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Human sexuality

By : Imavike

The sexual experience is unique to each individual, but sexual physiology has common feature (Sadock as quoted in Pillitteri, 2007)

Sexual response cycle


1. Excitement Occurs with physical and psychological stimulation that causes parasympathetic nerve stimulation Leads to arterial dilation and venous constriction in the genital area The resulting increased blood supply leads to vasocongestion and increasing muscular tension

In women Causes the clitoris to increase in size and mucoid fluid to appear on vaginal walls as lubrication. The vagina widens in diameter and increase in length The nipples become erect In men Penile erection occurs, as well as scrotal thickening and elevation of the testes In both sexes --- heart rate, RR, BP

2. Plateau Reached just before orgasm In the women The clitoris is drawn forward and retracts under the clitoral prepuce The lower part of the vagina becomes extremely congested (formation of the orgasmic platform) Increase nipples elevation

In the men The vasocongestion leads to distention of the penis Heart rate (100-175 beats per minute) RR ( 40 respirations per minute)

3. Orgasm Occurs when stimulation proceeds through the plateau stage to a point at which the body suddenly discharges accumulated sexual tension A vigorous contraction of muscles in the pelvic area expels or dissipates blood and fluid from the area of congestion Average number of contraction for the women is 8 to 15 contractions at interval of one every 0.8 seconds

In men Muscle contractions surrounding the seminal vessels and prostate project semen into the proximal urethra Followed immediately by 3 to 7 propulsive ejaculatory contractions, occurring at the same interval as in the women, which force semen from the penis

Orgasm is usually experienced as intense pleasure affecting the whole body, not just the pelvic area

Highly personal experience

4. Resolution Is the period during which the external and internal genital orgasm return to an unaroused state For the male, a refractory period occurs during which further orgasm is impossible For women, they do not go through this refractory period, so it is possible for women who are interested and properly stimulated to have additional orgasm immediately after the first The resolution period usually takes 30 minutes for both sexes

Influence of the menstrual cycle on sexual response


Luteal phase --- there is increased fluid retention and vasocongestion in the womens lower pelvic Because some vasocongestion occurs at the beginning of excitement stage Women appear to reach the plateau stage more quickly and achieve orgasm more readily during this time. Also, women seem to be more interested in initiating sexual relations at this time

Influence of pregnancy on sexual response


Pregnancy --- vasocongestion of the lower pelvic occurs because of a rapidly growing fetus Although the level of oxytocin does appear to rise in women after orgasm, this rise is not enough to lead to worry of premature labor Breast engorgement that accompanies pregnancy results in extreme breast sensitivity during coitus

Intercourse position

Intercourse position

Intercourse position

Types of sexual orientation


Heterosexuality Is one who finds sexual fulfillment with a member of the opposite gender Homosexuality A person who finds sexual fulfillment with a member of his or her own sex Men --- gay Women --- lesbian

Bisexuality People are bisexual if they achieve sexual satisfaction from both homosexual and heterosexual relationships Transsexuality Is an individual who, although of one biologic gender, feels as if he or she should be of the opposite gender Through sex change operation

Types of sexual expression


Celibacy Is abstinence from sexual activity Certain religious orders The theoretical advantage is the ability to concentrate on means of giving and receiving love other than through sexual expression

Types of sexual expression


Masturbation Is self-stimulation for erotic pleasure; it can also be mutually enjoyable activity for sexual partners It offers sexual release --- an overall tension or anxiety relief Women may find masturbation to orgasm the most satisfying sexual expression and use it more commonly than men

Types of sexual expression


Erotic stimulation Is the use of visual materials such as magazines or photograph for sexual arousal Fetishism Is a sexual arousal resulting from the use of certain objects or situation. Leather, rubber, shoes and feet are frequently perceived to have erotic qualities

Types of sexual expression


Transvertism A transvertite is an individual who dresses to take on the role of the opposite sex Can be heterosexual, homosexual or bisexual

Voyeurism Is obtaining sexual arousal by looking at anothers persons body Almost all children and adolescents pass through a stage when voyeurism is appealing; this passes with more active sexual expressions

Types of sexual expression


Sadomasochism Involves inflicting pain (sadism) or receiving pain (masochism) to achieve sexual satisfaction Autoerotic asphyxia is the extreme practice of causing oxygen deficiency (usually by hanging) during masturbation with the goal of producing a feeling of extreme sexual excitement

Types of sexual expression


Exhibistionism is revealing ones genitals in public
Pedophiles are individuals who are interested in sexual encounters with children

Disorders of sexual arousal


Failure to achieve orgasm Can be a result of poor sexual technique, concentrating too hard on achievement or negative attitudes toward sexual relationships

Orgasm disorders
Erectile dysfunction or impotence is the inability of a man to produce or maintain an erection long enough for vaginal penetration or partner satisfaction Caused by effect of certain drugs, diabetes, physical and psychological condition Premature ejaculation is ejaculation before penile-vaginal contact

Pain disorders
Vaginismus Is involuntary contraction of the muscles at the outlet of the vagina when coitus is attempted Its inhibits penile penetration May occur in women who have been raped Dyspareunia is pain during coitus and vestibulities is inflammation of the vestibule Due to endometriosis, vaginal infection or hormonal changes (menopause, vaginal drying), or psychological component.