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Processes of Curriculum Planning

Subject Topic Professor Reporter : : : : Curriculum Development Processes of Curriculum Planning and Curriculum Change Dr. Librada Abanto Mrs. Laarni C. Tan

Curriculum Study
Purposes of Curriculum Study (Anderson, 1965) 1. To meet the cultural demands
Rapidity of social change  Scientific advancement in nuclear energy and its consequences  Various kinds of professional and community groups who needs change along certain lines.


Curriculum Study
2. Solving instructional problems 3. Changing peoples ways of behaving 4. Changing Perceptions 5. Improving Students Experiences

Curriculum Making


When we talk about curriculum making we refer to the creation of interesting, engaging and challenging educational experiences which drawn upon teacher knowledge and skills, the experiences of students and the valuable subject resource.

Curriculum Making


Making a curriculum is like writing a lesson plan. It is like putting different components together in a very creative way.

Curriculum Making


Curriculum are organized according to different design models of curriculum which are:  Subject-centered design model  Subject design  Discipline design  Correlation design  Interdisciplinary design

Curriculum Making


Learner-centered design model  Child-centered design  Experience-centered design  Humanistic design

Curriculum Making

Problem-centered design Model  Life-situation design  Core design

Curriculum Making


The nature of the elements and the manner in which they are organized may comprise which we call a curriculum design.

Curriculum Making
Elements/Components of a Curriculum Design  Aims, goals and objectives  Subject matter/ content  Learning experiences  Evaluation approaches

Curriculum Making
When translated into questions, each component can be addressed by the following:  What is to be done?  What subjects are to be included?

Curriculum Making
What strategies, resources and activities will be employed?  What methods and instruments will be used to assess the results of the curriculum?


Dimensions of Curriculum Design

Scope  Sequence  Continuity  Integration  Articulation




Dimensions of Curriculum Design





Scope
All the components, topics, learning experiences and organizing threads comprising the educational plan ( Tyler, 2004) Provides boundaries in curriculum as it applies to the different educational levels

Dimensions of Curriculum Design


  

Requires decision making skills Time bound Considerations for the scope may include the time, diversity and maturity of the learners, complexity of the content, and level of education.

Dimensions of Curriculum Design




Sequence
Provide continuous and cumulative learning  A vertical relationship among all the elements of the curriculum


Dimensions of Curriculum Design


Four Principles of Sequence ( Smith, Stanley, and Shore, 1957)  Simple to complex learning
This principle is in consonance with developmental theories of learning and cognition.  From concrete to abstract, from easy to difficult.


Dimensions of Curriculum Design




Prerequisite learning


It means that there are fundamental things to be learned ahead. Giving the overview before the specific content or topics.

Whole to part learning




Dimensions of Curriculum Design




Chronological learning


The order of the events is made as a basis of sequencing the content and the experiences

Dimensions of Curriculum Design




Continuity
Provided by the vertical repetition and recurring appearances of the content  Enables the learner to strengthen the permanency of learning and development of skills


Dimensions of Curriculum Design




Is also known as spiral curriculum (Bruner) where the contents is organized according to the interrelationship between structure of the basic ideas of a major discipline

Dimensions of Curriculum Design




Ideas are to be developed and redeveloped in a spiral fashion in increasing depth and breadth as the learners advance

Dimensions of Curriculum Design




Integration


Organization is drawn from the world theme from real life concerns

Dimensions of Curriculum Design




Articulation
Vertical articulation contents are arranged from level to level so that the content in a lower level is connected to the next  Horizontal articulation association is among or between elements that happen at the same time.


Dimensions of Curriculum Design




Balance
Keeping the curriculum in balance requires continuous fine tuning and review for its effectiveness and relevance.  Equitable assignments of its elements.


Features of a Curriculum
     

Who teaches? the Teacher Who do the teachers teach? the Learners What do the teachers teach? Knowledge, Skills and Values How do teachers teach? Strategies and Methods How much of the teachers was learned? Performance With whom do we teach? Community Partners

Guidelines in Curriculum Design Making


1. Curriculum design committee should involve teachers, parents, administrators and even students. 2. School s vision, mission, goals and objectives should be reviewed and used as a bases for curriculum design.

Guidelines in Curriculum Design Making


3. The needs and interests of the learners, in particular, and the society, in general, should be considered. 4. Alternative curriculum design should consider advantages and disadvantages in terms of costs, scheduling, class size, facilities and personnel required.

Guidelines in Curriculum Design Making

5. The curriculum design should take into account cognitive, affective, psychomotor skills, concepts and outcomes.

Evaluation of Curriculum


To evaluate is to determine the value or worth of something, and worth is expressed in relation to some type of criterion. Is the process of gathering and interpreting evidence regarding the problems and the progress of individual in achieving desirable educational goals

Evaluation of Curriculum


A process where parts, processes, or outcomes of a program are examined to see whether they are satisfactory, particularly with reference to the programs stated objectives.

Evaluation of Curriculum

ENDS

EVALUATION

MEANS

Interrelationship among Ends, Means and Evaluation

Three Courses of Action Suggested by the Evaluation of Learning Outcomes

Providing feedback to students Improving instruction Accountability

The Need for Curriculum Change


Factors to bring about curriculum change


Unprecedented expansion of knowledge.  The amount of information available to the literate world doubles each fifteen years or so (Licklider, 1965)  Educators throughout the world have to confront a voluminous mass of data as they try to answer the question: Of all the knowledge in the world, what parts should be thought in which kinds of schools?

The Need for Curriculum Change


    

The emancipation of so many areas of the earth from colonial rule. Increased pace of technological expansion Rapid growth of the worlds population Competition among nation, among school systems, and among individuals Shifts in political control of a nation, province or community

The Need for Curriculum Change


Aspects of Curriculum Change
  

Cultural transmission Environmental adaptation Total personality Development

Educational Innovation
Innovation
A solution to problems which

represent a change or departure from current practice as opposed to progressive improvement within an existing framework
~ Klaus, 1969.

Innovations and Curriculum Change




In curriculum, changes and modifications are being introduced to keep pace with the changing world. With emerging theories of learning, instructional delivery and management, learning and teaching styles, modes of living and other societal changes in science and technology led educators to introduce innovations.

Kinds of Educational Innovations


Local and National Curricular Innovations  2002 Basic Education Curriculum


The BEC developed through a dynamic process. It started with a review of the existing basic education curriculum in 1997 which took into consideration worldwide trends and Philippine reality.

Kinds of Educational Innovations

It is restructured into five learning areas: English, Math, Filipino, Science and Makabayan

Kinds of Educational Innovations





Third Elementary Education program

A flagship project of the Department of education to the Social Reform Agenda initiatives of the government.  The program was focused only on the elementary level and the goals were improved learning achievement, improve completion rates, access to a quality elementary education

Kinds of Educational Innovations


Funded by World bank and Japan Bank for International Cooperation  Began in 1996 and concluded in 2005  The major educational components of the TEEP are Advocacy, In-service training for Teachers (INSET), School Improvement and Innovation Facility (SIIF), Student Assessment (SA), Educational management Information system( E-MIS) Procurement, and monitoring and evaluation.


Kinds of Educational Innovations




Secondary Education Improvement and Development Program




Its purpose ios to improve equitable access to secondary education in poverty affected areas. Curricular reforms in SEDIP revolved around improving Teaching-learning , Improving Teaching and Learning and Improving Access to Secondary Education Management

Kinds of Educational Innovations

 

It started in 2000 and ended in 2006. Initial results showed gains, and best practices have been replicated in other divisions which were not participants in the project.

Kinds of Educational Innovations


The New Teacher Education Curriculum for BEEd and BSEd


This new Teacher Education Curriculum was implemented by CMO 30, s, 2004. There are two teacher education degrees which are offered by the Teachers Training Institution (BEEd and BSEd).

Kinds of Educational Innovations

It emphasizes the interweaving of foundational, theoretical, methodological and experiences knowledge in the various learning experiences in the curriculum.

Kinds of Educational Innovations


Global Curricular Innovations  Project CHILD (Computers Helping
Instruction and Learning Development)  Project CHILD (Computers Helping Instruction and Learning Development) is a major research project designed to develop an innovative computer-integrated instructional program for the elementary school.

Kinds of Educational Innovations




Brain- based Learning  Brain-based learning is a comprehensive approach to instruction using current research from neuroscience. Brain-based education emphasizes how the brain learns naturally and is based on what we currently know about the actual structure and function of the human brain at varying developmental stages.

Kinds of Educational Innovations




Using the latest neural research, educational techniques that are brain friendly provide a biologically driven framework for creating effective instruction. This theory also helps explain recurring learning behaviours, and is a meta-concept that includes an eclectic mix of techniques. Currently, related techniques stress allowing teachers to connect learning to students' real lives and emotional experiences, as well as their personal histories and experiences.

Kinds of Educational Innovations


This form of learning also encompasses such newer educational concepts like:  mastery learning,  experiential learning,  learning styles,  multiple intelligences,  cooperative learning,  practical simulations,  experiential learning,  problem-based learning,  movement education.