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NURSING 105

NURSING MANAGEMENT

Madeline N. Gerzon, RN, MM


Clinical Instructor
WELCOME AGAIN TO NCM 105
NURSING MANAGEMENT!!!

Madeline N. Gerzon, RN, MM


Instructor
House Rules
 Sit alphabetically
 Start the day with morning prayer
 Come on time
 Come in complete uniform
 All cellphones must be in your bags and in
silent mode
 No gum during the class
 Break time is strictly 15 mins
 Come prepared (meaning read…read…read)
 Submit written assignment on time, late
papers will be considered 75%
 Ask permission if you have to go to CR
 Participate during discussion
 Talk when you have been recognized already
Key Concepts in Management
Structure
Function
Authority
Accountability Productivity
Hierarchy Leadership
Power
Planning Delegation
Organizing Efficiency
Directing Effectiveness
Controlling
Staffing
Budgeting
What comes into mind when
you talk about management?
What comes into mind when
you talk about management?

People Processes Structure

Function Policies Authority

Organization Procedures Responsibility

VMG Communication Resources


What is MANAGEMENT?
 Process of designing and maintaining an
environment in which individuals ,
working together in groups, efficiently
accomplish certain goals or aims
 Manager carries out PODC, POSLC
 Applies at all levels of organization
 Concerned with productivity;
effectiveness and efficiency

Koontz and Weihrich


MANAGEMENT (???)
 Is just one component of leadership
 Is the coordination and integration of
resources through planning, organizing,
directing, and controlling in order to
accomplish specific institutional goals
and objectives

Sullivan and Decker 1988


A theory is a coherent
group of assumption put
forth to explain the
relationship between two or
more observable facts and
to provide a sound basis for
predicting future events.
Why study
management?

3. Guide management decision


4. Shape our view of
organization
5. Make us aware of the
organiztional/business
environment
6. A source of new idea
1900s 1940s 1970s

TRADITIONAL
THEORIES MODIFICATION CONTEMPORARY

EVOLUTION OF ORGANISATION AND MANAGEMENT THEORIES


Traditional/ Contemporary
Modifications
Classical Approaches
Theories

Scientific
Management
Management
Science
Efficient Task System Approach
Performance Economic Technical
Rationality
Bureaucratic Subsystem &
Environment
Model
Human Relation
Authority & Structure
Contingency View
Administrative Behavourial
Theory Science
Psychology, No Best Method

Universal Management Sociology, etc. -Situational Factors.


Principles
Scientific Management

Frederick W. Taylor
(1856 – 1917)
Man as a Mechanism in
the Factory
 Developed theory called
“Scientific Management”
 Measured precisely the rate at
which certain tasks were
performed, or the precise
shovel blade size to shove most
effectively

Give me a job, give me security. Give me a chance to survive


I'm just a poor soul in the unemployment line
My God, I'm hardly alive
Man as a Mechanism in
the Factory

 Instituted
“rest periods” to
maximize endurance
 Worked to maximize efficiency
 Changed piece-work rates so
workers got more per piece if
they were more productive

Give me a job, give me security. Give me a chance to survive


I'm just a poor soul in the unemployment line
My God, I'm hardly alive
Frederick W. Taylor (1856 –
1917)
 Break down work into discrete
parts
 Only one “best way” to do a job
 Motivated by money to accept
the “best way”
Complaints Against
Taylorism
 His most famous studies
(shoveling) were not
groundbreaking
 Much of his data were not
coherent, suggesting it had
been falsified
 His “rest periods” were when
the men walked back empty

“The copper bosses shot you, Joe. They shot you, Joe,” says I.
“Takes more than guns to kill a man,” says Joe, “I didn’t die.”
Complaints Against
Taylorism
 Taylorism is only useful for
managing “children,” “morons,” and
the “mentally retarded.” (Argyris)
 Called “the main cause of the
main causes of our ills and
troubles in industry and
management today”
(Pollard)

“The copper bosses shot you, Joe. They shot you, Joe,” says I.
“Takes more than guns to kill a man,” says Joe, “I didn’t die.”
Gantt and Williams
Towards a More Sensitive
Workplace

 Gantt was originally a protégé of


Taylor at Bethlehem Steel
 Modified Scientific Management
to make it less rigid
 Insisted on a minimum day wage

Come all you workers and hear what I say, They're trying to plunder the
eight-hour day,
Won by our forbears in a bloody campaign, So rise up and be in the struggle
Gantt and Williams
Towards a More Sensitive
Workplace

 Demanded management buy-in


 Developed the Gantt chart to
help schedule subtasks and
processes required for project
completion
 Promoted “backcasting,” a
forerunner to MBO
Gantt and Williams
Towards a More Sensitive
Workplace
 Williams was a proponent of Social
Gospel
 Left management position to work in
mines, mills, refineries, ship yards,
etc.
 Discovered that all people measured
their value to society by their job
 As a consultant, would work on his
clients’ shop floors to learn what the
workers wanted
F.W. Taylor and
Scientific Management
 The systematic study of
relationships between people
and tasks for the purpose of
redesigning the work process to
increase efficiency
 The amount of and effort each
employee expends to produce a
unit of output can be reduced by
increasing specialization and the
division of labor
Henri Fayol (1925)

 Identified 4 management
functions
 Planning

 Organizing

 Command

 Coordination

 Control
Luther Gulick (1937)
 Expanded management
activities
 Planning
 Organizing
 Staffing
 Directing
 Coordinating
POSDCoRB
 Reporting
 Budgeting
 Find drawing to put in this
slide!!!!
Four Principles of
Scientific Management
1. Study the way employees perform
their tasks, gather informal job
knowledge that employees
possess, and experiment with ways
of improving the way tasks are
performed
Four Principles of
Scientific Management
1. Codify the new methods of
performing tasks into written rules
and standard operating procedures
Four Principles of
Scientific Management
1. Carefully select employees so
that they possess skills and
abilities that match the needs
of the task, and train them to
perform the task according to
the established rules and
procedures
Four Principles of
Scientific Management

1. Establish an acceptable level


of performance for a task, and
then develop a pay system
that provides a reward for
performance above the
acceptable level
Bureaucratic Model

Max Weber (1864 – 1920)

 Stressed the need for a strictly


defined hierarchy
governed by clearly defined
regulations and lines of
authority.
Organization - take the form of a Bureaucratic
structure.

BUREAUCRATIC
MODEL

RATIONAL-LEGAL/AUTHORITY

The right to exercise authority based on position.


- position with power
- compensation : fixed salary
- hierarchy of authority
- technical competence
- governed by rules and regulations
Dimensions of Bureaucracy

1. Division of labor based on


functional specialization

3. A well-defined hierarchy of
authority
Dimensions of Bureaucracy

 A system of rules covering the


rights and duties of position

 A system of procedures for


dealing with work situations
Dimensions of Bureaucracy

 An impersonality in
interpersonal relations

 A system of promotion and


selection for employment
based on technical
competence.
Limitations of Bureaucracy

 Appropriate for the past where


environment was relatively
stable and predictable
Limitations of Bureaucracy

 Today’s environments are more


turbulent and unpredictable.
Limitations of Bureaucracy

 Too general for today’s highly


complex organization and
specialization.
Human Relations
Human Relations Movement

 Mary Parker Follet - had


considered workers as human

 Chester Bernard - social need,


psychological need of individual
& group
Mary Parker Follett (1927)

 Management must consider the


human side

 Employees should be involved


in job analysis
Mary Parker Follett

 Person with the knowledge


should be in control of the work
process regardless of position

 Cross-functioning teams used to


accomplish projects
Mary Parker Follett

 Participative management

 Espoused that managers should


have authority with, rather than
over, employees
Hawthorne Experiments

Elton Mayo (1880 – 1949)


 Western Electric’s Hawthorne
Plant-Chicago
 Studied relationship between
level of lighting in the work-
place and workers productivity
 ‘Hawthorne effect’
The Hawthorne Effect

 The possibility that workers who


receive special attention will
perform better simply because
they received that attention
The Hawthorne Studies

 Initiated as an attempt to
investigate how characteristics of
the work setting affect employee
fatigue and performance (i.e.,
lighting)
 Found that productivity increased
regardless of whether illumination
was raised or lowered
The Hawthorne Studies_2

 Factors influencing behavior:


 Attention
from researchers
 Manager’s leadership approach

 Work group norms

 The “Hawthorne Effect”


H.R. in essence!!!!!!!!

 Manager and subordinate


relation

 Early attempt to discover the


social and psychological factor
that would create effective
human relation.
Contribution of H.R.
 Improved classical approach by
stressing social needs

 Focus on workers – not on


techniques
Contribution of H.R.

 Emphasized management skill


rather than technical skill

 Focus on group dynamics rather


than individual
Behavioral Science
 HR developed into BS
 Psychology, Sociology,
Anthropology
 Social man – motivated by
desire for form relationships with
others
Behavioral Science
Argyris, Maslow, McGragor

 Self-actualizing – a more
accurate concept to explain
Human Motivation
 “Complex man”
 No two people are exactly alike.
Douglas McGregor
 Taught in Psychology and
Industrial Management in MIT
 Introduced Theory X and Theory
Y
 Bridging the gap between the
management and labor
Douglas McGregor
Theory X (classical)
 workers are lazy and want to be
told what to do and have decisions
made for them
Douglas McGregor
Theory X
 Average employee is lazy,
dislikes work, and will try to do
as little as possible
 Manager’s task is to supervise
closely and control employees
through reward and punishment
Douglas McGregor
 Theory Y (based on
developments in social
sciences)
 employees want autonomy, job
satisfaction, responsibility, and will
work hard when they are
appreciated
Douglas McGregor
Theory Y
 Employees will do what is good for
the organization when committed
 Manager’s task is to create a work
setting that encourages commitment
to organizational goals and provides
opportunities for employees to be
exercise initiative
Douglas McGregor

 Theory Y
 Theory Y required a change in
management, not a change in the
worker or the workplace
 Formalized ideas many good
managers already practiced but
could not define
 Also credited with inadvertently
fathering the Human Potential
Movement
Contributions of Behavioral
Science
 Understanding of individual
motivation, group behavior
interpersonal relationship at work
and the importance of work to
human beings
 Continue to contribute new
insights in important areas as
leadership, conflict, power,
organizational change and
communication
Limitations of Behavioral
Science

 Its potential not fully realized

 managers resist suggestion


Limitations of Behavioral
Science
 Model, theories and jargon are
too complicated and abstract to
practicing manager

 Difficult to interpret by practicing


managers
1900s 1940s 1970s

TRADITIONAL
THEORIES MODIFICATION CONTEMPORARY

EVOLUTION OF ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT THEORIES


Traditional/ Contemporary
Modifications
Classical Approaches
Theories

Scientific
Management
Management
Science
Efficient Task System Approach
Performance Economic Technical
Rationality
Bureaucratic Subsystem &
Environment
Model
Human Relation
Authority & Structure
Contingency View
Administrative Behavourial
Theory Science
Psychology, No Best Method

Universal Management Sociology, etc. -Situational Factors.


Principles
2.2

History of Management Thought


Quality Viewpoint

Contingency Viewpoint

Systems Viewpoint

Behavioral Viewpoint

Traditional Viewpoint

1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000

Adapted from Figure 2.1


Japanese Theory Z
Characteristics of a Theory Z

 Long-term employment, often for a


lifetime

 Relatively slow process of evaluation


and promotion
Japanese Theory Z
Characteristics of a Theory Z

 Development of company-specific
skills & moderately specialized
career path
 Implicit, informal control mechanisms
supported by explicit, formal
measures
Japanese Theory Z
Characteristics of a Theory Z

 Participative decision-making but


individual ultimate responsibility

 Broad concern for the welfare of


subordinates & co-workers as a
natural part of a working relationship
& informal relationships among
people
System Analysis Management
 An approach to problem solving
based on an understanding of the
basic structure of systems
 Environmental interaction
 Open systems must interact with the external
environment to survive.
 Closed systems do not interact with the
environment.
 Synergy: when all subsystems work
together making the whole greater than
the sum of its parts.
 Entropy: the tendency for systems to
decay over time
2.7

Basic Systems View of


Organization
Environment

INPUTS
Human, physical, TRANS- OUTPUTS
financial, and FORMATION Products
information and
resources PROCESS Services

Feedback
loops
Adapted from Figure 2.4
The Contingency Perspective

A view that proposes that there


is no one best approach to
management for all situations.
 Asserts that managers are
responsible for determining which
managerial approach is likely to be
most effective in a given situation.
 This requires managers to identify
the key contingencies in a given
situation.
Blending Components into a Contingency
Perspective
2.8

Contingency Viewpoint
Behavioral Viewpoint
How managers influence others:
• Informal Group
• Cooperation among employees
• Employees’ social needs

Systems Viewpoint Traditional Viewpoint


How the parts fit together: What managers do:
• Inputs • Plan
• Transformations • Organize
• Outputs • Lead
• Control

Contingency Viewpoint
Managers’ use of other viewpoints
to solve problems involving:
• External environment
• Technology
• Individuals
Adapted from Figure 2.5
An Example of the
Contingency Perspective
Joan Woodward’s Research
 Discovered that a particular
management style is affected by
the organization’s technology.
 Identified and described three
different types of technology:
 Small-batch technology
 Mass-production technology

 Continuous-process technology
The Quantitative Perspective

 Characterized by its use of


mathematics, statistics, and
other quantitative techniques for
management decision making
and problem solving.
The Quantitative Perspective

 This
approach has four basic
characteristics:
1. A decision-making focus
2. Development of measurable
criteria
3. Formulation of a quantitative
model
4. The use of computers
The Quantitative Perspective

Decision-Making Focus
 The primary focus of the
quantitative approach is on
problems or situations that require
direct action, or a decision, on the
part of management.
The Quantitative Perspective

Measurable Criteria
 The decision-making process
requires that the decision maker
select some alternative course of
action.
 The alternatives must be compared
on the basis of measurable criteria.
The Quantitative Perspective

Quantitative Model
 To assess the likely impact of each
alternative on the stated criteria, a
quantitative model of the decision
situation must be formulated.
Computers
 Computers are quite useful in the
problem-solving process.
Management in the 21st
Century
 William Ouchi’s Theory Z
 Japanese-style
approach to
management developed
 Advocates trusting employees and
making them feel like an integral
part of the organization.
 Based on the assumption that once
a trusting relationship with workers
is established, production will
increase.
Total Quality Management

 Organization's culture is defined by


and supports the constant attainment
of customer satisfaction through an
integrated system of tools,
techniques, and training

 This involves the continuous


improvement of organizational
processes, resulting in high quality
products and services.

Total Quality Management


UNDERSTANDING MANAGEMENT
Understanding Functions of
Management
 Analysis of management is
facilitated by breaking it down
into five managerial
functions/processes
 Planning
 Organizing
 Staffing
 Leading
 Controlling
Understanding Functions of
Management

 Roles of managers (Mintzberg)


Interpersonal roles
•Figurehead role
•Leader role
•Liaison role

Informational roles
•Recipient role
•Disseminator role
•Spokesperson role
Understanding Functions of
Management
 Roles of managers (Mintzberg)
Decision roles
•Entrepreneurial role
•Disturbance-handler role
•Resource allocator role
•Negotiator role
Why Management is essential
for any Organization?
 Managers are charged with the
responsibility of taking actions that
will make it possible for individuals to
make their best contributions to
group objectives
 Applies to small or large organization
 Profit or non-profit organizations
 Manufacturing or service industries

Who are the managers that you know?


Goals of Managers?

Profit org
Non-profit org Surplus

Money
Time
Materials
Personal dissatisfaction

e. g.
VS
I&O
Bedmaking
Goals of Managers?

Productivity

Productivity = Outputs (within time period, quality considered)


Inputs

•Increasing O with same I


•Decreasing I but maintaining same O
•Increasing O and decreasing I to
change ratio favorably

Effectiveness
Efficiency
Hospital Process

Inputs Processing Outputs


Employees, Staff Examination Healthy patients
Hospital Surgery
Medical Supplies Monitoring
Equipment Medication
Laboratories Therapy
Management: An Art
or a Science?

Managing as practice is an ART

Organized knowledge underlying the


practice is the SCIENCE
Understanding Organizational
Structure and Function
Relationships within
organizations
 Chain of Command
Path of authority and accountability
from one individual at the bottom of
the organization to the very top
administrative authority

This is also referred to Hierarchy

e.g. nurse-HN-NS-CN
Relationships within
organizations
 Components of Chain of Command
 Layers or levels – simple to complex

 Flow communication – errors, gaps

 Interpersonal relationship – formal,


informal
Relationships within
organizations
Span of Control
Refers to number of subordinates
and different tasks for which a
person in authority is responsible
 Narrow Span of Control
Responsible for only a few people
and one or two tasks areas
 Broad Span of Control
Responsible for many people and a
variety of tasks areas
Span of Control
Organizational Charts
 A diagram of organization that clearly
presents its formal structure with
persons and departments and their
relationships to one another
 Large organization commonly have OC
 Small may operate informally, OC may
not be available
Organizational Charts
 Tells size of the organization and
its chain of command
 Shows relationships between units
or departments
 Boxes represent individuals or a
department
 Solid lines represent
communication
Limitations of
Organizational Charts

 Does not show informal


structure
 Cannot depict degree of
authority
 Becomes obsolete quickly
 Does not define
responsibility and
accountability
Organizational Charts

Authority
Accountability

Vertical line represents responsibility of


Individuals to supervise others officially
Organizational Charts
Organizational Charts

Horizontal solid lines connect individuals


at the same level in the organization and
have official relationship
Organizational Charts
Organizational Charts

Dotted lines represent communication


relationships in which neither
individual has direct authority or
accountability to the other and
they do not have the same supervisor
Organizational Charts
Organizational Charts

Lines of Authority

 Represent the responsibility of individuals


to supervise officially
 Downward direction
 Shows authority over those who are lower
on the chart and connected by solid lines
Organizational Charts

Lines of Accountability

 Reporting relationships
 Upward direction means accountable to
individual in the higher level
 Taken together means chain of command
Types of Organizational
Structure
Tall or Centralized Structure

Flat or Decentralized Structure

Matrix Structure

Parallel Organizations
Types of Organizational
Structure
Tall or Centralized Structure
 Usually narrow
 Decision-making authority and power
held by few persons in central
positions
 Persons in authority are responsible
for only few subordinates
 May have many levels
 Communication must travel through
the levels
Types of Organizational
Structure
Tall or Centralized Structure
 Advantages
*ability to be an expert
*use less skilled individuals
*close supervision
*top management are spared from
unnecessary communication
*top people have great deal of
control and are the decision makers
Types of Organizational
Structure
Tall or Centralized Structure
 Disadvantages
*skilled individuals may end up doing
nothing
*the supervised might become stifled
*communication is difficult, it passes
many layers
*implementation of decision may
become delayed
Types of Organizational
Structure
Flat or Decentralized Structure
 Have few levels and broad span of
control
 Decision-making is spread out among
many people
 No close supervision because
supervisor is responsible for many
people
 Communication is easy and direct
Types of Organizational
Structure
Flat or Decentralized Structure
Advantages
 Simple communication patterns-less
distortion
 Speed in responding t problems

 Individuals have opportunities to


develop their own abilities
 Communication is easy and direct
Types of Organizational
Structure
Flat or Decentralized Structure
Disadvantages
 Broad span of control may result to
 No close supervision because supervisor is
responsible for many people
 Person in charge may have hard time to
process communication since its numerous
 Supervisor may lack expertise because of
wide operation
 Greater need for ongoing education
Types of Organizational
Structure
Matrix Structure
 Either tall or flat
 Unique – second structure overlies
the first
 Overlying structure represents a
special relationship of individuals
that is not part of chain of command
 Recent innovation in health care
organization
Types of Organizational
Structure
Parallel Organizations
 Employees collective bargaining
organization
 But does not integrate with official
organization
 Has its own officers and
representatives
 Draw on the board
Organizational Function

Organization functions according


to what it has set to do which
are stated in…..
 Philosophy Statement and VMG

 Job descriptions

 Policies and Procedures


Organizational Function

Philosophy Statement
 Reflects the purpose of
organization
 States beliefs and values that
are basic to its operation
 May include list of goals or
objectives
Organizational Functions

VMG
 Vision – how the organization
envisions itself, desires of
organization
 Mission – broad general goals
that describes its purpose in the
community
 Goals – are broad statements
of overall intent of the
organization
Organizational Function

Job descriptions
 Help define organizational structure and
function
 Describes responsibilities of each individual
or position in the organization
 May not give complete description of
everything an individual does as part of
his/her job (ex. ER nurse and SA nurse)
Organizational Function
Policies and Procedures
 Official statements that guide the behavior
of individuals in the organization
 Are written (manual) as required by law
and accrediting institutions
 Hospitals have general policies and
procedures that guide the behavior or the
entire organization
 Hospitals have many policies and
procedures carefully written out in detail
Organizational Function

Policies and Procedures


 Serve as legal safeguard for the
organization by establishing standards for
practice
 Nursing policies and procedures are
formulated by committees or nurses
 Provide support for good practice and
quality control
What is an Informal
Organization?
 Arise to meet social needs of the
people within an organization
 Provide ease of relationships (?) and
ways to accomplish desired
outcomes
 In a form of “barkada” system
(helping one another)
 Providing communication
 Preserving values
 Informal leaders
Problems of IO
 Detrimental to formal
organization
 May resist needed change
 May tolerate mediocrity
 Sometimes it is closed,
newcomers become outsiders
 May disseminate rumors and
inaccurate information
“grapevine”
Organizational Climate

Effects of Policies
Formal policies describe expected behaviors
of individuals in the organization

 Theory X – people don’t like to work, they


are motivated by material gain, and w/out
supervision they will not work
e.g. vandi clock to punch in and out
Organizational Climate

Effects of Policies
 Theory Y – people find work intrinsically
rewarding, motivated by many factors other
than material gain
e.g. submits statements of the specific shifts worked,
no monitoring of lunches, breaks, etc

 Theory Z – operates on the basis of long-


term employment, loyalty between
employer and employee and strong
collective value system
Organizational Climate

Effect of Supervisory Behavior


 Manner how supervisors carry out policies
contribute to organizational climate
 Personality of supervisor
 General method of interacting with
subordinates
 Some supervisors create an atmosphere of
suspicion and fear (criticisms and unwillingness
to tolerate)
Organizational Climate
The informal organization culture
and climate
 Individuals relate on a personal basis
 High level of competition (+)
 Relationships (first name basis,
surname)
Understanding
Management
Management is……
 Process of designing and
maintaining an environment in
which individuals , working
together in groups, efficiently
accomplish certain goals or aims
(koontz & Weihrich)
 Is the coordination and integration
of resources through planning,
organizing, directing, and
controlling in order to accomplish
specific institutional goals and
objectives (Sullivan and Decker)
Management is……
 the art of getting things done
through people
 getting the right things done at the
right time
 the process or form of work that
involves the guidance or direction
of a group of people toward
organizational goals or objectives
What is Nursing Management?

Relates to planning , organizing,


staffing, directing and controlling the
activities of a nursing enterprise or
division of nursing departments and
of the subunits of the departments
Types of Management
 Authoritarian management style
 Democratic management style
 Laissez-Faire management
style
 Multicratic leadership
Types of Management
Authoritarian management
style
 Autocratic
 Manager makes most of the
decisions in isolation
 Found in bureaucratic
organizations that reinforce
centrality of authority and
reliance upon formal rules
Types of Management
Authoritarian management style
 Managers issue orders and expect to
be obeyed
 Authority derives from position power
tied to official hierarchical title
 Authoritarian managers will have
subordinate support if they are
involved in overall goals and process
Types of Management
Authoritarian management style
 Strong control is maintained
 Others are motivated by coercion
 Others are directed with command
 Communication is downwards
 “I” and “You”
 Punitive criticism
Types of Management

Authoritarian management style


Advantages
 Results to well-defined group actions
 Decision making can be done
expeditiously
 Appropriate when immediate action
is needed
 Authoritarian managers will have
subordinate support if they are
involved in overall goals and process
Types of Management

Authoritarian management style


Disadvantages
 Subordinates don’t have stake in
achievement/failure of management
goals
 Employee may subvert goals

 Managers issue orders and expect to


be obeyed
 Authority derives from position power
tied to official hierarchical title
Types of Management
Democratic Management Style
 Involves subordinates in decision
making
 Democratic managers see
themselves as coworkers
 Stresses importance of
communication and consensus
 Promotes autonomy and growth
Types of Management
Democratic Management Style
 Manager leads by providing
information, suggesting direction
and being supportive of
coworkers
 Function best in less centralized
and where there is less reliance
on formal rules and policies
 Emphasis “We”
 Constructive criticism
Types of Management

Democratic management style

Advantages
 Coworkers are consulted

 Coworkers have input on decision


making
 Employees are involved in all the
processes prior to decision making
 It is appropriate if decision at hand does
not require urgent action
Types of Management

Democratic management style

Disadvantages
 Decision becomes lengthy process

 Coworkers not confident in participating


in decision making
 Employees may think manager is not
capable to DM
Types of Management

Democratic management style

Disadvantages
 Employees think they are made to do
something they are not paid for
 If decision not implemented employees
think their time is wasted
Types of Management

Laissez-Faire
 Permissive management

 Least structure and control

 Requires coworkers to make


own goals, decisions
 Managers provide maximum
support and freedom for
workers
Types of Management

Laissez-Faire
 Provision of little or no direction

 Communication upward and


downward
 DM is dispersed throughout
group
 Criticism withheld
Types of Management

Laissez-Faire
Advantages
 Providing maximum support and
freedom
 Allows practice of high levels of
independence
Types of Management

Laissez-Faire
Disadvantages
 Not possible to let workers
arrive at an individual decisions
about patient care
 Because of multidisciplinary
care, decision must be
centralized
Types of Management

Multicratic

 One skill of a manager is


identifying which style a
particular situation requires
 Combines the best of all
approaches
 Provides maximum structure
when the situation requires
Levels of Management

 Top level managers


 Middle-level managers
 First-level managers
Levels of Management

Top level managers


 Looks at the whole organization

 Coordinate internal and external


influences
 Makes decisions with few
guidelines
 COO, CEO, CN, DNS, CNO
Levels of Management

Responsibilities of top-level
managers
 Determining philosophy

 Setting policies

 Creating goals and priorities for


resource allocation
 Need great leadership, not part
of day-to-day operation
Levels of Management

Middle-level managers
 Coordinates effort of lower levels of
the hierarchy
 Conduit between lower and top-level
managers
 Carry out day-to-day operation
 Involved in long term planning
 Establishing unit policies
 Nurse supervisors, head nurse, unit
managers
Levels of Management

First-level managers
 Concerned with specific unit
workflow
 Deal with immediate problems
in daily operations
Levels of Management

 Top level managers


 Middle-level managers
 First-level managers
POSTTEST
Answer the following as fast as you can:
 What is management? (3 pts)
 What are the processes of management? (4 items)
 Define Organizational chart (2 pts)
 Give at least 2 functions of the organizational chart
(2 items)
 What are the types of organizations? (4 pts)
 Give 2 advantages of Tall organization (2 items)
 Give at least 2 disadvantages of Tall organization
(2 items)
 Give 2 advantages of Flat organization (2 items)
 Give at least 2 disadvantages of Flat organization
(2 items)
 Organizational functions are usually stated in these
3 documents
 Organizational climate is shaped according to 3
factors
Differentiating the
Leader
and
Manager
Similarities and Differences
Leaders Managers
May or may not have official Appointed officially to the
appointment to the position position
Have power and authority Have power and authority to
enforce decisions only so long enforce decisions
as followers are willing to be led
Influence others toward goal Carry out predetermined
setting, either formally or policies, rules and regulation
informally
Interested in risk-taking and
Maintain an orderly,
exploring new ideas controlled, rational and
Relate to people personally in
equitable structure
an intuitive and empathetic Relate people according to
manner their roles
Feel rewarded from personal
Feel rewarded when fulfilling
achievements organizational mission or goals
May or may not be successful
Are managers as long as
as managers appointment holds