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Classroom Management: The Effective Teacher Module I

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Characteristics of an Effective Teacher

High Expectations

Classroom Management

Mastery Teaching

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Classroom Management
Last year, there were 210 total infractions written. 46 students who repeated behaviors for which they had already received infractions. More than half of the infractions resulted from ineffective classroom routines, procedures or rules.
Conclusions: 1) The schools discipline plan is not effective and must be addressed. 2) Improving classroom management will decrease infractions.
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Classroom Management
As we discuss classroom management, one important point to remember is YOU ARE NOT ALONE! Your classroom is yours and you will ultimately decide how you want to manage it. This module is designed only to enhance your classroom management skills and encourage teamwork between teachers to improve classroom management.
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Classroom Management
Classroom management includes all of the things a teacher must to do toward these two ends: 1. To foster student involvement and cooperation in all classroom activities. 2. To establish a productive working environment.

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Objectives
Understand proven research and sound theories that provide a foundation for quality classroom management Share effective classroom management strategies Implement classroom management strategies
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Classical Conditioning

Ivan Pavlov

Pavlov Classical Conditioning Presenting a conditioned stimulus serves as a signal that the unconditioned stimulus is coming

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Classical Conditioning
Ivan Pavlov

Basic principles of Classical Conditioning Theory:


A neutral stimulus is a stimulus to which an person does not respond (NS). An unconditioned response (UCR) can be learned using a neutral stimulus just before an unconditioned stimulus (UCS). After being paired with an unconditioned stimulus, the previous neutral stimulus now elicits a response and is no longer neutral. The NS becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) and the person has learned a conditioned response (CR).
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Classical Conditioning
Ivan Pavlov

Classical Conditioning Procedure


Before Conditioning
Incapable of producing | conditioned response (CR)

During Conditioning
Conditioned Stimulus (CS) Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) Unconditioned Response (UCR)

Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)

After Conditioning

Conditioned Stimulus (CS)

Conditioned Response (CR)

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Classical Conditioning
Ivan Pavlov

Using Classical Conditioning to Develop Classroom Procedure


Before Conditioning
Morning Bell (UCS) Start Class Incapable of producing (CR)

During Conditioning
Morning Bell Conditioned Stimulus (CS) Start Class Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) Students sit down, look at teacher and listen for directions (UCR)

After Conditioning
Morning Bell Conditioned Stimulus (CS) Start Class Conditioned Response (CR)

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Classical Conditioning

Ivan Pavlov

Using classical conditioning, we have the ability to: Affect students likes/dislikes Influence our students attitudes

Develop a respect for authority

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Classical Conditioning
Affecting Students Likes/Dislikes

Ivan Pavlov

Classical Conditioning Theory indicates that people develop a taste for pleasant experiences and aversions to experiences they find unpleasant

Therefore, we must intentionally provide learning experiences for which the students find pleasant if we want students to enjoy learning.

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Classical Conditioning
Influencing students attitudes toward learning

Ivan Pavlov

Classical Conditioning Theory suggests that students will develop a positive attitude toward learning simply by presenting content along with words and images that evoke positive feelings such as excellent, awesome, and good work. Therefore, we must intentionally incorporate words and images in our classrooms that evoke positive feelings for students.

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Classical Conditioning
Develop a respect of authority

Ivan Pavlov

Classical Conditioning Theory explains that people develop respect/fear based on conditioned stimuli that are associated with unpleasant unconditioned stimuli. This theory also suggests that people do not have to experience the unpleasant stimuli first hand but will develop respect/fear of conditioned stimuli by watching someone experience an unpleasant unconditioned stimuli.

Therefore, we must instill a healthy sense of respect of authority so that students will avoid behaviors that result in unpleasant consequences.
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Operant Conditioning
B.F. Skinner

B.F. Skinner

Operant Conditioning A Response that is immediately followed by a reinforcer is strengthened and is therefore more likely to occur again. (1)

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Operant Conditioning
B.F. Skinner

Skinners Basic Law of Operant Conditioning Theory:


Reinforcer a response that increases in frequency when preceded with a stimulus or event. Almost any behavior can be learned through operant conditioning including academic, social and psychomotor. Undesirable behaviors are reinforced just as easily as desirable behaviors.

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Operant Conditioning
B.F. Skinner

Important Conditions for Operant Conditioning:


The reinforcer must follow the response. The reinforcer must follow immediately. The reinforcer must be contingent on the response. Positive and Negative Reinforcers Positive Reinforcement involves the presentation of a stimulus after a response such as a smile, positive words, and a good grade. Negative Reinforcement increases a response through the removal of a stimulus.
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Operant Conditioning
B.F. Skinner

Punishment is not negative reinforcement.


Negative reinforcement increases the frequency of a response by taking away a negative stimulus. For example, homework is not given to a student because of his/her positive behavior. Punishment decreases the frequency of a response by giving a negative stimulus or taking away a positive stimulus. Talk with your table about some examples of this.

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Operant Conditioning
B.F. Skinner

What do you want the behavior to do?

Increase?

Decrease?

Give Positive Stimulus

Take Away Negative Stimulus

Punishment

Positive Reinforcement

Negative Reinforcement

Give Negative Stimulus or Take Away Positive Stimulus

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Operant Conditioning
B.F. Skinner

Skinners assessment of operant conditioning and teaching. Reinforcement in the classroom usually occurs inconsistently and not soon enough after the desired response has occurred. If immediate reinforcement is impossible, then environmental cues that indicate reinforcement is coming later can be effective.
Therefore, we must use reinforce positive behavior immediately after it occurs if possible and use environmental cues only as a second option.
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Operant Conditioning
B.F. Skinner

Skinners assessment of operant conditioning and teaching.

Teachers have the difficult task of teaching behaviors that will be useful for students in their future. Students do not see the natural positive reinforcers immediately that they might in the realize in the future. As a result, teachers use artificial reinforcers such as stickers which are ineffective because students do not se how they connect to their behavior.

Therefore, we must make learning relevant to students present interests and provide effective connections between learning and the reinforcement method we choose.

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Operant Conditioning
B.F. Skinner

Skinners assessment of operant conditioning and teaching. Teachers find themselves punishing misbehaviors rather than reinforcing appropriate responses. For example, when most of the students are in line appropriately and one or two students are misbehaving, the teacher will punish the two students who are misbehaving rather than praising the rest of the class for their appropriate behavior.

Therefore, we must focus on reinforcing the desirable behaviors of some students in order to solicit appropriate responses from the rest of the students.
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Classroom Management Strategies


Classroom management refers to all of the things that a teacher does to organize students space, time, and materials so instruction in content and student learning can take place. It is important to:

Use Mavlovs Hierarchy of needs to ensure the classroom environment provides for meeting deficiency needs of the students
Establish routines and procedures for every task

Communicate discipline plan which includes positive and negative consequences or reinforcers
Effective teachers MANAGE their classrooms. Ineffective teachers DISCIPLINE their classrooms.(2)
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Classroom Management Strategies


Meeting Mavlovs Hierarchy of Needs
Growth Need Deficiency Needs Need for Self-Actualization Esteem Needs

Love and Belongingness Needs


Safety Needs Physiological Needs

Discuss ways you meet Maslows Hierarchy of Needs for your students with the people at your table Remember to focus on the needs you can meet, not the needs you cant meet
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Classroom Management Strategies


Establishing Classroom Routines and Procedures
Knowledge of classroom procedures tells the students things like: What to do when the bell rings What to do when the pencil breaks What to do when you hear an emergency alert signal What to do when you finish your work early What to do when you have a question What to do when you need to go to the bathroom What to do when you want the my attention

Where to turn in assignments


What to do at dismissal of class
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Classroom Management Strategies


Establishing Routines and Procedures for Parents
Parents also need to follow procedures for the school and your class:
You must be a model and follow the schools procedures How can you expect students and parents to follow procedures if you dont follow them? Allowing a parent to drop off a student tardy without a tardy pass because you dont want to ask them to walk to the office and back will hurt you in the long run. That parent will not understand when you call and explain that their child does not follow procedures because they saw that you didnt follow them either. Communicate classroom and school procedures to parents the first week of school and expect parents to follow them.
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Classroom Management Strategies


Establishing a Discipline Plan
Investing time in teaching discipline and procedures will be repaid multifold in the effective use of class time.
Here are a few things to keep in mind as you are establishing rules: Rules are expectations of appropriate behavior. You can state your expectations as rules Rules immediately create a work-oriented atmosphere Rules create a strong expectation about the things that are important to you. Include consequences What the student chooses to accept if a rule is broken. Include rewards What the student receives for appropriate behavior
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Classroom Management Strategies


Teamwork Implementing Classroom Management
Take some time to discuss with your colleagues things that you have done that worked and things that didnt work.
What are the areas are the strongest? Weakest? How can you help another colleague in the area where you are strongest? What do you need to improve the areas you thought were weak? What materials and/or resources are needed in order to improve your classroom management skills this year?

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There is absolutely no research correlation between success and family background, race, national origin, financial status, or even educational accomplishments. There is but one correlation with success, and that is ATTITUDE.
Harry K. Wong (2)

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Works Cited
1. Ormrod, J. (2004). Chapter 7 Social Cognitive Theory. Human Learning 4th ed. New

Jersey. Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.


2. Wong, Harry K., Rosemary T., (1998). The First Days of School. Mountain View. Harry K.

Wong Publications.

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