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UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA

TARIKH : 4 OGOS, 2007 TEMPAT : FSKTM, UPM TAJUK : PENULISAN DAN PENERBITAN PENCERAMAH : MUSTAFA MAT DERIS
EMAIL FTMM,UTHM. : mmustafa@uthm.edu.my
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ITENARARY
9.00 10.00 10.15 10.00 : Abstract & Introduction 10.15 : Rehat 11.15 : Related Works & Methodology

11.15 -11.30 : Rehat 11.30 12.30 Bersurai 12.30 : Results & Conclusion 1.00 : Q & A

OBJEKTIF
Di akhir Bengkel, peserta akan dapat

Memahami struktur penulisan makalah yang standard Memahami komponen penting dalam setiap bahagian Mengaplikasi dalam penulisan makalah sebenar

MOTIVATION PUBLISH THE OUTCOMES


career progression moving up to the next rung on the ladder

gaining recognition for work you have done setting yourself a new challenge helping your students to gain recognition for their work learning how to write to a higher standard contributing to knowledge Building your institution s status developing a profile

CIRICIRI-CIRI PENERBITAN BERMUTU

(Journal)
Journal Selection Criteria (Information Science Institute, ISI). The evaluation process consists of evaluation of many criteria such as, Basic Journal Publishing Standards (including Timeliness of publication, adherence to International Editorial Conventions, English Language Bibliographic Information (including English article titles, keywords, author abstracts, and cited references.) ISI also examines the journal's Editorial Content, the International Diversity of it authors and editors. Citation Analysis using ISI data is applied to determine the journal's citation history and/or the citation history of its authors and editors.
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Susunan abstract/index
Outstanding Index/Abstract (Engineering, Science & Technology) Science Citation Index (SCI, SCI Expanded) CompuMaths Citation Index Current Contents (Engineering, Computing, Technology) Cambridge Scientific Abstracts Computer Abstracts UK, CompuSci Mathematics Review USA Mathematics Abstracts Germany DBLP Bibliography INSPEC Scopus

503 journals indexed by SCI or SCI Expanded

Top 10 Impact Factor (IF) evaluated by ISI 2007


1 Int. Journal Computer Vision ACM Trans. Information Sys
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0920-5691 1046-8188 1367-4803 0276-7783 0162-8828 0360-0300 0730-0301

6.085 5.059 4.894 4.731 4.306 4.130 4.081 4.062

Bioinformatics MIS Quarterly IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis ACM Computing Survey ACM Trans. Graphics VLDB Journal Journal Am. Med. Inform. Assn. IEEE Trans. Evolut. Computing IEEE Trans. Know. & Data Eng.

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 N=

1067-5027 1089-778X

3.979 3.770 2.18?


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OTHERS, IF 2006
1 2
3

Information Systems Data and Knowledge Engineering

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 n

Future Generation Computer Systems

0.722

Information Processing Letters ACM PODS. IJCM, Taylor&Francis IEICE, Information Systems

0.5? 0.53 0.428 0.28


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ISSUES

no research less/no publication less/no writing

manuscript below standard don t know how to write sub-standard substance

The Basics of Good Writing

So you're going to sit down at your computer, go through your notes, and in a few hours produce a piece of research writing. Right? Wrong! It is impossible to start from nothing and produce a good piece of writing, because it is very hard to organize your material and write at the same time. If you are working out which piece of research to talk about next and worrying about verb agreement, you are less likely to produce a good piece of writing

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The Basics of Good Writing


Here are some suggestions:

Plan your writing. Before you start writing, find a way to organize your material so that you know what you are going to write about, in what order, and what you're going to say. Try writing an outline. Trying writing your ideas down on the back of an envelope, or a piece of old paper. It doesn't have to be beautiful, it just has to help you think about what you are going to say. Use whatever method works for you, no matter how strange! Ignore the language! When you plan your writing, don't worry about the language. Concentrate on what you are going to say. Write in notes so that you don't have to think about verb agreement. Don't waste time worrying about spelling. You can think about all these aspects of writing after you've decided what you are going to say. If you spend a lot of time fixing all the prepositions and conjunctions in an early draft you are not going to be willing to cut out paragraphs or sentences that you later realize aren't necessary, or to change them substantially. So don't put a lot of effort into proofreading until you are sure that what you want to say is the best you can come up with, then you can spend more time on fixing up the writing so that the punctuation, spelling, etc. is correct.
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The Basics of Good Writing

Write and rewrite! More experienced writers rewrite more times and more substantially than less experienced writers. Are you surprised? Good writing takes time for everyone. The better a writer you become, the more you will see that the first thoughts/ideas/writing that comes out of your head and onto the page can be improved. So give yourself time to rewrite so that your readers see the best of your thoughts and writing, not the best you could come up with at the last moment. Find readers! ask people to read what you've written. Ask friends, ask professors, ask your writing advisor in languages. But don't wait until your writing is "perfect" because then if people suggest changes you won't want to make them! Give people drafts and let them know what sort of feedback you want: comments on organization? on ideas? on your language? on the technical aspects of what you've written? Keep writing! Good writing takes practice. The only person who can make you a better writer is you. So work at it, show your work to other people, and rewrite, rewrite, rewrite.
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WRITING FORMAT

A COMMON FORMAT IN WRITING COMPRISES OF: Abstract Introduction Related Work / Literature Review Material & Methodology Results Discussion Conclusion Acknowledgement References
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ABSTRACT

An abstract should briefly: Re-establish the topic of the research. Give the research problem and/or main objective of the research (this usually comes first). Indicate the methodology used. Present the main findings. Present the main conclusions

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ABSTRACT

The Body of the Abstract The abstract is a very brief overview of your ENTIRE study. It tells the reader WHAT you did, WHY you did it, HOW you did it, WHAT you found, and WHAT it means. Briefly state the purpose of the research (introduction), how the problem was studied/solved (methods), the principal findings (results), and what the findings mean (discussion and conclusion). It is important to be descriptive but concise--say only what is essential, using no more words than necessary to convey meaning.
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Common Problems

Too long. If your abstract is too long, it may be rejected - abstracts are entered on databases, and those is usually a specified maximum number of words. Too much detail. Abstracts that are too long often have unnecessary details. The abstract is not the place for detailed explanations of methodology or for details about the context of your research problem. Too short. Shorter is not necessarily better. If your word limit is 200 but you only write 95 words, you probably have not written in sufficient detail. Many writers do not give sufficient information about their findings. Failure to include important information. You need to be careful to cover the points listed above. Often people do not cover all of them because they spend too long explaining, for example, the methodology and then do not have enough space to present their conclusion.
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TITLE

The title should convey to the objective/purpose of the paper. The nicer the better. Example: A Support-Ordered Trie for Fast Frequent Itemset Discovery

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ABSTRACT Model 1
The importance of data mining is apparent with the advent of powerful data collection and storage tools; raw data is so abundant that manual analysis is no longer possible. Unfortunately, data mining problems are difficult to solve and this prompted the introduction of several novel data structures to improve mining efficiency. Here, we will, critically examine existing preprocessing data structures used in association rule mining for enhancing performance in an attempt to understand their strength and weaknesses. Our analysis culminate in a practical structure called the SOTrieT (Support-Ordered Trie Itemset) and two synergistic algorithms to accompany it for the fast discovery of frequent itemsets. Experiments involving a wide range of synthetic data sets reveal that its algorithms outperform FP-growth, a recent association rule mining algorithm with excellent performance, by up to two orders of magnitude and, thus, verifying its efficiency and viability.
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ABSTRACT Model 2
The importance of data mining is apparent with the advent of powerful data collection and storage tools [WHY]. Unfortunately, data mining problems are difficult to discover the frequent itemsets due to computationally-intensive process [WHY/WHAT]. This paper will propose a model called SOTrieT (Support-Ordered Trie Itemset) and two synergistic algorithms accompany it for the fast discovery of frequent itemsets [HOW]. Experiments involving a wide range of synthetic data sets reveal that its algorithms outperform FP-growth, a recent association rule mining algorithm with excellent performance, by up to two orders of magnitude and, thus, verifying its efficiency and viability.[WHAT YOU FOUND]

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INTRODUCTION

The introduction comes at the start of a piece of writing. It introduces the research by situating it (by giving background), presenting the research problem and saying how and why this problem will be "solved." Without this important information the reader cannot easily understand the more detailed information about the research that comes later in the paper. It also explains why the research is being done (rationale) which is crucial for the reader to understand the significance of the study.
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PURPOSE OF THE INTRODUCTION?

What is the context of this problem? In what situation or environment can this problem be observed? (Background) Why is this research important? Who will benefit? Why do we need to know this? Why does this situation, method, model or piece of equipment need to be improved? (Rationale/justification) What is it we don t know? What is the gap in our knowledge this research will fill? What needs to be improved? (Problem Statement) What steps will the researcher take to try and fill this gap or improve the situation? (Objectives) Is there any aspect of the problem the researcher will not discuss? Is the study limited to a specific geographical area or to only certain aspects of the situation? (Scope)

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INTRODUCTION COMMON PROBLEMS

Too much detail, and hence too long. Remember, this is the introduction, a kind of overview. Although you will cover important points, detailed descriptions of method, study site and results will be in later sections. Look at the proportion of a research paper an introduction takes up. Notice it is comparatively short because it serves as a summary of what follows.

Repetition of words, phrases or ideas. You will have keywords that are crucial to your study. However, your reader doesn't want to read them over and over! A high level of repetition makes your writing look careless. To reduce it, highlight repeated words or phrases - then you can easily judge if you are overusing them and find synonyms or pronouns to replace them.

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COMMON PROBLEMS
Unclear problem definition. Without a clear definition of your research problem, your reader is left with no clear idea of what you were studying. This means that they cannot judge your work's relevance to their own work, or its usefulness, quality, etc. As an exercise, you should be able to complete a sentence that starts, "The purpose of this study is . . . " that encapsulates the problem you are investigating. Of course you will not include this exact sentence in your paper, but it serves as an easy way to check that you have a clearly defined problem. In your paper you should be able to write your research problem in one sentence - you can add details in the sentences that follow. You should also ensure that your research problem matches the title of your paper (you'd be surprised how many don't !) as well as its methodology and objectives. Poor organization. Writing an introduction that effectively introduces your research problem and encapsulates your study is not an easy task. Often when we write we discover gradually what we want to say and how we want to say it. Writing is often a process of discovery. Bear this in mind when you write your introduction, and be prepared to go back and make big changes to what you have written, and the order in which you have presented your ideas and information. Your introduction must have a logical sequence that your reader can follow easily.
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A SCHEMA FOR INTRODUCTIONS

Establish the Field

centrality, general to specific, previous research gap, questions, previous inquiry

Define a research problem Propose a Solution

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FIELD

First you need to establish the area of research in which your work belongs, and to provide a context for the research problem. This has three main elements: Claiming centrality: Claiming that the area of research is an important one, and therefore implying that the research done is also crucial. For example: although computing power has increased tremendously over the years, efficient algorithms with customized data structures are still necessary to obtain timely results. B. Cui et. al. July 2004, IEEE Trans. On Knowledge and Data Engineering Here the words " efficient algorithms with customized data structures " indicates centrality by showing that this factor is crucial.

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FIELD

General to specific: Most writing starts with general information and then moves to specific information. This is true of introductions too. General

Specific
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FIELD

General to specific: For example:

This prompted keen interest in automated data analysis tools, that in turn, catapulted the rise of data mining. However, data mining process with the current data structure having a computationally-intensive process i.e. NP-complete. We focus on Association Rule Mining (ARM) because of its immense popularity and usefulness in a wide variety of situations such as e-commerce, classification, clustering, webmining, and bioinformatics. Several data structures have been proposed for the enhancement of ARM, but none is able to cope effectively with the size and dynamism of current database.
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FIELD
Explaination

The first sentence: This prompted keen interest in automated data analysis tools, that in turn, catapulted the rise of data mining. (general). The second sentence: However, data mining process with the current data structure having a computationally-intensive process i.e. NP-complete. (less general). The third sentence: We focus on Association Rule Mining (ARM) because of its immense popularity and usefulness in a wide variety of situations (more specific). The fourth sentence: Several data structures have been proposed for the enhancement of ARM, but none is able to cope effectively with the size and dynamism of current database. (yet more specific).

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FIELD

Previous research: Often the introduction will refer to work already done in the research area in order to provide background (and often also to help define the research problem). For example:

Several data structures have been proposed for the enhancement of the ARM, but none is able to cope effectively with the size and dynamism of current databases [9-14].

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DEFINE RESEARCH PROBLEM

PROBLEM Your research must be new in some way. It must add knowledge to your field so you need to show in what way your work explores an area/issue/question that has previously not been explored, or not been explored in detail, in not explored in the way that you are going to use. In other words, you need to give a rationale for your work (i.e. show the reasons for doing it). There are four ways to demonstrate that you are adding to the knowledge in your field:

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DEFINE RESEARCH PROBLEM

Gap: A research gap is an area where no or little research has been carried out. This is shown by outlining the work already done to show where there is a gap in the research (which you will then fill with your research). For example:

The structures that had been proposed for mining the data were not able to cope effectively with the size and dynamism of current databases.

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DEFINE RESEARCH PROBLEM

Raising a question: The research problem is defined by asking a question to which the answer is unknown, and which you will explore in your research. For example: The question we address here is how technological change occurs when it is the overall system that needs to be changed. In particular, how can we begin and sustain a technological transition away from hydrocarbon based technologies? (Street and Miles, 1996)

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DEFINE RESEARCH PROBLEM

Continuing a previously developed line of enquiry: Building on work already done, but taking it further (by using a new sample, extending the area studied, taking more factors into consideration, taking fewer factors into consideration, etc.). For example:

Taking all these elements and their possible variations into account is often far too complex and tedious for determining efficient gas development patterns with simple back of the envelope calculations. In their survey of these elements, Julius and Mashayeki [8] present a detailed analysis of these different interactions. They suggest that these be taken into account through gas planning models constructed in the same spirit as the planning models developed in the power generation sector. In this paper, we present a gas planning model that fulfils some of the specifications established in Julius and Mashayeki [8]. (Boucher and Smeers, 1996)

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DEFINE RESEARCH PROBLEM

Counter-claiming: A conflicting claim, theory or method is put forward. Here, for example, the researchers argue that previous researchers' assessments of cost effectiveness/methodology were too complex, and that a simplified process could and should be used instead:

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PROPOSE A SOLUTION

SOLUTION Once the field and problem have been defined, it is time to give the "solution." In other words, how will the research gap be filled? How will the question that was raised be answered? This last part of the introduction can also be used to show the benefits, to explain the objectives, to clarify the scope of the research, to announce what was found from doing the research and how it can be used. Notice that an introduction will discuss a number of the following points but is unlikely to cover them all.

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PROPOSE A SOLUTION

Outlining purpose: Often researchers will described their objectives in their introduction in order for the reader to have a clear idea of what they set out to accomplish. Usually there is a general objective written in one sentence (details of more specific objectives can be given in following sentences). For example: This work aims to establish the extent of interaction of alginate with calcium and aluminium ions with respect to the influence of algal exudates have on the removal of humic substances by aluminium coagulation during drinking water treatment. (Gregor et al., 1996)

Hint!: always give an overall objective before giving specific objectives. This will help you explain much more clearly to your reader what your work aimed to accomplish.

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PROPOSE A SOLUTION

Announcing present research (method): Important points about the methodology used are outlined, perhaps including the scope of the study. However, the methodology is not given in detail (since details are given in the methodology section). For example: In this paper, we focus on ARM ..Here, we shall critically examine existing preprocessing data structures in ARM for enhancing performance in an attempt to understand the strengths and weaknesses. Our analysis culminate in a practical structure called Support-Ordered Trie Itemset (SOTrieIT) and two synergetic AR mining algorithms to accompany it. Experiments involving a wide range of synthetic data sets reveal that the algorithm outperform FP-growth, a recent ARM algorithm by up to two orders of magnitude .. B. Cui et. al. IEEE Trans. On Knowledge and Data Engineering, pp 875879, July 2004.

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PROPOSE A SOLUTION

Example:

This paper proposes a new model called Support-Ordered Trie Itemset (SOTrieIT) with synergistic ARM algorithms to improve the performance process.

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PROPOSE A SOLUTION

Announcing principle findings (results): Researchers may indicate the kind of results they obtained, or an overall summary of their findings. For example: Different operating modes of the MESFET mixers, gate mixers, drain mixers, and resistive mixers were investigated in this work and the results proved that good conversion characteristics could be achieved.(Angelov, 1991)

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PROPOSE A SOLUTION

Example:

It reveals that the performance of the model increases up to two orders of magnitude and, thus, verifying its efficiency and viability.

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PROPOSE A SOLUTION

Indicating the structure of the research: It is useful to outline the organization of the written up research that follows so that the reader has a clear idea of what is going to follow, and in what order. In other words, Paper Organization For example: The rest of the paper is organized as follows: The next section describes the problem of mining ARs. Section 3 reviews the ARM algorithms that utilize data structures, while section 4 introduces our enhanced data structures and algorithms. The performance of our approach is evaluated in section 5, and finally, the papers is concluded in section 6.
B. Cui et. al. IEEE Trans. On Knowledge and Data Engineering, pp 875879, July 2004.
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PROPOSE A SOLUTION

Indicating directions for further research: Research often opens up other areas where research could or should be done, so it is common for these areas to be defined in the introduction. It is also a way of indicating that the current study is not designed to be comprehensive.

This paper takes a first step in this direction by laying out the rationale for incorporating feedback and feedforward mechanisms in decision support for dynamic tasks such as software project management (Sengupta and Abdel-Hamid, 1993).

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PROPOSE A SOLUTION

Indicating benefits of current research: Indicating the benefits of the research helps to justify why it was carried out and emphasizes the value of the study. For example:

..because of its immense popularity and usefulness in a wide variety of situations such as e-commence, classification, clustering, web mining, and bio-informatics.

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PROPOSE A SOLUTION

Notice that the introduction includes information that is presented in other parts of the paper. Does this mean that if you indicate your results in your Introduction that you will have nothing left to present in your Results chapter? No! Introductions literally "introduce" information to give an overview, often offering only a short summary because full details are given in later chapters.

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