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9.

Multi Carrier Modulation and OFDM

Transmission of Data Through Frequency Selective Time Varying Channels

We have seen a wireless channel is characterized by time spread and frequency spread.

Frequency Spread

S (X , F )

F
FDMAX X X RMS X MEAN X RMS
Time Spread

Single Carrier Modulation in Flat Fading Channels

if symbol duration >> time spread then there is almost no Inter Symbol Interference (ISI).
TS

channel

time

phase still recognizable Problem with this: Low Data Rate!!!

in the Frequency Domain

this corresponds to Flat Fading

channel
1 / TS

Frequency
Flat Freq. Response

Frequency

Frequency

Single Carrier Modulation in Frequency Selective Channels if symbol duration ~ time spread then there is considerable Inter Symbol Interference (ISI). channel

time

? ? phase not recognizable

One Solution: we need equalization channel equalizer

time

time

Channel and Equalizer

Problems with equalization: it might require training data (thus loss of bandwidth) if blind, it can be expensive in terms computational effort always a problem when the channel is time varying

The Multi Carrier Approach let symbol duration >> time spread so there is almost no Inter Symbol Interference (ISI); send a block of data using a number of carriers (Multi Carrier)
symbol
1

symbol
0

time
0 1

channel

time
1 0

time

Compare Single Carrier and Multi Carrier Modulation SC


Frequency Frequency
1 0 1 1

.
1

One symbol

Flat Fading Channel: Easy Demod

channel
.
0 1 0 1 1 1

MC

subcarriers

Frequency
0 1 0 1 1 1

Frequency
Each subcarrier sees a Flat Fading Channel: Easy Demod

Block of symbols

Structure of Multi Carrier Modulation


In MC modulation each MC symbol is defined on a time interval and it contains a block of data
OFDM Symbol
data

data

data

data

.
time

TSymbol

data t
Tg
guard interval

Tb
data interval

with

Tg " X MAX

MAX channel time spread

Guard Time We leave a guard time between blocks to allow multipath


Guard Time Tg
Data Block Data Block

TX

RX

Tb

.
TSymbol data+guard

the guard time is long enough, so the multipath in one block does not affect the next block
_ Tg

RX TX

NO Inter Block Interference!

MC Signal Transmitted Signal:

s (t ) ! Re e
Baseband Complex Signal:
k!
NF 2

j 2TFC t

x(t )

a
0 e t e TSymbol

FC carrier frequency

x(t ) !

ck e j 2Tk(F t
NF 2

k ! k {0

k(F ! subcarrier frequency offset

ck ! data

Orthogonal Subcarriers and OFDM

t
guard interval Tg

Tb data interval

N F (F

(F

1 Choose: (F ! Tb

FC

F
Fk ! FC  k(F
t 0 Tb

Orthogonality:
1 Tb
t0 Tb

1 j 2TFk t  j 2TFN t e e dt ! Tb t0

) j 2T ( k  N(Ft

t0

1 if k ! N dt ! 0 if k { N

Orthogonality at the Receiver


Transmitted subcarrier

e j 2TFk t
t
0
Tg  Tb

Channel (LTI)

Received subcarrier

h(t )
H ( F ) ! FT _ (t )a h

t
0
Tg
Tg  Tb

transient steady state response response

x(t ) ! ck e j 2TFk t
k

y (t ) ! ck H ( Fk )e j 2T Fk t
k

0 e t e Tg  Tb

Tg e t e Tg  Tb

still orthogonal at the receiver!!!


1 1 ck ! H ( Fk ) Tb
Tg Tb

y(t )e
Tg

 j 2TFk t

dt

OFDM symbols in discrete time Let FS be the sampling frequency; N " NF be the number of data samples in each symbol; (F ! 1 / N TS ! FS / N the subcarriers spacing Then:
NF 2 NF 2

1 x (nTS ) ! N

c e
k k ! NF 2

j 2Tk (F ( n  L ) F
s

1 ! N

c e
k k ! NF 2

T jk 2N ( n  L )

n ! 0,.., L  N  1

with

Tg ! L v TS the guard time.

Summary OFDM Symbol


# samples # subcarriers
guard

data

N " NF

TIME:
0 Tg

Tb

Sampling Interval TS ! 1 / FS

Freq spacing (F ! FS / N

FREQUENCY:

 FS / 2
 N F FS 2 N

N F FS 2 N

FS / 2

OFDM Symbol and FFT


1 x[n  L] ! N 1 ! N 1 ! N
NF 2

c e
k k ! NF 2

NF 2

T jk 2N n

c e
k k !1 N 1 k !0

T jk 2N n

1  N

c e
k k ! NF 2

1

T j ( N  k ) 2N n

X [k ]e

T jk 2N n

!IFFT _X [k ]a

Where:
X [ k ] ! ck , X [ N  k ] ! ck , X [ k ] ! 0, k ! 1,..., N F / 2 k ! 1,..., N F / 2 otherwise
positive subcarriers negative subcarriers unused subcarriers

Guard Time with Cyclic Prefix (CP)

x[ L],..., x[ L  N  1] ! IFFT _X [k ], k ! 0,..., N  1a


0

L  N 1

CP
  

IFFT{ X }
 

CP from the periodicity

x[0] ! x[ N ]

x[n] ! x[ N  n]

x[1] ! x[ N  1]
... x[ L  1] ! x[ L  N  1]

OFDM Demodulator
See each block:

y[n]
0

L 1

n L  N 1
No Inter Block Interference

y[ n  L] ! h[ n]* x[ n  L] 1 ! h[n]* N 1 ! N
N 1 k !0

X [k ]e
k !0 j

N 1

2T kn N

H [k ] X [k ]e

2T kn N

! IFFT _H [k ] X [k ]a

H [k ] X [k ] ! FFT _y[ L],..., y[ L  N  1]a


with

H [k ] ! FFT _h[0],..., h[ L  1], 0,..., 0a k ! 0,..., N  1

Overall Structure of OFDM Comms System

X [0] X [1] X ! / X [ N  1]
N

IFFT

+CP

P/S
N L
N L

h[n]

H [ 0] X [ 0] H [1] X [1] W Y ! / H [ N  1] X [ N  1]

w[n]

FFT
N N

-CP

S/P
N L N L

Simple One Gain Equalization To recover the transmitted signal you need a very simple one gain equalization:
received transm. noise

Y [ k ] ! H [k ] X [k ]  W [k ]
channel

Use simple Wiener Filter:


X [k ] ! H *[k ] H [k ]  W
2 2 W

Y [k ]

OFDM as Parallel Flat Fading Channels Significance: a Freq. Selective Channel becomes N Flat Fading Channels
h(t )
X m [0] / / X m [ N  1]
OFDM Mod

x(t )

w(t ) y (t )

OFDM Demod

Ym [0] / Ym [ N  1]

Frequency Selective channel

N Flat Fading Channels

Wm [0]
X m [0]
H [ 0]

Ym [0]

/
X m [ N  1]

/
H [ N  1]

Wm [ N  1]

Ym [ N  1]

OFDM Parameters Summarize basic OFDM Parameters: FS sampling rate in Hz

N length of Data Field in number of samples L length of Cyclic Prefix in number of samples total number of Data Subcarriers
guard

NF e N

guard

guard

data
t / TS

data
0

F / FS

N
time

NF / N
frequency

IEEE 802.11a: Frequency Bands: 5.150-5.350 GHz and 5.725-5.825 GHz (12 channels) Modulation OFDM Range: 100m IEEE 802.11g Frequency Bands: 2.412-2.472GHz Modulation: OFDM Range: 300m

Channel Parameters: FCC Example: the Unlicensed Band 5GHz U-NII (Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure) 8 channels in the range 5.15-5.35GHz
30MHz

20MHz

30MHz

.
5150 5180 5200 5300 5320 5350

F (MHz )

FC

4 channels in the range 5.725-5.825GHz

Channel Parameters: Example IEEE802.11

In terms of a Transmitter Spectrum Mask (Sec. 17.3.9.2 in IEEE Std 802.11a-1999)


0dB
Typical Signal Spectrum

20dB 28dB 40dB

30

20

11 9

FC Typical BW~16 MHz

9 11

20

30

F (MHz )

In either case:

FS ! 20 MHz Sampling frequency N ! 64 L ! 16


FFT size Cyclic Prefix

CP
N ! 16

DATA
N ! 64

Tb ! 64 / 20 ! 3.2 Q sec

Tg ! 16 / 20 ! 0.8Q sec

Sub-carriers: (48 data + 4 pilots) + (12 nulls) = 64

NULL

c1 c26
N F ! 52
NULL

0 1

x0

/ /

26

c 26 c1
Frequency
Pilots at: -21, -7, 7, 21

38

/
63

/ / / /
63

N ! 64

x63
Time

IFFT

Frequencies:
(F ! 20 MHz / 64 ! 312.5kHz


64  26


63 1

38

26
8.125

Subcarriers index

8.125

F ( MHz )

16.25MHz
DATA
F (MHz )
FCARRIER  10

FCARRIER
20MHz ! 1 / Ts

FCARRIER  10

Time Block:

Ts ! TFFT / 64 ! 50 v 10 9 sec

time
TG ! 0.8Q sec
TFFT ! 3.2Q sec

TFRAME ! 4.0Q sec

Overall Implementation (IEEE 802.11a with 16QAM). 1. Map encoded data into blocks of 192 bits and 48 symbols: data
Encode Buffer Interleave (192 bits) 010011010101 1110 0111 1000 1101 Map to 16QAM

a"
+1+j3 -1+j +3-j3 +1-j

48

48

4
4x48=192 bits

Overall Implementation (IEEE 802.11a with 16QAM). 2. Map each block of 48 symbols into 64 samples time domain frequency domain xm [0] null 0 0
+1+j3 -3-j +3-j3 +1-j

24 data 2 pilots

/
null

1 2

xm [1]

26 27  26  64

 27  64

24 data 2 pilots

//
62 63

 1 64

xm [62] xm [63]

am [ " ]
" ! 1: 48

X m [k ]

IFFT

xm [ n ]
n ! 0 : 63

k ! 0 : 63

.
 26 1 1

.
26

Channel Parameters: Physical

Frequency Spread

S (X , F )
F
FDMAX kHz X
Time Spread

X MAX } 1  10 Q sec outdoor X MAX } 10  50 n sec indoor


Constraints on OFDM Symbol Duration:

X MAX
10 6 sec

Tg

Tb

1/ FDMAX
10 3 sec roughly!!!

to minimize CP overhead

for channel Time Invariant

Summary of OFDM and Channel Parameters Channel: 1. Max Time Spread 2. Doppler Spread 3. Bandwidth 4. Channel Spacing OFDM (design parameters): 1. Sampling Frequency 2. Cyclic Prefix 3. FFT size (power of 2) 4. Number of Carriers
FS L u X MAX FS 4L e N integer FS / FDMAX integer X MAX sec FDMAX Hz BW Hz FS Hz

N F ! ?N v BW / FS A integer

Example: IEEE802.11a Channel: 1. Max Time Spread 2. Doppler Spread 3. Bandwidth 4. Channel Spacing
X MAX ! 0.5 Q sec FDMAX ! 50 Hz BW ! 16 MHz FS ! 20 MHz

OFDM (design parameters): 1. Sampling Frequency 2. Cyclic Prefix 3. FFT size (power of 2) 4. Number of Carriers
FS ! 20 MHz L ! 16 " 0.5 v 20 ! 10 N ! 64 20 v106 / 50 integer

N F ! 52 ! ?64 v16 / 20A integer

Applications: various Area Networks


According to the applications, we define three Area Networks: Personal Area Network (PAN), for communications within a few meters. This is the typical Bluetooth or Zigbee application between between personal devices such as your cell phone, desktop, earpiece and so on; Local Area Network (LAN), for communications up 300 meters. Access points at the airport, coffee shops, wireless networking at home. Typical standard is IEEE802.11 (WiFi) or HyperLan in Europe. It is implemented by access points, but it does not support mobility; Wide Area Network (WAN), for cellular communications, implemented by towers. Mobility is fully supported, so you can move from one cell to the next without interruption. Currently it is implemented by Spread Spectrum Technology via CDMA, CDMA-2000, TD-SCDMA, EDGE and so on. The current technology, 3G, supports voice and data on separate networks. For (not so) future developments, 4G technology will be supporting both data and voice on the same network and the standard IEEE802.16 (WiMax) seems to be very likely

More Applications
1. WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) standards and WiFi. In particular: IEEE 802.11a in Europe and North America HiperLAN /2 (High Performance LAN type 2) in Europe and North America MMAC (Mobile Multimedia Access Communication) in Japan 2. WMAN (Wireless Metropolitan Network) and WiMax IEEE 802.16 3. Digital Broadcasting Digital Audio and Video Broadcasting (DAB, DVB) in Europe 4. Ultra Wide Band (UWB) Modulation a very large bandwidth for a very short time. 5. Proposed for IEEE 802.20 (to come) for high mobility communications (cars, trains )