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SERAT OPTIK : GEOMETRI, FABRIKASI DAN SPESIFIKASI DASAR

Pertanyaan dasar
  

Serat-optik ? Bagaimana struktur serat-optik ? Bagaimana cahaya bisa merambat melalui serat ? Bagaimana memilih bahan dan fabrikasi serat-optik ? Hal-hal apa yang harus diperhatikan dalam pemilihan serat-optik ?

CAHAYA, light


Aliran partikel yang dalam pemancarannya memenuhi hukum optik reflection & refraction, snell law. Cahaya radiasi gelombang elektromagnetik (fresnel, maxwell) yang mengalami diffraction, interference dan pengubahan polarisasi selain mengalami reflection & refraction. Pendekatan ray digunakan untuk analisis sinyal yang mengalami diffraction, interference dan pengubahan polarisasi selain mengalami reflection & refraction. Arah rambat cahaya dari sumbernya dapat diasumsikan gelombang spheric ataupun plane

CAHAYA
  

QUANTUM WAVE RAY


2 1/ 2 0y

E ! h.v

E! E E
2 0x

Wavelength Ranges

Rambatan Cahaya

Gelombang merambat secara spheric If didekat sumber

Gelombang merambat secara planar If relatif jauh dari sumber

Matematika Gelombang


Cahaya dapat dianggap gelombang yang mempunyai polarisasi linear ataupun elliptik. Polarisasi tergantung pada kondisi vektor medan E dan H. Sebagaimana gelombang EM, cahaya mempunyai konstanta propagasi, dengan notasi k. Agar merambat, medan E dan H membentuk vektor yang orthogonal agar terjadi transverse wave. Mode perambatan cahaya di serat optik, secara umum mengikuti hukum perambatan gelombang EM yang diturunkan oleh MAXWELL.

Rambatan GEM

A( x, t ) ! ei Ao exp[ j ([t  k .x)] Polarisasi bisa linear [ ! 2TY k ! 2T / P

ataupun elliptical / circular tergantung nilai medan E dan H.

Polarisasi
Dengan asumsi bahwa cahaya merupakan gelombang EM, maka ada phenomena POLARISASI 1. LINEAR (Vertical - Horizontal) 2. ELLIPTICAL (circular, RHCP, LHCP)

Pendekatan Quantum


  

Sebagai penentu daya atau energi cahaya yang dipancarkan oleh sebuah sumber atau diserap oleh bahan digunakan pendekatan quantum. Perhitungan tersebut didasarkan pada banyaknya quanta atau photon yang dihasilkan atau diserap. E = hY h = 6.625x10-34 J [konstanta planck] Sebuah sumber akan dapat kehilangan photon.

Penggunaan Fisika Optik ?


       

Indek bias : refractive index, index of refraction Sudut datang : angle of incidence Sudut datang kritis : critical angle of incidence Bidang kedatangan : plane of incidence Pantulan : External reflection, internal reflection dan totally internally reflected Sudut datang maksimum, Acceptance Conde, NA dan Jumlah Mode Radio daya yang hilang di cladding

Serat-optik (2)


    

Serat Optik Bukan lagi bumbung cahaya, tapi sudah berupa serat gelas dengan ukuran beberapa micrometer Karena transmisinya terbimbing maka terhindar dari interference elektromagnetik (EMI). Frekuensi kerja sistem di serat-optik tergantung panjang gelombang yang digunakan Terdapat 3 windows : disekitar 800 nm (810-850 nm), disekitar 1300nm (1220-1340 nm) Setiap window punya bandwidth sekitar 25.000 GHz Pemilihan windows terkait dengan redaman, semakin tinggi panjang gelombang redaman semakin rendah

Index refraksi

refractive index (n): Of a medium, the ratio of the velocity of propagation of an electromagnetic wave in vacuum to its velocity in the medium. Synonym index of refraction. Note: When the Greek character eta is unavailable, the letter n is used to represent the refractive index.

Refractive index

Index of refraction

c n! Y
Material Air Water Glass Diamond n 1.000 1.333 1.6 2.419

Contoh Index Bias Cornings SMF-28 Optical Fiber


Region Core Cladding
Core Cladding

1300 nm 1.4535 1.4483

1550 nm 1.4505 1.4447

Coating

Snells Law
n1 sin U1 ! n2 sin U 2
U1 index n1 When light goes from low index medium to high index medium, the angle gets smaller When light goes from high index medium to low index medium, the angle gets bigger index n2 U2

Pengaruh Sudut datang

kritis

Total Internal Reflection


What happens if the expression on the right is bigger than one? If the expression on the right is one or bigger, than all the light gets reflected Called total internal reflection Works only when inside a high index material U2 U1

n1 sin U c 1! n2

n1 sin U1 sin U 2 ! n2

n2 sin U c ! n1

Cahaya merambat di fiber, melalui refleksi total


Ray stays confined to the core because the cladding has a lower refractive index than the core

n2<n1
1

n1 n2<n1

n1 sin J1 ! n2 sin J1 n1 cos J1 ! n2 cos J1

Representasi Rambatan Cahaya di Serat Optik

Struktur Serat Optik Kabel Tunggal


  

Core (Inti) gelas Cladding (Pemantul) gelas Buffer Coating (pelindung, protective jacket, protective sheating, buffer, plastik atau metalik, ) Indek bias atau refractive index dari core harus lebih tinggi dari cladding (n2<n1)

Acceptance Angle

acceptance angle: In fiber optics, half the vertex angle of that cone within which optical power may be coupled into bound modes of an optical fiber. Note 1: The axis of the cone is collinear with the fiber axis, the vertex of the cone is on the fiber end-face, and the base of the cone faces the optical power source. Note 2: The acceptance angle is measured with respect to the fiber axis. Note 3: Rays entering an optical fiber at angles greater than the acceptance angle are coupled into unbound modes.

Sudut minimum total reflection

Minimum angle : n2 sinJmin ! n1 Maximum entrance angle : n sin U max ! n1sin U c !  n n


2 1 2 1/ 2 2

Vertec Angle
vertex angle: In an optical fiber, the angle formed by the extreme bound meridional rays accepted by the fiber, or emerging from it, equal to twice the acceptance angle; the angle formed by the largest cone of light accepted by the fiber or emitted from it. [FAA]

Acceptance Cone

acceptance cone: In fiber optics, the cone within which optical power may be coupled into the bound modes of an optical fiber. Note: The acceptance cone is derived by rotating the acceptance angle about the fiber axis.

JENIS SERAT OPTIK




Jenis ditentukan dari MODE dari gelombang cahaya yang merambat bound mode atau trapped mode.
  

Step index monomode Step index multimode Graded index multimode

Apapun modenya, Semua jenis SERAT OPTIK pasti mempunyai core dan cladding. Serat multimode mudah difabrikasi, tetapi mempunyai kelemahan menimbulkan intermodal dispersion dan intermodal distorsion.

Single Mode dan MultiMode

Single Mode
single-mode optical fiber: An optical fiber in which only the lowest order bound mode can propagate at the wavelength of interest. Note 1: The lowest order bound mode is ascertained for the wavelength of interest by solving Maxwell's equations for the boundary conditions imposed by the fiber, e.g. , core (spot) size and the refractive indices of the core and cladding. Note 2: The solution of Maxwell's equations for the lowest order bound mode will permit a pair of orthogonally polarized fields in the fiber, and this is the usual case in a communication fiber. Note 3: In step-index guides, single-mode operation occurs when the normalized frequency, V , is less than 2.405. For power-law profiles, single-mode operation occurs for a normalized frequency, V , less than approximately where g is the profile parameter. Note 4: In practice, the orthogonal polarizations may not be associated with degenerate modes. Synonyms monomode optical fiber, single-mode fiber, single-mode optical waveguide, unimode fiber.

Cutt0ff wavelength
cutoff wavelength: 1. The wavelength corresponding to the cutoff frequency. 2. In an uncabled single-mode optical fiber, the wavelength greater than which a particular waveguide mode ceases to be a bound mode. Note 1: The cutoff wavelength is usually taken to be the wavelength at which the normalized frequency is equal to 2.405. Note 2 : The cabled cutoff wavelength is usually considered to be a more functional parameter because it takes into consideration the effects of cabling the fiber.

V_number Normalize Frequency Cut-off Frequency

2Ta 2 2Ta 2 1/ 2 V! n1  n2 ! NA P P V e 2.405 p batas single mode

Dimensi single dan multimode

Multimode Fiber
multimode optical fiber: An optical fiber that supports the propagation of more than one bound mode. Note: A multimode optical fiber may be either a graded-index (GI) fiber or a step-index (SI) fiber.

Prakiraan Jumlah MODE

1 2Ta 2 V 2 M} n1  n2 ! 2 P 2

Jika core dan cladding tidak sempurna, ada daya yang masuk cladding

Pclad 4 } Pserat 3 M

3 Jenis Struktur Serat Optik

Step Index
step-index fiber: An optical fiber with a core having a uniform refractive index. Step-index profile: For an optical fiber, a refractive index profile characterized by a uniform refractive index within the core and a sharp decrease in refractive index at the core-cladding interface. Note 1: The step-index profile corresponds to a power-law index profile with the profile parameter approaching infinity. Note 2: The step-index profile is used in most single-mode fibers and some multimode fibers.

n2 ! n1 (1  () ( ! core cladding index difference $ 0.01 variasinya ? 1 - 3 persen untuk multimode dan 0.2 - 1 persen untuk mono(single) mode.

Graded index
graded-index fiber: An optical fiber with a core having a refractive index that decreases with increasing radial distance from the fiber axis. Note: The most common refractive index profile for a gradedindex fiber is very nearly parabolic. The parabolic profile results in continual refocusing of the rays in the core, and compensates for multimode distortion.

Graded Index (Contoh Profil)

11 2 ( r n a n ( r ) ! n2 2 2 n1  n2 n1  n2 (! } 2 n1 2n1
E

1/ 2

r<a r>a E=2

Profil Index Profile

Numerical Aperture
numerical aperture (NA): 1. The sine of the vertex angle of the largest cone of meridional rays that can enter or leave an optical system or element, multiplied by the refractive index of the medium in which the vertex of the cone is located. Note: The NA is generally measured with respect to an object or image point and will vary as that point is moved. 2. For an optical fiber in which the refractive index decreases monotonically from n 1 on the axis to n 2 in the cladding, an expression of the extent of the fiber's ability to accept, in its bound modes, non-normal incident rays, given by NA = (n 1 2-n 2 2). Note: In multimode fibers, the term equilibrium numerical aperture is sometimes used. This refers to the numerical aperture with respect to the extreme exit angle of a ray emerging from a fiber in which equilibrium mode distribution has been established. 3. Loosely, the sine of the radiation or acceptance angle of an optical fiber, multiplied by the refractive index of the material in contact with the exit or entrance face. Note: This usage is approximate and imprecise, but is often encountered.

Numerical Aperture

Numerical Aperture n sin U max ! n1 sin U c ! n  n


2 1

2 1/ 2 2

$ n1 2(

Core (um) 50 62.5 85 100

Clad (um) 125 125 125 140

NA 0.19-0.25 0.27-0.31 0.25-0.30 0.25-0.30

Fiber Key Parameters

Spesifikasi Step & Graded Index

Dari apakah fiber terbuat ?


 

Silicat (SiO2) yang didop Adanya penggunaan gas mulia galida untuk membentuk fiber aktif. Kemungkinan penggunaan plastik polimer untuk memperoleh fiber dengan harga murah dan mempunyai kekuatan yang lebih baik.

Material Fiber
    

Harus bisa panjang, tipis, fleksibel Harus jernih dan transparant serta mempunyai atenuasi dan distorsi minimum. Indeks refraksinya dapat diatur agar bisa dijadikan core dan fiber. Sebagian besar berbasis pasir silicat disoksida, SiO2 yang didoping dengan GeO2, P2O5, B2O3 Ada jenis Fiber Gelas Halide [Rennes] yang berbasis fluor : ZrF4, BaF2, LaF, AIF, NaF. Yang melahirkan active glass fiber. Plastic Fiber yang dikembangkan dari polymer, PCS, teflon FEP, polystirene, methil dan polimethil metacrylate dan co-polimernya.

Bagaimana fiber difabrikasi ?




Dengan cara menarik bahan yang kemudian dilakukan deposisi baik secara pengasapan (vapor) oksidasi, putaran, kimia ataupun dengan cara penarikan biasa dua bahan berbeda, pulling apparatus. Cara pulling juga dilakukan pada saat menyatukan fiber dengan penguatnya.

Fabrikasi
     

Menggunakan fiber-drawing-apparatus OVPO = outside vapor phase oxidation VPAD = vapor phase axial deposition MCVD = modified chemical vapor deposition PCVD = plasma activated chemical vapor deposition DCM = double crucible method

Fabrikasi sederhana : DCM

Microgravity pooling apparatus


Components of the Microgravity FiberPulling Apparatus include a source of glass (the preform), a sting to initiate the fiber-drawing process, a coating device, an ultraviolet curing system, and a take-up reel to place the fiber on after it has cooled.

Fabrikasi
Preform feed

 

Furnace Thickness monitoring gauge Polymer coater Ultraviolet light or furnace for curing

2000C

  

Take-up drum

Capstan

Vapor Phase Oxidation (VPO) vs Direct melt (DM) OVPO = outside vapor phase oxidation VPAD = vapor phase axial deposition MCVD = modified chemical vapor deposition PCVD = plasma activated chemical vapor deposition DM DCM = double crucible method

Schematic illustration of a fiber drawing tower.


1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)

Hasil fabrikasi di laboratorium

KABEL SERAT OPTIK

Jenis Kabel

Jenis Kabel

Bagaimana struktur serat optik ?


  

Ada core, gelas Ada cladding, gelas Dan ada pelindung (protective jacket, protective sheating, buffer, plastik atau metalik, ) Indek bias atau refractive index dari core harus lebih tinggi dari cladding (n2<n1)

Bandwidth Fiber ?
Tergantung variasi lambda di window yang dipilih, misal

! beda_lambda, meter f ! bandwidth, Hz c ! 3x108 maka : c. f! 2


meter

Penentu Jarak dan Kapasitas ?




Bandwidth disatance product dihasilkan oleh redaman dan distorsi sinyal di serat optik
    

Gelembung udara hidrocarbon Bending Coupling loss dsb. Distorsi dan hal-hal lain Dibahas minggu depan !

Micro-bending losses

Model Micro-crack


Microcrack merupakan salah satu sumber ketidak sempurnaan seratoptik

Bandwidth Distance Product


bandwidthdistance product: Of an optical fiber, under specified launching and cabling conditions, at a specified wavelength, a figure of merit equal to the product of the fiber's length and the 3-dB bandwidth of the optical signal. Note 1: The bandwidthdistance product is usually stated in megahertzkilometer (MHzkm) or gigahertzkilometer (GHzkm). Note 2: The bandwidthdistance product, which is normalized to 1 km, is a useful figure of merit for predicting the effective fiber bandwidth for other lengths, and for concatenated fibers. Synonym bandwidthlength product.

Spesifikasi

Persiapan Minggu Depan


 

Degradasi sinyal dalam fiber OPtik Redaman:


   

Intrinsic loss Impurity Loss Rayleigh Scattering Bend & Microbend Intermodal dispersion Polarization mode dispersion Waveguide dispersion Chromatic/material dispersion

Dispersion