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LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT Basic Organizational Skills

Ku Muhammad Atif bin Ku Aziz

Shatirah Hanim binti Mohamad Aiminatul Najwa Binti Roslan Nur Habibah binti

By the end of this session, the student will be able: 1. Define basic concepts of organizational skills 2. Describe the basics concepts of organizational skills (Mintzbergs 5ps) 3. Describe Mintzbergs taxanomy of organizational forms. 4. Apply and practice the steps to successful organization of an event.

Definition of basic organizational skills

The way in which an organization divides its labour

into tasks and then achieves coordination among them. (Mintzberg)

Mintzbergs 5Ps

3. 4. 5.


Plan (also known as Mutual Adjustment)

-is some somewhat conciously intended course of action, a guideline (or set of guidelines) to deal with a situation. Two essential characteristics are:
I. II.

They are made in advance of the actions to which they apply. They are developed conciously and purposefully.

Ploy (Direct supervision)

a specific manoeuvre intended to outwit an opponent or competitor

Pattern (standardization of work processes)

Is a specifically a pattern in a stream of actions. It is

consistency in behaviour, whether or not intended.

Position (standardization of outputs)

Locating an organisation in an environment. It becomes

the mediation force, or match, between organisation and environment, thet is, between the internal and the external context.

Perspective (standardization of skills)

An ingrained way of perceiving the world. It is a

perspective shared by members of an organization, through their intentions and/or by their actions. In effect, in this context, we are entering the realm of the collective mind individuals united by common thinking and/or behaviour.

Key of the organization

Operating core
Comprised of those who perform the basic work. Heart of the organizations Produces the essential output

Strategic apex
Consists of top administrators Charged with the responsibility of ensuring the

organization effectivelyserves its mission

Middle line
Those administrators who connect the strategic apex with the

operating core.
The administrative component Charged with the responsibility of planning.

Support staff
Composed of specialized units. Exist to provide support for the organizations outside the

operating workflow.

According to Henry Mintzberg, an organization s structure is largely determined by the variety one finds in its environment. For Mintzberg, environmental variety is determined by both environmental complexity and the pace of change. He identifies four types of organizational form, which are associated with four combinations of complexity and change.

Environmental variety

= Complexity

pace of change



Machine Bureaucracy Professional Organization STABLE Standardized work Standardized skills processes and outputs and norms

Entrepreneurial startup


Direct supervision Mutual adjustment

To understand more each of four organizational forms, Mintzberg define 5 basic organizational subunits.

Strategic Apex


Support Staff
Middle Line

Operating Care

Subunit Strategic Apex Technostructures

Example position from a manufacturing firm Board of Directors, Chief Executive Officer Strategic Planning, Personnel Training, Operations Research, Systems Analysis and Design Legal Counsel, Public Relations, Payroll, Mailroom Clerks, Cafeteria Workers VP Operations, VP marketing, Plant Managers, Sales managers Purchasing Agents, Machine Operators, Assemblers, Shippers.

Support Stuff Middle Line Operating Core

Each of the four organization forms in mintzbergs scheme depends on fundamentally different mechanism for coordiantion.

Organizational Form Machine Bureaucracy Professional Organization Entrepreneurial Startup Adhocacy

Coordianation Mechanism Standardize procedures and outputs Standardize professional skills and norms Direct supervision and control Mutual adjustment of ad-hoc teams

The basic mechanism of coordination

a) Mutual adjustment

b) Direct supervision

c) Standardization of work process

d) Standardization of outputd

e) Standardization of skills

f) Standardization norms

Machine bureaucracy Technocrats standardize procedures and outputs Professional organization Entrepreneurial startup Adhocracy Professional in the opening core ( e.g. doctors, professors) rely on roles and skills learned from years of schooling and indoctrination to coordinate their work Managers in the strategic apex directly supervise the work of subordinates Teams of professional from the operating core, support staff, and techno-structure rely on informal mutual adjustment to coordinate their efforts. In administrative adhocracies, the low-level operations maybe totally automated

Machine Bureaucracy Professional organization



Steps to successful organization of events

Allow adequate time for organization.

Start six to eight weeks before event.

Promote the educational value of the event. Educate students about the seriousness of heart disease

and stroke. Choose a good date and location. Events held during or after another event. Check the conflicting events.

Choose the right format.

Pick a format the audience will enjoy, or use several

formats to increase participation. Make thank you gifts visible. Showcasing thank-you gifts increase interest and promotes fund raising. Promote the event to participants. Use flyers, posters, announcements, bulletin boards. Involve a student group.

Set deadline to collect donations.

One week before the event : plan to collect monies raised. Thank all students, administrators, etc., and distribute

thank-you gifts. Complete an event evaluation after the event. Distribute feedback form to evaluate the event.

Ten steps to a successful fund raising event

Brainstorm and decide on your event.

Form an event committee.

Get your event in our calendar. Set a budget. Determine target audience. Set the date. Event logistics. Promotion- collection of fund. Thank you

Islamic perspective
And by those angels who arrange to do the commands

of their Lord (Q: 79:5)