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SUBNET & ROUTING

Sritrusta Sukaridhoto Lecturer


Pens EEPIS-ITS EEPIS-

Netmask / Subnet mask tutorial

IP Addressing

IP addressing
Introduction to IP addressing Classes of IP addressing Why Subnet Masks are necessary? How to create subnet masks

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Why are IP addresses written as bits?


In order for data to pass along the media, it must first be changed to electrical impulses. When a computer receives these electrical impulses, it recognizes two things: the presence of voltage on the wire or the absence of voltage on the wire.

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What format do IP addresses use?

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How are IP addresses expressed in dotted notation?

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Why are IP addresses necessary?


IP addressing makes it possible for data passing over the network media of the Internet to find its destination. Because each IP address is a 32-bit value, that means that there are four billion different IP address possibilities. IP addresses are hierarchical addresses like phone numbers and zip codes.
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How do IP addresses make it possible for data sent via the Internet to find its destination?
It is because each network connected to the Internet has a unique network number. To ensure that each network number on the Internet will always be unique and unlike that of any other number, an organization called the International Network Information Center, or InterNIC

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How do IP addresses incorporate network addresses?


Every IP address has two parts. These are known as the network number and the host number.

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What are the different classes of networks?


There are three classes of IP addresses that a company can receive from the InterNIC. The InterNIC reserves class "A" IP addresses for governments throughout the world, class "B" IP addresses for medium size companies, and class "C"
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IP addressing
Classes of Networks
1 Byte Class A: Class B: Class C: 1 Byte 1 Byte 1 Byte

N N N

H N N

H H N

H H H

Network number assigned by NIC Host number assigned by Systems Administrator


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IP addressing
IP Address Bit Patterns
Bit # Class A: 1 2-8 9 32 (24 bits)

Network # 16 24

Host #

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Class A address range 1.0.0.0 126.0.0.0 (127.0.0.0 is for loopback) Private Class A address: 10.0.0.0 Number of hosts: 224 -2 = 16,777,214
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IP addressing
IP Address Bit Patterns
Bit # Class B: 1 2 3 - 16 17 32 (16 bits)

Network #

Host #

16

24

32

Class B address range 128.0.0.0 191.255.0.0 Private Class B : 172.16.0.0 172.31.0.0 Number of hosts: 216 - 2 = 65,534
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IP addressing
IP Address Bit Patterns
Bit # Class C: 1 2 3 4 - 24 25 32 (8 bits)

0 Network #

Host #

16

24

32

Class C address range 192.0.0.0 233.255.255.0 Private Class C : 192.168.0.0 Number of hosts: 28 - 2 = 254
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How many classes of Networks are there?


you have learned about three classes of networks that can be assigned by the InterNIC. In fact, there are five classes of networks. However, only three of these are used commercially.

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What IP addresses are reserved for multicast purposes and experimental purposes?
The highest number listed was 223. You may have wondered why the highest value was only 223 and not 255, since there are 255 possible values for an octet. in IP addresses the values 224 through 255 are not used in the first octet for networking purposes.
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What IP addresses are reserved for the Networks?


By convention, in IP addressing schemes, any IP address that ends in all binary zeroes is reserved for the network address. Thus, in a class "A" network, 113.0.0.0 would be the IP address of that network. Routers use a network's IP address when forwarding data on the Internet.

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What IP addresses are reserved for broadcasts?


for the network that is 176.10.0.0, the broadcast address that would be sent out to all devices on that network would be 176.10.255.255.

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Who assigns subnet addresses?


As with the host number portion of class "A," class "B," and class "C addresses, subnet addresses are assigned locally. Usually this is done by the network administrator.

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IP addressing Subnet mask


Subnet Masking - Why?
IP address Netmask Network Address

131 255 131

181 255 181

115 0 0

252 0 0 11111100 0000000 0 25 0000000

& =

10000011 10110101 01110011 0000000 11111111 11111111 0 Subnet & Routing 0000000 10000011 10110101

IP addressing Subnetting
Subnetting
Is the act of borrowing bits from the host portion to create smaller networks (called subnetworks) Minimum bits that can be borrowed is 2 why? Subnetting is used to reduce the number of broadcast domains Communication between these subnetworks is achieved through a router
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How are subnet addresses concealed from outside networks?


Subnets are hidden from outside networks by using a mask. These are referred to as subnet masks. The function of a subnet mask is to tell devices which part of an address is the network number including the subnet, and which part is the host.
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What format do subnet masks use?


Subnet masks use the same format as IP addressing. In other words, they are thirty two bits long and divided into four octets. Subnet masks have all 1s in the network and subnetwork portion, and all 0s in the host portion.
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How many bits can be borrowed from the host number in class "B" and class "C" networks to create subnets?

Because there are only two octets in the host field of a class "B network, up to fourteen bits can be borrowed to create subnetworks. A class "C" network has only one octet in the host field. Therefore, only up to six bits can be borrowed in class "C networks to create subnetworks.

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What happens to the subnet mask address if only some of the bits in an octet are borrowed?
Imagine that you have a class "B network. This time however, instead of borrowing all eight bits of the third octet, only seven bits are borrowed to create subnetworks. Using binary representation, in this example, the subnet mask would be 11111111.11111111.11111110.00000000. Therefore, 255.255.255.0 can no longer be used as the subnet mask.

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If only seven bits are borrowed in a class "B" network, what would the subnet mask be in dotted decimal notation?
HINT: To convert any eight bit binary number into a decimal number, total the powers of 2 that occur in the number.

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What determines how many subnetworks can be created by borrowing bits from the host field?

Can you figure out all of the possible combinations of 0s and 1s if four bits are borrowed from the host field to create subnetworks? 16 from 0000 to 1111. However, you know that 1111 is reserved for broadcast and 0000 means this network.

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How many subnetworks can be created by borrowing five bits from the host field? Answer: Thirty-two subnetworks or 25 =32 subnetworks can be created by borrowing five bits from the host field.

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Which numbers in a subnetwork are reserved for broadcasts?


In previous section, we used an example of a class "C" network in which three bits are borrowed from the host field. You learned that when three bits are borrowed from the host octet, up to eight subnetworks can be created each having up to thirtytwo hosts. You also learned that IP addresses ending in all binary 1s are reserved for broadcasts. The same is true for Subnet & Routing subnetworks.

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For IP address 197.15.22.160 on the same class "C network. How would this be expressed in a binary numbering scheme?
Answer: If 197.15.22.160 is converted to binary format, it becomes 110001010.00001111.00010110. 10100000. The first three bits in the last octet, 101, indicate that this is the sixth subnetwork. As before the remaining bits are all binary 0s. This means that the IP address197.15.22.160 must be one that is reserved for a subnetwork address.
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Subnet mask
How do we determine how many bits to borrow for a subnet? Determine the number of sub networks required Work from the MOST significant (LHS) bits of the first octet after the network number and calculate the number of bits needed to create the required number of subnetworks
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Subnet mask
Example: You are given a class B address and you are required to create 1000 subnetworks. By working from the LHS of the (first octet after the network number) 3rd octet, calculate the number of bits to equal or slightly exceed 1000. (ie 2x = > 1000) This would equate to 210 or 1024-2 networks Hence you will need to borrow 10 bits from the host portion to create 1000 subnetworks

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Subnet mask
Example:
The subnetmask in this instance would be 10 Bits Borrowed 6 bits left 255.255.255.192 Natural Class B netmask for hosts
(subnetmask)

11111111

11111111

11111111

11 000000

How many host per network can you obtain from this addressing scheme?
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Subnet mask
How do we determine how many bits to borrow for a subnet given the number of hosts required? Determine the number of hosts required Work from the LEAST significant (RHS) bits of the last octet and calculate the number of bits needed to create the required number of subnetworks

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Subnet mask
Example: You are given a class B address and you require 1000 nodes per subnet By working from the RHS (last octet) of the 4th octet, calculate the number of bits to equal or slightly exceed 1000. (ie 2x = > 1000) This would equate to 210 or 1024-2 networks Hence you will need to borrow 6 bits from the host portion to create subnetworks with 1000 hosts each

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Subnet mask
Example: The subnetmask in this instance would be 255.255.252.0 6 Bits Borrowed 10 bits required
Natural Class B netmask
(subnetmask)

for hosts

11111111 11111111 111111 00 00000000 How many subnetworks per network can you obtain from this addressing scheme? Note: Do you recognise this address as the student supernet address? Subnet & Routing 44

What about a Supernet?


A supernet borrows bits from the network portion to create contiguous nodes to form a super network

For example
Company A has about 1000 nodes to address. A class B address would be too big (or may not be available). Solution Supernetting using 4 contiguous class C addresses 203.10.112.0 203.10.113.0 203.10.114.0 203.10.115.0 (All netmasked to 255.255.255.0) Subnet & Routing
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What about a Supernet?


By allowing the first 2 bits of the third octet to be borrowed, a virtual class B address can be created. A supernet address of 203.10.112.0 203.10.115.255 is formed with a subnet mask of 255.255.252.0. The Host portion will be expanded from 8 10 bits Route summarisation can occur to 203.10.112.0/22

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What about a Supernet?


Network Portion
203.10.112.0 203.10.113.0 203.10.114.0 203.10.115.255 255.255.252.0

Host portion
011100 00 011100 01 011100 10 011100 11 111111 00 0000000 0 0000000 0 0000000 0 1111111 1 0000000 0
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1100101 00001010 1 1100101 00001010 1 1100101 00001010 1 1100101 00001010 1 1111111 11111111 1

Subnet Routing We have expanded the host&portion by 2 bits to 10 bits

What is a Broadcast Address


A broadcast address is used to by a node to communicate with ALL nodes in a broadcast domain Like the netmask, the broadcast address is AND with the network address. However, the host portion of the network is identified in a broadcast address
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What is a Broadcast Address


A broadcast address does this by inserting all 1s in the host portion. Eg A natural class B broadcast address would look something like this N.N.255.255 If it is not a classful subnetmask, you can determine the broadcast address within each subnet by locating the host portion and setting them to all 1s.

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What is a Broadcast Address


An example of a Broadcast address
131 & = 131 181 131 181 181 Host ID 255 Host ID Host ID 255 Host ID

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What is a Broadcast Address


An example of a cross boundary subnet broadcast address with a mask of 255.255.252.0

131 & =
Network Address

181 181 181

11[2,3,4,5]

x 255 Host ID
0000000 0 xxxxxxx x 51 1111111 1

131 131

115 SN + H
SN
011100 00

Network Portion
1000001 10110101 1

Host portion

Host
Broadcast Address

011100 1000001 10110101 1 xx Subnet & Routing 1000001 10110101 1 011100 11

What is a Broadcast Address


An example of a cross boundary subnet broadcast address with a mask of 255.255.252.0

In this example, IP addresses


131.181.112.0 131.181.115.255 belong to the same subnetwork Network Portion SN Host portion
131.181.112.0 (Network) 131.181.113.0 131.181.114.0

1000001 10110101 1 1000001 10110101 1

011100 00 011100 01 011100 10 011100 11

0000000 0 0000000 0 0000000 0 1111111 52 1

1000001 10110101 131.181.115.255 1 (Broadacast) 1000001 Subnet & Routing 10110101 1

Network Address
VS

Broadcast address
Remember A Network address has all the host bits set to 0 A Broadcast address has all the host bits set to 1 Therefore
131.181.112.0 is the network address 131.181.115.255 is the broadcast address Subnet & Routing 53

Network Address
VS

Broadcast address
This is important when you are doing ifconfig and routing commands For example, if a host has an address 131.181.114.10/22
The ifconfig & route commands would be
ifconfig eth<x> inet 131.181.114.10 netmask 255.255.252.0 broadcast 131.181.115.255 route add net 131.181.112.0 netmask 255.255.252.0 dev eth<x>
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How do you determine Network and Broadcast address quickly?


There are different subnetting exercises Given an IP address & mask, What is the network/subnetwork address What is the network/subnetwork broadcast address What are the assignable address in that network/subnetwork What are all the valid subnet addresses How many nodes per subnet
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Algorithm for deriving Subnet information


Given an IP address, you will usually be given a net/subnetmask If you are given the mask Subtract the mask from 256 This is known as the multiplier The first number in each multiplier value is the network number The broadcast address is the next multiplier value subtract 1
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Algorithm for deriving Subnet information


Eg given the IP address 192.168.0.100 with the subnet mask of 255.255.255.240 Or 192.168.0.100/28
What is the network number What is the broadcast address What are the valid IP hosts for the subnet
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Algorithm for deriving Subnet information


Subtract 256 from the netmask 256 - 240 = 16 This is the multiplier ie the networks are in steps of 16 (16,32,48,64,96,112 etc) The IP address 192.168.0.100 is in the range of |100 / 16| which is the 6 th subnetwork The network address is Host portion 16* 6 = 96 (01100000b) The Broadcast address is 96 + 16 - 1 => 192.168.0.111 (01101111b) ie (next multiplier 1) Subnetwork portion
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Algorithm for deriving Subnet information


Network Portion
IP address 192.168.0.100 Netmask 255.255.255.240

SN Host portion
0110 0100 1111 0000 0110 0000 0110 1111

1100000 0000000 10101000 0 0 1111111 1111111 11111111 1 1 10101000 0000000 0

Network Address 1100000 192.168.0.96 0 Broadcast Address 1100000 192.168.0.111

0000000 10101000 0

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Algorithm for deriving Subnet information


Valid ranges are 192.168.0.97 to 192.168.0.110 Number of allowable hosts 97 to 110 (incl) = 14 or [24]16 - 2 = 14
Remember you cannot use the first address (network address) and the last address (broadcast address) in the range

The number of allowable networks [24]16 - 2 = 14 ( ie 4 bits used. If a class B address with the last bit subnet, then add another 8 bits to give you 212 2 allowable subnet)

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Algorithm for deriving Subnet information


What if the IP range goes over 2 octets Use the same principal Remember octets with all 0s are considered boring and will be assigned the mask of 0 You will then have to locate the position in the address with both 1s and 0s (interesting byte) and use the same algorithm Similarly all 1s are also considered boring and will be given the mask of 255 (eg subnetting the last byte of a class B address)
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Algorithm for deriving Subnet information


Example QUT students supernet address 131.181.112.0/22 Netmask expanded : 255.255.252.0 Last byte is not interesting hence we set it to 0 for network and 1 for broadcast The third byte is interesting 256 252 = 4 (multiplier) Networks are in increments of 4 steps 112/4 = 28 (the 28th subnetwork). Since there is no remainder, it is the beginning of the network address

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Algorithm for deriving Subnet information


Network address : 131.181.112.0 Netmask : 255.255.252.0 Broadcast : 112 + 4 1 = 115 =>131.181.115.255 Number of valid hosts : 210 2 = 1024 2 = 1022 hosts Number of subnetworks available for this network 26 2 = 64 2 =62 subnetworks
Subnet & Routing Assignable addresses in this subnetwork 131.181.112.1 131.181.115.254 Remember, the 1st and last addresses cannot be used (Network and broadcast)

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How does the router handle IP addresses and subnet masks?


Let's assume that a device on another network with an IP address of 197.15.22.44 wants to send data to another device attached to Cisco's network with an IP address of 131.108.2.2. The data is sent out over the Internet until it reaches the router that is attached to Cisco's network. The router's job is to determine which one of Cisco's subnetworks the data should be routed to.

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when the router performs this ANDing" operation, the host portion falls through.

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The router looks at what is left which is the network number including the subnetwork.

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The router then looks in its routing table and tries to match the network number including the subnet with an interface.

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How does the "Anding operation change with different subnet masks?
Imagine that you have a class "B network with the network number 172.16.0.0. After assessing the needs of his network, the network administrator has decided to borrow eight bits in order to create subnetworks. When eight bits are borrowed to create subnets, the subnet mask is 255.255.255.0. Someone outside the network sends data to the IP address 172.16.2.120.

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Exercise
Exercise
You are given an IP address for a host 172.168.35.10/20

What is/are the


1. Subnet address? 2. Broadcast address? 3. The number of useable hosts available for this subnet? 4. The number of useable subnets available for this network? 5. The assignable address range for this subnet? Answers Subnet & Routing

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Exercise
Exercise
Your organisation has been assigned a class B IP address of 130.10.0.0 You require about 2000 subnetworks

Work out the


1. Subnet mask required for this subnet 2. The network and broadcast addresses for the first 5 useable subnets 3. The number of hosts for each subnet 4. The assignable address range of the first 5 useable subnets Answers
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ROUTING

Routing
Routing describes a process where packets are forwarded from one network to another. Routing can be performed by devices such as :
dedicated routers servers with more than one network interface: multihomed hosts switches incorporating a route function. 75 Subnet & Routing

Routers
Routing devices typically have more than one network interface, each called a port. Routers process datagrams individually, making routing a processing-intensive operation. Dedicated routers offer better performance characteristics compared with multi-homed hosts. Subnet & Routing

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Routing Tables
To determining the proper destination network for datagrams, routers consult an internal table. The table consists of records, one per line, each representing a known network. Each record includes a set of associated characteristics such as netmask Subnet & Routing

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Building Route Tables.


Routing table entries can be built by two methods:
Static: entries are entered manually by a network administrator Dynamic: entries are entered dynamically by routing protocols. Routers learn destination network addresses by the periodic exchange of route tables between routing devices. Routing protocols use IP to deliver this information. Subnet & Routing

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Configuring Routers
Before IP routers can perform the route function and use routing protocols to exchange route tables, each interface (port) must be correctly numbered with a valid host IP address and netmask. The IP address must be selected from within the range for the particular network address. Typically local gateways are located the first address in the valid host range.
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Routing Protocols
Routing protocols are used by routers to: learn the location of destination networks. determine the best route to reach networks. Examples of routing protocols include: RIP, Routing Information Protocol OSPF, Open Shortest Path First BGP, Border Gateway Protocol

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Routing Protocols - 2
Routing protocols differ in:
the way in which they exchange route tables determine the route to the destination the information that is communicated

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Distance Vector
Distance Vector routing protocols broadcast the entire route table on a regular basis. RIP2 typically defaults at once every 30 seconds.This creates considerable network traffic. They determine the best route path on the basis of the least number number of hops to reach a destination network.& Routing Subnet 82

Link State
Link state protocols only broadcast changes to route information after an initial entire table has been sent. When determining the best path, other factors such as policies (e.g. preferred path) and cost ( time taken, available bandwidth) can influence the choice when multiple paths are available. & Routing Subnet

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IP Routing
Before a routing device can forward an IP datagram it must:
examine the Destination Address in the datagram use the netmask to identify the network portion of the packets destination address find a corresponding network address in the route table and forward the packet to the gateway or interface specified
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Route Table Fields


To forward IP datagrams, the router uses the following fields of the the route table:
Destination Network Mask Gateway

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Destination
This field lists the networks which are known to the router. Addresses may have been entered by an administrator, or dynamically learned from the transmissions of other routers. Address entries concerned with routing between network addresses will be of the format {<netid>, 0}
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Netmask
The netmask field provides the router with the ability to determine the network address of packets being examined. A logical AND is performed using the netmask and the destination address. This logically removes the host portion allowing the router to identify the destination Subnet & Routing 87

Gateway
The Gateway field lists the IP addresses of the interface where the datagram should be sent (forwarded) to reach the specified Destination. This field may contain :
An IP interface address corresponding to an adjacent router 0.0.0.0 The address of a interface
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Destination Hop=0.0.0.0
A Destination of 0.0.0.0 indicates a directly connected network. Hosts located on this network can be reached using the local network method. If the network is Ethernet, the ARP protocol is used to find the physical address of the node.
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