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Wavelength Division Multiplexing

1 2
Wavelength Division Multiplexer

Fibre
1 + 2

Wavelength Division Demultiplexer

A B

1 2

X Y

Multiple channels of information carried over the same fibre, each

using an individual wavelength

Typically one channel utilises 1320 nm and the other 1550 nm Broad channel spacing, several hundred nm

Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing


A B C 1 2 3
Wavelength Division Multiplexer

Fibre
1 + 2 + 3

Wavelength Division Demultiplexer

1 2 3

X Y Z

Multiple channels of information carried over the same fibre, each using an individual wavelength DWDM is WDM utilising closely spaced channels Channel spacing reduced to 1.6 nm and less Cost effective way of increasing capacity without replacing fibre Commercial systems available with capacities of 32 channels and upwards; > 80 Gb/s per fibre

WDM vs DWDM
Channel spacing Cost per channel Number of channels delivered Best application WDM Broad spacing Low 2 PON DWDM

high Hundreds of channels Long haul

Why DWDM?
Conventional TDM Transmission10 Gbps
40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km
1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 TERM TERM RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 TERM TERM RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 TERM TERM RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 TERM TERM RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR

OC-48 OC-48 OC-48 OC-48

DWDM Transmission10 Gbps


120 km OA OA 120 km OA 120 km OA

OC-48 OC-48 OC-48 OC-48

4 Fibers Pairs 32 Regenerators

1 Fiber Pair 4 Optical Amplifiers

Channel frequency (wavelength) & spacing


Band Wavelength (nm) 820 - 900 1260 1360 New Band S-Band C-Band L-Band U-Band 1360 1460 1460 1530 1530 1565 1565 1625 1625 1675

Main component in DWDM system


Terminal multiplexer Intermediate line repeater Optical add/drop multiplexer (optical odm) Terminal demultiplexer Optical supervisory channel (osc)

Terminal multiplexer
The terminal multiplexer actually contains one wavelength converting transponder for each wavelength signal it will carry.

DWDM Mux

Wavelength Multiplexed Signals Wavelengths Converted via Transponders

Terminal multiplexer
The terminal also contains other modules as the Optical Supervisory Channel (OSC), Automatic Laser Control (ALC), Line Amplifier (LOFA) and the Band Mux/Demux, splitter and filters

Transponder
Converts broadband optical signals to a specific wavelength via optical to electrical to optical conversion (O-E-O)
OEO 1 2

From Optical OLTE

OEO n OEO

To DWDM Mux

Low Cost IR/SR Optics

Wavelengths Converted

Transponder

Luminet DWDM Transponder

Intermediate line repeater


is placed approx. every 80 100 km for compensating the loss in optical power, while the signal travels along the fiber. The signal is amplified by an EDFA, which usually consists of several amplifier stages.

Optical Amplifier (EDFA)

Optical add/drop multiplexer (OADM)


It is often desirable to be able to remove or insert one or more wavelengths at some point along this span. the OADM can remove some wavelength while passing others on.

Optical add/drop multiplexer (OADM)


OADMs allow flexible add/drop of channels
Drop Channel

Add & Drop channel

Add Channel

Terminal demultiplexer
The terminal demultiplexer breaks the multi-wavelength signal back into individual signals and outputs them on separate fibres for client-layer systems (such as SONET/SDH) to detect

DWDM Demux

Wavelength Multiplexed Signals Wavelengths separated into individual ITU Specific lambdas

Optical supervisory channel (OSC)


The OSC carries information about the multiwavelength optical signal as well as remote conditions at the optical terminal. The outofband Optical Supervisory Channel (OSC) allows the supervision of all the NEs along the WDM path. Moreover it gives some orderwires (data channel and voice channel) to the users.
Out-of-band, means the OSC is using a different band than the DWDM system is normally running in, which normally would be the U-band (1625 1675 nm).

DWDM System
DWDM Multiplexer Add/Drop Mux/Demux Receivers

Optical fibre

Line Repeater

Transmitters

DWDM DeMultiplexer

SONET/SDH
SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) and SONET (Synchronous Optical NETwork) are standards for interfacing optical networks. Simple multiplexing processes Easy access to various signals in a multiplexed high bit rate signal A flexible and efficient way of networking Network Distribution: Add/Drop capability Network survivability: APS (Automatic Protection Switching) Traffic Cross connection: capacity management, bandwidth management and protection route diversity Support advance Network Management System (OAM&P) Overhead bits for Fault, Configuration, Performance Monitoring, Security and Accounting management Standardized interface can support multi vendor interworking, international connection and many different services; i.e. ATM, IP

SONET/SDH Characteristic
Optical Level SONET Electrical Level STS-1 SDH Equivalent Line Rate (Mbps) Payload Rate (Mbps) 50.112 Overhead Rate (Mbps) 1.728 SONET Capacity SDH Capacity

OC-1

51.840

28 DS-1s or 1 DS-3 84 DS-1s or 3 DS-3s 336 DS-1s or 12 DS-3s 1,344 DS-1s or 192 DS-3s 5,376 DS-1s or 192 DS-3s

21 E1s

OC-3

STS-3

STM-1

155.520

150.336

5.184

63 E1s or 1 E4 252 E1s or 4 E4s 1,008 E1s or 16 E4s 4,032 E1s or 64 E4s

OC-12

STS-12

STM-4

622.080

601.344

20.736

OC-48

STS-48

STM-16

2488.320

2405.376

82.944

OC-192

STS-192

STM-64

9953.280

9621.504

331.776

Note: Although an SDH STM-1 has the same bit rate as the SONET STS-3, the two signals contain different frame structures. STM = Synchronous Transport Module (ITU-T) STS = Synchronous Transfer Signal (ANSI) OC = Optical Carrier (ANSI)

SONET
Synchronous Optical NETwork Standard for digital optical transmission Standardized by ANSI T1X1 North American TDM physical layer standard for optical fiber communications 8000 frames/sec. (Tframe = 125 sec) Compatible with North American digital hierarchy

SDH
SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) elsewhere Needs to carry E1 and E3 signals Compatible with SONET at higher speeds Greatly simplifies multiplexing in network backbone OA&M support to facilitate network management Protection & restoration

What is different about SDH vs. SONET?


Together they are a set of global standards that interface equipment from different vendors. SDH is basically the international version of SONET, and SONET can be thought of as the North American version of SDH. There are some slight differences between SONET and SDH. The main differences are in the basic SDH and SONET frame formats, but SDH and SONET are essentially identical beyond the STS-3 signal level. The base signal for SONET is STS-1 and the base signal for SDH is STM-1. STS-3c is equivalent to STM-1 and the lower tributaries can be mapped interchangeably between the two formats from that point on.

What is different about SDH vs. SONET? (Cont)

In SDH, both electrical and optical signals are referred to as STM signals. In SONET, however, electrical signals are called STS and optical signals are referred to as OC.

SONET network

SONET/SDH signals
Identify SONET/SDH signals???
STM = Synchronous Transport Module (ITU-T) STS = Synchronous Transfer Signal (ANSI) OC = Optical Carrier (ANSI)

SONET/SDH rates
SDH STM-0 STM-1 STM-4 STM-16 STM-64 Bit Rate 51Mb/s 155Mb/s 622Mb/s 2.48Gb/s 9.95Gb/s SONET OC-1
(STS-1) (STS-1)

OC-3 OC-12 OC-48 OC-192

SONET/SDH devices STS MUX/DEMUX


Multiplexer equipments are one of the base elements of the network. The role of a multiplexer equipment is to insert low bit rate tributaries inside the SDH/SONET frame (mapping process) and conversely to drop the tributaries from the SDH/SONET frame (demapping process). It is necessary to check that no error occurs during the mapping/demapping process and that the integrity of the tributary is guaranteed.

SONET/SDH devices STS MUX/DEMUX

SONET/SDH devices Regenerator


Digital signal regeneration Simplest SONET element. Perform 3R regeneration Allows to overcome distance limit at the physical layer Receives the input stream, and regenerates the section overhead before retransmitting the frame. Does not modify Line and Path overhead (behaves differently from an Ethernet repeater)

SONET/SDH devices ADD/DROP MUX


Dropping and inserting tributaries Multiplexes different tributaries over a single OCN The add/drop operation allows to elaborate, add/drop only signal that must be managed Transit traffic is forwarded without the need of particular operation. It manages alternate routing in case of fault

SONET/SDH devices ADD/DROP MUX

SONET/SDH devices Terminal


(de-)multiplexes between multiple lowspeed signals and a high-speed signal