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A Lossless Compression Scheme for Bayer Color Filter Array Images

King-Hong Chung and Yuk-Hee Chan, IEEE Trans. On Image Procs., February, 2008.

Structure of the proposed compression scheme

1. What is encoded(adaptive Rice Code encoding) for storage and transmission is the residues, that is, the prediction errors. 2. Prediction: Green sub-image: intensity Red/Blue sub-image: color difference signal (to remove spectral redundancy)

Prediction on the Green Plane(1)

candidates Green sub-image is raster scanned, then

support region

* g ( i , j ) ! {g (i, j  2), g (i  1, j  1), g (i  2, j ), g (i  1, j  1)} S g ( p , g ) ! {( p, q  2), ( p  1, q  1), ( p  2, q ), ( p  1, q  1)}

...candidates ...support region

Prediction on the Green Plane(2)

The matching extent of the support region of the candidates and the pixel of interest is defined as follows: ( (m, n) is the position of one of the candidates)

Prediction on the Green Plane(3)


Rank the candidates by their matching extent to the pixel of interest: (m1, n1) is the candidates with the maximum matching extent, and it also defines the direction at pixel (i, j)

The pixel of interest is then predicted by 1.

2.Otherwise The prediction error is then defined by

Prediction on the Red/Blue Plane(1)

candidates

support region

1. How color difference signals on the candidate pixels are determined would be presented later. 2. Note that the matching extent is defined by the neighboring green pixels.

Prediction on the Red/Blue Plane(1)

candidates Color difference signal is then predicted by:

support region

Note that region homogeneity classification is not used. This is because from the experiments made by the authors, region homogeneity classification does not improve the compression performance.

Adaptive Color Difference Estimation(1)

G H ! ( g (m, n  1)  g (m, n  1)) / 2 GV ! ( g (m  1, n)  g (m  1, n)) / 2

Adaptive Color Difference Estimation(2)


1.

2.

Proposed Compression Scheme(1)


What is encoded is the residues, that is, the prediction errors.

Rice code is highly efficient in encoding exponentially distributed sources. And all the values should be positive, so residues are remapped to achieve this goal:

Each E(i, j) is split into a quotient and a remainder:

where k is a nonnegative integer. The quotient and remainder are saved for storage and transmission.

Proposed Compression Scheme(2)


The length of the codeword used to represent E(i, j) is dependent on k, and is given by:

For a geometric source S with distribution parameter

Prob( S ! s ) ! (1 - V ) V s for s ! 0,1,2,...


Optimal coding parameter k is given by:

Here we need to know V to determine optimal k

Proposed Compression Scheme(3)


Expectation value of the source is given by Here

is estimated adaptively by

^ i , j is defined as {(i, j  2), (i  1, j  1), (i  2, j ), (i  1, j  1)} for green plane residue {(i, j  2), (i  2, j  2), (i  2, j ), (i  2, j  2)} for red/blue plane residue
~ ~

Q is the current estimate of Q and Q p is the previous estimate of Q , which is set to 0 for all residue planes initially. E is set to 1 heuristically.

Experimental Results(1)

Experimental Results(2)