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Module 6 Presentation & Negotiation skills

Ability to deliver the presentations helps in 2 ways: - Helps in communicating your information clearly and vividly - Creates a very good impression about the speaker

Presentation is a live mode of sharing information with a selected audience. -It is a form of oral communication in which a person shares factual information with a particular audience. Presentation is an oral activity using visual electronic aids ( such as LCD projectors) to discuss new ideas and information with a specific audience in an impressive and convincing manner.

Format of presentation
A presentation has a well-defined format. - As a normal practice, the audience sits through the delivery without interrupting the presenter. - It is only when the presenter completes his/her part of the presentation the audience is invited to ask questions or seek clarification.

Essential characteristics
1.A clear structure with introduction, discussion and end. 2. Facts and figures are visually presented in tables, graphs and charts. 3. Different colours are used to make the presentation of the content attractive. 4.The presenter shows an understanding of the audiences needs and level of understanding, while discussing his ideas. 5.Humour and anecdotes are often employed. 6.Questions are given serious attention and are regarded essential part of the presentation.

Elements of a presentation
3 major elements: - Presenter - Audience - Specific content with a definite objective to be achieved.

A trained presenter approaches a presentation with an awareness of all its elements and a fully planned strategy.
A presentation is a particular mode of communicating with a group of people and of conveying a message.

As a presenter Think and plan the following before delivering the presentation. The presenter as a self plays a key role in making the presentation a successful communication act.

your purpose achieve 2. Analyse your audience 3.Identify the need 4.Collate your information 5.Design your communication 6.Time your presentation 7.Decide on the visual aids to be used 8.Study the location

1.Identify your purpose achieve: Ask yourself , why am I giving this presentation? - Having identified your objective, outline it in a single sentence.
2. Analyse your audience: Before you make presentation, - Know the group you are going to address. - Get an idea of the number , nature, needs, level of knowledge and likely attitude of those people who are going to receive your message. * These factors will determine the language of delivery and selection of inputs.

3.Identify the need: You may have too many ideas and too much information on your topic. - Try to determine what information the audience needs to support your proposal or understand the purpose of your presentation. - The needs of audience will vary from category to category. 4.Collate your information: - The needs of the audience will guide the presenter to gather the information and systematically arrange in the manner needed to present.

5.Design your Presentation / communication: The normal order of any exposition is to first list the main ideas and elaborate your points. Introduction Main Body Conclusion Questions & Answers 3 minutes 15 minutes 2 minutes 10 minutes

-Logical ordering of your presentation.

6.Time your presentation: The total presentation along with the Q&A at the end, should be covered within the time allotted to it. - In actual practice we ignore the fact that audiences interest and attention are conditioned by the timefactor.
- A well delivered and effective presentation is one that has a smart beginning and logically arrives at a conclusion ,on the dot.

7.Decide on the visual aids to be used: A presentation of statistical data, figures, diagrams and so on is made vivid by the use of visual aids. - Through visual display of ideas we make our audience see what they hear.
8.Study the location: - Before presenting check the size, ventilation and seating arrangement of the room for the audience. - Ensure your audiences comfort - Suitably place your screen according to the number of persons and the size of the room.

Visual Aids
It is not sufficient to know what one ought to say, but one must also know how to say it. -Aristotle

Advanced visual support for business presentation

A picture is worth a thousand words. - Words are imprecise and imperfect conveyors of meaning especially in communicating voluminous and complex information. - Visual aids are essential , especially in reports and presentations. - The researchers have discovered that audience recalls more information when it is presented both verbally and visually than presented in only one way.

Percent of Speech Remembered After

90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Verbal Only Visual Only Verbal & Visual 3 Hours 3 Days

Visual Aids
Visual aids are forms of supporting material, which provide all forms of intellectual, technical, psychological, emotional and sensory reinforcement of idea.

Purpose of Visual aids

Transmit the message quickly and accurately Clarify verbal analysis Reinforce verbal analysis Enable to present large data in less space Help to summarize clearly Help reader to understand and remember verbal communication easily. Creates more interest Information can be presented in a condensed form. Emphasize particular points

Functions of visuals
1.They can show how things look 2.They can show how things work

3.They can show how things relate to one another

4.They can emphasize important points.


Audience may/will lose interest back o/hs are unprof.

Visual Aids

An evaluation of the different styles of overhead presentation relating to the seven dwarfs

The message is lost in the presentation:

Types of visual Aids

Board- Black / white Overhead projectors (OHP) Power point Tables Graphs Charts Drawings Photographs Diagrams Maps

1.Board- Black / white: -Board can be black or white. A board is a primary aid used in classrooms. - Helps listeners - Used for noting important words and concepts or calculations - On white board use dark markers to make your writing clear and visible. - Erase

2.Overhead projectors (OHP):

- Most often used visual aid - Prepared transparency projected on the screen - Holds audience attention - Used for typed or handwritten matter.

- Best impact is made when the content is neatly and

clearly typed.

3.Power point Projection: - Computer based presentation - Presented with the use of multimedia projector - Screen will display the information to a large number of audience. - Pictures, photographs are displayed as a part of the presentation. 4.Flip Chart - Large pad of paper on a stand - Used for presenting information for a small group of audience ( 15-20)

5.Tables Word tables Numeric data tables It is used to display either numerical or verbal information in an accurate, concise, logical and easily readable form. If the data or the information is in the form of words or phrases it is called verbal table. If the information is in the form of numerical data, it is called as numerical table. In a table, first column is called subhead and other columns are called box heads.

Numeric Data Table

Suggestions to make accurate tables

Simple, clear and logical Order should be maintained Indicate the unit of measurement Alignment (Numeric and decimals) Give totals if necessary Headings Table on singe page. If it takes next page write contd at the bottom of table Use dash ( - ) or N.A if no information is available. Never use zero.

Graphs are pictorial forms of tables. First table is prepared and then it is translated in to graph.

Days Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday

Items Sold 15 25 50 75 90 95
100 80 60 40 20 0

Items Sold


y Fr id a

on da


ne sd


Tu es

Th ur

W ed

Sa t


da y


Graphs: Bar graph Line graph Pictorial graph

Bar Graph
It is generally used to illustrate quantities at specific times, differences in quantity instantly, quantities of different items during the same period or to present comparative values of two or more variables. Horizontal Bar graph Vertical Bar graph
Using Visual Aids


Bar Graph
Items Sold in First Quarter of 2002
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 January February March April
Blue Balls Red Balls

Guidelines for Bar Graph: Do not crowd the graph with too many details. Place it according to Introduce Display Discuss Balance in length and width Vertical bars less than 7 inches & horizontal bars less than 5 inches Label the graph Place units of measurement Interpretation

Pictorial Graph
It is a diagram representing numerical data in a pictorial form. Pictorial variations add interest and emphasis.

A pictograph is made.
Chocolate Vanilla Strawberry

Mint & Chip Rocky Road

Bubble Gum

Line Graph
It shows exact amount of information It shows the relationship between two or more sets of data To show a continuous dependent variable, line graph is used

Line Graph
Items Sold in a week
100 90 80
Items sold


75 50

60 40 20 0 Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Days 25 15

Organization Chart
An organization chart illustrates the positions, units or functions of an organization and the way they

It shows the line of authority in an organization. Provides readers with a guide to companys functional areas. Explores a business problem.

Organization Chart

Pie chart
Percentage graph or Circle graph It consists of a circle divided into segments. It shows the relative percentage. It permits simultaneous comparison of parts both to

each other & to the whole.

Guidelines for Pie chart: Use compass to draw perfect circle and to locate its centre. Locate first radial line at 12 oclock. Move clockwise in descending order. Show segment values. Use shading, color for segment distribution Use horizontal writing for labeling

Pie Graph
Budget Allocation of Educational Institution

Building Maintenance 10% Pow er and Water 12% Staff Salaries 40% Staff Salaries Lab Equipment Library Library 18% Pow er and Water Building Maintenance Lab Equipment 20%

When to use visual aids? - Present numerical & statistical data - Present topics related to art , design ,etc

- Present new data or plan which the audience is not

aware - Present comparative statement of facts.

Advantages : 1.Respond easily to what is seen 2.Attention getter

3.Saves time
4.Increases the effectiveness of communicating


How to use visuals? 1.Donot use too many visuals 2.Plan the visuals based on main points 3.Bold , clear letters 4.Donot fill a slide with too many words 5.Use different colours for different points 6.Use technique of revealing only one point at a time 7.Number the sequence of slides 8.Explain the purpose and content of slide, when you show it.

Negotiation is a process in which two or more parties who have common and conflicting interest come together and talk with a view to reaching an agreement. Example: - Customer trying to negotiate with buyer over a price of a product. - Negotiation for salary between employee & employer.

Negotiation is a process of bargaining in which two parties, each of whom have something that the other wants, try to reach an agreement , on mutually accepted terms. Definition : Acc, to Alan Fowler, Negotiation is any form of meeting or discussion in which you and /or the

persons you are in contact with use argument and

persuasion to achieve an agreed decision or action

Features Of Negotiation
Minimum two parties Predetermined goals Expecting an outcome Resolution and Consensus Parties willing to modify their positions Parties should understand the purpose of negotiation



1.Takes place between two parties

2.Reaches agreement through discussion, not

instruction, orders or power/ influence/ authority.

Need for negotiation: - Defined by situations

Situations requiring negotiation:

1.An issue involving more than one.

2.When both the concerned parties are willing to

meet and discuss an issue.

- Formal situations - Informal situations

Situations not requiring negotiation : - When one of the two parties/ persons immediately accepts or agrees to what the other is suggesting or

- Whenever one of the two parties refuses even to consider or discuss the suggestion or proposal.

Factors affecting negotiation:

1.Place 2.Time 3.Subjective factors - Personal relationship - Fear - Future considerations - Mutual obligations - Practical wisdom - Categories of influence - Persuasion

Loss/Loss : Take the cake away so that neither party gets it. Win/Lose : Give it to one party or cut it unevenly. Draw : Cut the cake down the middle. Win/Win : Make two cakes which are of a much larger size than the present size.

Lose -Win


Stages of Negotiation Process/ Negotiation Process






OFFER: First proposal made by one party to another in the negotiation stage.

COUNTER OFFER: Offer made by second party to first party, or proposing their offer against first party offer. CONCESSION: Increase or decrease made in the offer

or change in the idea.

COMPROMISE: Sacrifice made by both or one party. AGREEMENT: Point where both parties agrees, which is beneficial to both.

Steps: Planning Preparation Bargaining Closing Agreement Implementation & Follow-up

Identify the issues. Prioritize the issues. Establish a settlement range. Develop strategies and tactics

Bear in mind that it is almost impossible for a negotiator to do too much preparation. To be kept in mind(2 points) *Assessing the relative strength of the two parties *Setting of negotiation objectives Identify your objectives (Realistic) Know your resistance point Adopt the most suitable style Time the interaction correctly

Bargaining( negotiating phase)

Either party should take any fixed stand Parties should be willing to make compromises, offer

concession and develop packages that are mutually beneficial Have strategies to deal with deadlocks. Dont be emotional, try to understand the issue Focus on problem not on the person

Anticipate last minute demand Set realistic deadlines Listen to other partys objections Emphasize the benefits Make your last offer credible and with conviction

Define the scope of agreement Define the time frame/duration of agreement Write down clearly what has been agreed upon Specify the conditions, if any

Implementation & Follow-up

Deliver what has been agreed to Maintain regular contact with the other side Consider re-negotiation in case of unexpected events Follow up complaints and seek mutually agreeable solutions.

Three steps to prevent negotiation failure: 1. In a formal negotiation, confirm in writing all that has been agreed upon.

2. Mention in agreement an implementation programme

3. Ensure every concerned person , not only those involved in the discussion are told about the agreement.

Negotiation strategies
1.Initial strategies: - Plan the whole discussion as per the psychological needs - Set a tone for the discussion that focuses on the need. - Think how the other person will see your proposal - Avoid compulsive talking

2.During the discussion: -Do not state the whole case in the beginning ; develop your case as the discussion proceeds. - Be a silent listener of other speakers argument(tone) - Do not interrupt - Put searching questions to verify the correctness of factual information offered by the other party. - Avoid controversial tone - Use adjournments (breaks of 10 minutes) - Use concessions & compromise - Use conditional compromise

3.Reaching an agreement:
- Final decision ( no further compromise or concession) - Be tactful and persuasive

- Key strategy is persuasion

- Emphasize the other partys benefits - Approach the other partys co-operation and brilliant suggestions.

4.Summarising: It is a good strategy to use written summaries at the end of the discussion 5.In case of a deadlock: Reaching a mutually satisfactory end is the basic objective of any negotiation. - No further concessions to be made as they would be of no benefit - Matter will have to be reported to higher ups or eventually to external arbitration - Remain positive and hopeful of reaching a mutually agreed solution.

Exercise: A young man ,A, is trying to persuade his brother , B, to lend him his bike.
A. I was just wondering if you were using our bike this afternoon B. Why? A. Well. I promised Adithya Id pop over and see him before he went to Delhi B. How about going by bus A. It takes longer and more expensive as well. B. oh, Yes! Its more expensive than using my bike, my petrol, my insurance , my road tax- much more expensive. Why not go by train? Oh yes! Too expensive! A. If you are not using it , you could lend me. Ill put some petrol B. Dont forget the petrol A. Thanks