database servers. The following diagram explains the steps involved when clients like Web browsers issue requests for Internet host names.
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Hostnam e

(neon .tcpip -lab .edu ) (128 .143 .71 .21 )

H TTP

IP address

R esolver
IP a IPss (128.143.7 ddre Address 1.21)

(neon.tcp ip-lab.edu)

Hostnam e

1. An application program on a host accesses the domain system through a DNS client, called the resolver 2. Resolver contacts DNS server, called name server

N e am server

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3. DNS server returns IP address to resolver which passes the IP address to application

4. If the DNS server does not contain the needed mapping,it will in turn forward the request to a different DNS server at the next higher level in the hierarchy

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URL
URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is the unique address for a file that is accessible on the internet. A URL is a URI (Uniform Resource Identifier) that, in addition to identifying a resource, provides a means of acting upon or obtaining a representation of the resource by describing its primary accessmechanism or network "location".
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In order to search and view a file, we need to enter the URL of the file in the web browsers address line. Such a file can be a web page, an image file or a program such as a java applet.

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The URL consists of three parts. How :The first part is protocol identifier and it indicates what protocol to use to access the resource. Where :The second part is the domain name and it identifies the specific computer on the internet. What :Specifies the complete path to the file and the files name that is being requested by the client.

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Eg. A URL for a particular image on a website might be : http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4534.jpg


Protocol Path name

Domain Name

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A URL for a file meant to be downloaded using file transfer protocol (FTP) would require that the ftp protocol be specified . Eg. ftp://www.abc.com/whitepapers/famous .ps Protocol
Domain Name
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Path name

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Difference between WWW & Internet


Many people use the terms Internet and World Wide Web (WWW) interchangeably, but in fact the two terms are not synonymous. The Internet and the Web are two separate but related things.

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The Internet is a massive network of networks. It connects millions of computers together globally, forming a network in which any computer can communicate with any other computer as long as they are both connected to the Internet. Information over the Internet travels from computer to computer via protocols.
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The World Wide Web, or simply Web, is a way of accessing information over the medium of the Internet. It is an information-sharing model that is built on top of the Internet. The Web uses the HTTP protocol, only one of the languages spoken over the Internet, to transmit data. Internet services, which use HTTP to allow applications to communicate in order to exchange business logic, use the Web to 05/05/12 Web 38 share information.Technology

The Web also utilizes browsers, such as Internet Explorer or Firefox, to access Web documents called Web pages that are linked to each other via hyperlinks. Web documents also contain graphics, sounds, text and video.
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The Web is just one of the ways that information can be disseminated over the Internet. The Internet is also used for the following services: e-mail (SMTP) which uses Simple mail Transfer protocol which uses File transfer protocol

File transfer (FTP)

Usenet which uses Network news Transfer protocol (NNTP)


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WWW therefore is just a portion of the Internet.

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Web Caching
Web caching is the temporary storage of web objects (such as HTML documents) for later retrieval. A Web cache sits between one or more Web servers (also known as origin servers) and a client or many clients, and watches requests come by, saving copies of the responses like HTML pages, images and files (collectively known as representations) for itself. Then, if there is another request for the same URL, it can use the response that it has, instead of asking the origin server for it again.
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There are three main reasons that Web caches are used: To reduce latency Because the request is satisfied from the cache (which is closer to the client) instead of the origin server, it takes less time for it to get the representation and display it. To reduce network traffic (reduced bandwidth consumption) Because representations are reused, it reduces the amount of bandwidth used by a client. This saves money if the client is paying for traffic, and keeps their bandwidth requirements lower and more manageable. To reduce Server load Because the request is satisfied from the cache there are fewer requests for a server to handle.
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Kinds of Web Caches

Browser cache Proxy cache Gateway cache

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Browser cache This lets you set aside a section of your computers hard disk to store representations that youve seen, just for you. The browser cache works according to fairly simple rules. It will check to make sure that the representations are fresh, usually once a session (that is, the once in the current invocation of the browser).
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This cache is especially useful when users hit the back button or click a link to see a page theyve just looked at. Also, if you use the same navigation images throughout your site, theyll be served from browsers caches almost instantaneously. The preferences dialog of any modern Web browser (like Internet Explorer, Safari or Mozilla), includes cache 05/05/12 Web Technology 46 setting.

Proxy cache Web proxy caches work on the same principle, but a much larger scale. Proxies serve hundreds or thousands of users in the same way. Large corporations and ISPs often set them up on their firewalls, or as standalone devices (also known as intermediaries).
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Proxy caches are a type of shared cache; rather than just having one person using them, they usually have a large number of users, and because of this they are very good at reducing latency and network traffic.

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Gateway cache Also known as reverse proxy caches or surrogate caches, gateway caches are also intermediaries, but instead of being deployed by network administrators to save bandwidth, theyre deployed by Webmasters themselves, to make their sites more scalable, reliable and better performing.

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Some Terms Defined :


Proxy Server Proxy server is a server that sits between a client application, such as a Web browser, and a real server to ensure security, administrative control, and caching service. A proxy server is associated with or part of a gateway server that separates the enterprise network from the outside network and a firewall server that protects the enterprise network from outside intrusion.
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Schematic representation of a proxy server, where the computer in the middle acts as the proxy server between the other two.
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Proxy servers have two main purposes: Improve Performance: Proxy servers can improve performance for groups of users. This is because it saves the results of all requests for a certain amount of time. Consider the case where both user X and user Y access the World Wide Web through a proxy server. First user X requests a certain Web page, say Page 1. Sometime later, user Y requests the same page. Instead of forwarding the request to the Web server where Page 1 resides, which can be a time-consuming operation, the proxy server simply returns the Page 1 that it already fetched for user X. Since the proxy server is often on the same network as the user, this is a much faster operation.
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Filter Requests: Proxy servers can also be used to filter requests. For example, a company might use a proxy server to prevent its employees from accessing a specific set of Web sites.

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A proxy server receives a request for an Internet service (such as a Web page request) from a user. If it passes filtering requirements, the proxy server, assuming it is also a cache server , looks in its local cache of previously downloaded Web pages. If it finds the page, it returns it to the user without needing to forward the request to the Internet. If the page is not in the cache, the proxy server, acting as a client on behalf of the user, uses one of its own IP addresses to request the page from the server out on the Internet. When the page is returned, the proxy server relates it to the original request and forwards it on to the user. To the user, the proxy server is invisible; all Internet requests and returned responses appear to be directly with the addressed Internet server. 05/05/12 Web Technology 54

Firewall A firewall is a part of a computer system or network that is designed to block unauthorized access while permitting authorized communications. It is a device or set of devices configured to permit, deny, encrypt, decrypt, or proxy all (in and out) computer traffic between different security domains based upon a set of rules and other criteria.
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Firewalls can be implemented in either hardware or software, or a combination of both. Firewalls are frequently used to prevent unauthorized Internet users from accessing private networks connected to the Internet, especially intranets. All messages entering or leaving the intranet pass through the firewall, which examines each message and blocks those that do not meet the specified security criteria.
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Web Portal
A portal is a web site that offers a broad array of resources and services , such as email, forums, search engine and on-line shopping malls. Portal is a term for a World Wide Web site that proposes to be a major starting site for users when they get connected to the Web or that users tend to visit as an anchor site.
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There are general portals and specialized or niche portals. Some major general portals include Yahoo, Excite and Netscape. Examples of niche portals include Garden.com (for gardeners), Fool.com (for investors),and SearchNetworking.com (for network administrators).
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Home Page The homepage is the URL or local file that automatically loads when a web browser starts or when the browser's "home" button is pressed. One can turn this feature off and on, as well as specify a URL for the page to be loaded.
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The term is also used to refer to the main web page of a website of a group, company, organization, or individual.

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Cookies
A cookie is a piece of text that a Web server can store on a user's hard disk. Cookies allow a Web site to store information on a user's machine and later retrieve it. The pieces of information are stored as name-value pairs. For example, a Web site might generate a unique ID number for each visitor and store the ID number on each user's machine using a cookie file. The main purpose of a cookie is to identify users and possibly prepare customized Web pages for them.
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When we enter a Web site using cookies, we may be asked to fill out a form providing personal information; like name, e-mail address, and interests. This information is packaged into a cookie and sent to the Web browser, which then stores the information for later use. The next time we go to the same Web site, the browser will send the cookie to the Web server. The server can use this information to present with custom Web pages. So, for example, instead of seeing just a generic welcome page we might see a welcome page with our name on it.
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Types of Cookies session cookie Also called a transient cookie, a cookie that is erased when you close the Web browser. The session cookie is stored in temporary memory and is not retained after the browser is closed. Session cookies do not collect information from our computer. They typically will store information in the form of a session identification that does not personally identify the user. persistent cookie Also called a permanent cookie, or a stored cookie, a cookie that is stored on our hard drive until it expires (persistent cookies are set with expiration dates) or until we delete the cookie. Persistent cookies are used to collect identifying information about the user, such as Web surfing behavior or user preferences for a specific Web site.

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Search Engine
A search engine is a program that searches documents for specified keywords and returns a list of documents where the keywords were found. A web search engine is designed to search for information on the World Wide Web. The search results are usually presented in a list of results and are commonly called hits. The information may consist of web pages, images, information and other types of files.
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A search engine is a key to finding specific information on the vast expanse of WWW. Without search engines it would be virtually impossible to locate anything on the Web without knowing the specific URL.

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Examples : Google Bing Yahoo Search Ask.com

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Types of Search Engines: There are three types of search engines: 1. Crawler-based search engines 2. Human powered directories 3. Hybrid Search engines

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Crawler-based search engines: Crawler-based search engines use automated software programs to survey and categorize web pages. The programs used by the search engines to access your web pages are called spiders, crawlers, robots or bots.

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A spider visits a web site , reads the information on the actual site, reads the sites meta tags and also follows the links that the site connects to performing indexing on all the linked web sites as well. The crawler returns all that information back to the central repository , where the data is indexed.
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The crawler periodically returns to the sites to check any information that has changed. The frequency with which this happens is determined by the administrators of the search engine. Examples of crawler-based search engines are: Google (www.google.com) Ask Jeeves (www.ask.com)

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Human Powered Directories A directory uses human editors who decide what category the site belongs to; they place websites within specific categories in the directories database. The human editors comprehensively check the website and rank it, based on the information they find, using a pre-defined set of rules. Examples : Open Directory (www.dmoz.org) Yahoo Directory (dir.yahoo.com)
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Hybrid Search Engines Hybrid search engines use a combination of both crawler-based results and directory results. More and more search engines these days are moving to a hybrid-based model. Examples of hybrid search engines are: MSN Search Technology Web 72

Working of a Basic search engine


A search engine operates, in the following order Web crawling Indexing Searching

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Web Crawling A Web crawler is a computer program that browses the World Wide Web in a methodical, automated manner. This process is called Web crawling or spidering. Other terms for Web crawlers are ants, automatic indexers, bots, Web spider and Web robot . To find information on the hundreds of millions of Web pages that exist, a search engine employs spiders, to build lists of the words found on Web sites. When a spider is building its lists, the process is called Web crawling.

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"Spiders" take a Web page's content and create key search words that enable online users to find pages they're looking for.

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1. The web server sends the query to the index servers. The content inside the index servers is similar to the index in the back of a book - it tells which pages contain the words that match the query. 3. The search results are returned to the user in a fraction of a second.

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2. The query travels to the doc servers, which actually retrieve the stored documents. Snippets are generated to describe each search result. Web Technology 76

Indexing Once the spiders have completed the task of finding information on Web pages ,the contents of each page are then analyzed to determine how it should be indexed (for example, words are extracted from the titles, headings, or special fields called meta tags). Data about web pages are stored in an index database for use in later queries. The purpose of an index is to allow information to be found as quickly as possible.
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Searching Searching through an index involves a user building a query and submitting it through the search engine. The query can be quite simple, a single word at minimum. Building a more complex query requires the use of Boolean operators that allow you to refine and extend the terms of the search.
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Searching Techniques With a search engine, keywords related to a topic are typed into a search "box." The search engine scans its database and returns a file with links to websites containing the word or words specified. Because these databases are very large, search engines often return thousands of results.
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To use search engines effectively, it is essential to apply techniques that narrow results and push the most relevant pages to the top of the results list. Below are a number of strategies for boosting search engine performance.

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IDENTIFY KEYWORDS When conducting a search, break down the topic into key concepts. For example, to find information on what the FCC has said about the wireless communications industry, the keywords might be: FCC wireless communication
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BOOLEAN AND Connecting search terms with AND tells the search engine to retrieve web pages containing ALL the keywords. FCC and wireless and communication

The search engine will not return pages with just the word FCC. Neither will it return pages with the word FCC and the word wireless. The search engine will only return pages where the words FCC, wireless, and communication all appear somewhere on the page. Thus, AND helps to narrow search results as it limits results to pages where all the keywords appear.
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BOOLEAN OR Linking search terms with OR tells the search engine to retrieve web pages containing ANY and ALL keywords. (FCC or wireless or communication) When OR is used, the search engine returns pages with a single keyword, several keywords, and all keywords. Thus, OR expands search results. We should sue OR when there are common synonyms for a keyword. OR statements should be surrounded with parentheses for best results. To narrow results as much as possible we should combine OR statements with AND statements. For example, the following search statement locates information on purchasing a used car: (car or automobile or vehicle) and (buy or purchase) and used
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BOOLEAN AND NOT AND NOT tells the search engine to retrieve web pages containing one keyword but not the other. dolphins and not Miami The above example instructs the search engine to return web pages about dolphins but not web pages about the "Miami Dolphins" football team. We should use AND NOT when we have a keyword that has multiple meanings.

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IMPLIED BOOLEAN: PLUS & MINUS In many search engines, the plus and minus symbols can be used as alternatives to full Boolean AND and AND NOT. The plus sign (+) is the equivalent of AND, and the minus sign (-) is the equivalent of AND NOT. There is no space between the plus or minus sign and the keyword.

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PHRASE SEARCHING Surrounding a group of words with double quotes tells the search engine to only retrieve documents in which those words appear side-by-side. Phrase searching is a powerful search technique for significantly narrowing your search results, and it should be used as often as possible. "John F. Kennedy" "Walt Disney World" "global warming"
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For best results, combine phrase searching with implied Boolean (+/-) or full Boolean (AND, OR, and AND NOT) logic. +"heart disease" +cause "heart disease" and cause The above example tells the search engine to retrieve pages where the words heart disease appear sideby-side and the word cause appears somewhere else on the page

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PLURAL FORMS, CAPITAL LETTERS, AND ALTERNATE SPELLINGS


Most search engines interpret lower case letters as either upper or lower case. Thus, if we want both upper and lower case occurrences returned, we should type the keywords in all lower case letters. However, if we want to limit results to initial capital letters (e.g., "George Washington") or all upper case letters, we must type keywords that way.
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Like capitalization, most search engines interpret singular keywords as singular or plural. If we want plural forms only, we should make the keywords plural. A few search engines support truncation or wildcard features that allow variations in spelling or word forms. The asterisk (*) symbol tells the search engine to return alternate spellings for a word at the point that the asterisk appears. For example, capital* returns web pages with capital, capitals, capitalize, and capitalization.

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TITLE SEARCH

Field searching is one of the most effective techniques for narrowing results and getting the most relevant websites listed at the top of the results page. A web page is composed of a number of fields, such as title, domain, host, URL, and link. Searching effectiveness increases as we combine field searches with phrase searches and Boolean logic. For example, if we want to find information about George Washington and his wife Martha, you could try the following search:

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+title:"George Washington" +President +Martha title:"George Washington" and President and Martha The above TITLE SEARCH example instructs the search engine to return web pages where the phrase George Washington appears in the title and the words President and Martha appear somewhere on the page. Like plus and minus, there is no space between the colon (:) and the keyword. Web Technology 91

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DOMAIN SEARCH The DOMAIN SEARCH allows you to limit results to certain domains such as websites from the United Kingdom (.uk), educational institutions (.edu), or government sites (.gov). +domain:uk +title:"Queen Elizabeth" domain:uk and title:"Queen Elizabeth" +domain:edu +"lung cancer" +smok* domain:edu and "lung cancer" and smok*

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HOST SEARCH The HOST SEARCH comes in handy when you need to find something located at a large site that does not have an internal search engine. With this search technique, you can search all the pages at a website (contained in the engine's database) for keywords or phrases of interest.
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+host:www.disney.com +"special offer" host:www.disney.com and "special offer"

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URL SEARCH
The URL SEARCH limits search results to web pages where the keyword appears in the URL or website address. A URL search can narrow very broad results to web pages devoted to the keyword topic. +url:halloween +title:stories url:halloween and title:stories

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LINK SEARCH Use the LINK SEARCH when you want to know what websites are linked to a particular site of interest. For example, if you have a home page and you are wondering if anyone has put a link to your page on their website, use the Link search. Researchers use link searches for conducting backward citations.

link:www.pepsi.com link:www.ipl.org/ref/

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Web Server
A web server is a computer, running application software that listens and responds to a client computers request made through a web browser . It hosts web pages and other web documents . Web servers provide web documents and other services using hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP).

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Any computer can be turned into a Web server by installing server software and connecting the machine to the Internet.

A Web server software often comes as a large package of Internet and Intranet-related programs for serving e-mail, downloading requests for File Transfer Protocol (FTP) files, and building and publishing web pages.
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Two leading Web servers are Apache and Microsofts Internet Information Server (IIS). The primary function of a web server is to deliver web pages to clients. This includes delivery of HTML documents and any additional content that may be included by a document, such as images, style sheets and JavaScripts.
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A client, commonly a web browser or a web crawler, initiates communication by making a request for a specific resource (e.g. a file) using HTTP and the server responds with the content of that resource, or an error message if unable to do so.

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While the primary function is to serve content, a full implementation of HTTP also includes a way of receiving content from clients. This feature is used for submitting web forms, including uploading of files.

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Common features of Web servers Virtual hosting to serve many web sites using one IP address.

Large file support to be able to serve files whose size is greater than 2 GB on 32 bit OS. Bandwidth throttling to limit the speed of responses in order to not saturate the network and to be able to serve more clients. Server-side scripting to generate dynamic web pages.
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How Web server works


The steps followed when we type a URL into a web browser are :1) If the URL contains a domain name, the browser first connects to a domain name server and retrieves the corresponding IP address for the web server.

2) The web browser connects to the web server and sends an HTTP request (via the protocol stack) for the desired web page.
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3) The web server receives the request and checks for the desired page. If the page exists, the web server sends it. If the server cannot find the requested page, it will send an HTTP 404 error message. (404 means 'Page Not Found)

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4) The web page.

browser

receives

the

5) The browser then parses through the page and looks for other page elements it needs to complete the web page. These usually include images, applets, etc.
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6) For each element needed, the browser makes additional connections and HTTP requests to the server for each element. 7) When the browser has finished loading all images, applets, etc. the page will be completely loaded in the browser window.
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Internet Information Service


Internet Information Services (IIS), formerly called Internet Information Server - is a set of Internet-based services for servers created by Microsoft for use with Microsoft Windows. It is the world's second most popular web server in terms of overall websites behind the industry leader Apache HTTP Server.
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The services provided currently include FTP, FTPS, SMTP, NNTP, and HTTP/HTTPS. The following table displays the versions and the respective Operating systems on which it can run. Versions IIS 1.0, Windows NT 3.51 available as a free add-on IIS 2.0, Windows NT 4.0 IIS 3.0, Windows NT 4.0 Service Pack 3 05/05/12 IIS 4.0, WindowsWeb TechnologyOption Pack 108 NT 4.0

IIS 5.1, Windows XP Professional, IIS 6.0, Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP Professional x64 Edition IIS 7.0, Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista (Home Premium, Business, Enterprise, Ultimate Editions) IIS 7.5, Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows 7
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A company that buys IIS can create pages for Web sites using Microsoft's Front Page product (with its WYSIWYG user interface). Web developers can use Microsoft's Active Server Page (ASP) technology, which means that applications - including ActiveX controls - can be imbedded in Web pages that modify the content sent back to users. Developers can also write programs that filter requests and get the correct Web pages for different users by using Microsoft's Internet Server Application Program Interface (ISAPI) interface.
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Microsoft includes special capabilities for server administrators, designed to appeal to Internet service providers (ISPs). It includes a single window (or "console") from which all services and users can be administered. It's designed to be easy to add components as snap-ins. The administrative windows can be customized for access by individual customers. IIS is susceptible to computer virus attacks such as Code Red and Nimda.
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Apache Web Server


The Apache HTTP Server,commonly referred to as Apache is the most popular web server software. It is a free software distributed by the Apache Software Foundation.

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The original version of Apache was written for UNIX and was developed in 1995. But now, it is available for a wide variety of operating systems, including Linux, Solaris, Novell NetWare, Mac OS X, Microsoft Windows, and OS/2 . The majority of web servers using Apache run a Linux operating system. Released under the Apache License, Apache is characterized as open source software.

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Open source software refers to a software in which the source code is available to the general public for use and/ or modification from its original design free of cost. Core development of the Apache Web server is performed by a group of about 20 volunteer programmers, called the Apache Group. However, because the source code is freely available, anyone can adapt the server for specific needs, and there is a large public library of Apache add-ons.
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Apache is primarily used to serve both static content and dynamic Web pages on the World Wide Web. Many web applications are designed expecting the environment and features that Apache provides. Apache is used for many other tasks where content needs to be made available in a secure and reliable way. One example is sharing files from a personal computer over the Internet. A user who has Apache installed on their desktop can put arbitrary files in Apache's document root which can then be 05/05/12 Web Technology 115 shared.