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CCN

Charging Control Node a Complete Reference Book By Sheheryar Obaid

Sheheryar Obaid

Scope and Expectations


y

Scope of the presentation is


To give a complete overview of CCN To focus on the O & M concepts and techniques of CCN To present the topics so that they could be used as a reference and guide Topics are divided into chapters with well defined objectives

Expectation from you are


To be interactive and engage in discussions Ask question as much as you want Give compliments at the end of the show to improve the quality of future presentations Expect you to further explore the things taught in the presentation and share the knowledge
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Contents
y

Ericsson Architecture
The Architecture of Ericsson Charging System 5 Brief intro of different Entities and their functions

CCN Introduction
Introduction to TSP and NSP Explanation of CCF Interfaces and Protocols (CIP) Traffic Cases

CCN O&M
Complete O&M of Ericsson CCN Including Fault, Performance and SS7 Management, B&R and Statistics
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A brief introduction of CS 5.0

CHARGING SYSTEM 5.0 ARCHITECTURE

Sheheryar Obaid

OBJECTIVES
After this chapter we will be able to

Name all the Network Entities in CS 5 Environment y Describe each node and its functionality in a CS 5 Environment y Identify the connectivity of each NE in a CS 5 environment
y

Sheheryar Obaid

CS5.0
y y y

CS5.0 is the latest charging system offered by Ericsson


x Serving more than 850 million users and 160 service providers

CS5.0 has a decoupled/modular/distributed architecture


x Separates traffic plane from administration plane

Every function of an IN Network has been assigned a separate node


x x x x x SDP ---- SDP SEP ----- SDP SCP ---- CCN SMP ---- MINSAT IP ---- IVR

The ultimate goal of CS is to provide convergent charging


x Charging of every service in one single system

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Architecture of CS5

Figure showing all the NEs of CS5

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Brief Intro of NEs


Network Element CCN VXML/IVR SDP MINSAT CRS AIR-AF Description Maintains charging session with the core network and SDP Standalone IVR, announcements and handling of IVR traffic towards AIR Subscriber Database, Rating, USSD and SMS notifications Mobile IN Subscriber Administration Tool Storage of CDRs, generation of reports Interface for 3PPs to perform refills, adjustments or enquiries on account balance AF locates SDP (DNS) Vouchers administration and authentication
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VS

Introduction to the heart, mind and soul of CCN

CCN INTRODUCTION

Sheheryar Obaid

OBJECTIVES
After this chapter we will be able to

Explain what CCN is, its functions and services Describe the architecture and interfaces of CCN Explain what is TSP and its characteristics Describe TelORB and its role Describe what CCF is and its function Describe NSP and different types of processors Describe what is CIP and perform CAP to CIP conversion y Describe different Traffic scenarios
y y y y y y y
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Introduction to CCN
y

CCN is an interface of Ericsson Charging System 5.0 towards core network


Can Handle all kinds of SS7 incoming requests MOC, MTC, SMS, DATA, Diameter, ERTC

Primary function of CCN is to facilitate real time charging and convert all the incoming protocols to CIP for SDP
CCN does not maintain user accounts nor does it perform RTC

CCN works as a relay towards SDP


Barring lists, Normalizing Numbers, Converting Parameters, Finding right SDP
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What is CCN
CCN is a charging application built on Telecom Server Platform implemented on Dicos OS y Primarily it works as a relay towards SDP (as SDP only understands CIP) y Different protocols terminate at CCN and it works as a protocol converter and packet forwarder to SDP
y

CAP, MAP, SCAP, RTC, Diameter etc


y

CCN consists of two main parts TSP platform and CCF application
TSP and CCF are explained in the following slides

Hardware of CCN is called NSP


Explained in the following slides
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CCF & TSP Architecture

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Telecom service platform (TSP)


y

TSP is a generic telecom grade platform on which we can deploy many applications
e.g HLR,AC,IN,CCN etc

TSP offers a combination of scalability, availability and real time characteristics y Ericsson CCN is also built upon TSP y TSP provides the following advantages
y

Support of Software upgrades during operation Support for geographical redundancy Real-Time Operation: transmission takes place with minimal and controlled delay
y

There are two ways to connect to TSP via CLI(ssh) and GUI (http)
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TSP Architecture Explained


y y

TSP Hardware used by Ericsson is called NSP


Currently deployed iteration of TSP and NSP is 6

TSP cluster ware used is called TelORB


TelORB is the heart of TSP when it comes to traffic and subscriber data management

TSP utilizes Linux and Dicos operating systems


A striped down version of Linux for O&M, FS & I/O processors Dicos for real time mission critical tasks (TPs)

External communications represent all the external connections to TSP


External communications include SS7 and Ethernet connections
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NSP
y

NSP is the hardware used by Ericsson for TSP


Current iteration of NSP used by Ericsson is NSP 6

Difference between NSP and TSP is that NSP is a hardware release while TSP is a software release
We can upgrade to TSP6 on NSP 5 hardware

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NSP 6.0

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NSP 6.0 Hardware Description


y y

NSP hardware consists of magazines and processors


Processors are affixed in magazines

There are three magazines in one NSP 6.0 cabinet


First magazine is standard only the rest can be loaded with different processors

First and Last slot of every magazine is reserved for MXB plugin unit y The main roles of different processors are
y

Traffic Processor : used for the processing of application Loader : dedicatedly used for cluster management Node Management : Linux processors to provide O&M interface I/O : used for initial loading, backups, dumping and upgrade File Server : used for storing application data
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Different type of processors


y

MXB has the following functions


Power distribution Interconnection of magazines Backplane buses to connect the processors

y y

There are following three types of processors: GEP2


Can be used as Loader, Traffic Processor and Node manager Software installed on these processors determines their purpose

GEP2 SAS
Can be used as an I/O and File Server processor These boards can be used to extend the HDD capacity Please note that I/O and FS are not part of the cluster

GEP2 E1/T1
This is used as a connectivity processor for Sigtran and E1 connectivity

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CCF Architecture Explained


CCF software contains services and functions specific to CCN y CCF application includes the following
y

Access Services Functions


y

Access contains the CCF specific access methods in CCN


Request Termination Transfer

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CCF - Access
y

Request methods in CCN are


CIP charging interrogation protocol AFP account finder protocol MAP mobile application part

Termination methods in CCN are


ERTC CAP SCAP Gy

Transfer method in CCN is


FTP
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CCF - Services
y

Services offered by CCN are


Online charging of Voice Online charging of GPRS Online charging of SMS Online charging of Content Online charging of Event Online charging of Diameter

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CCFCCF- Functions
y

Functions provided by CCF are


Protocol conversion blacklist/whitelist MNP Bonus on incoming calls Number Normalization SDP lookup ATI (location lookup) CDR Generation Call control Charging Suppression Pre-Call Replenishment
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Interfaces and protocols

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Interfaces explained
y y y y y y y y y

CAP v1 for charging of voice calls CAP v3 for charging of GPRS and SMS MAP protocol for HLR and FNR ERTC protocol for Ericsson MSC CIP/IP protocol for SDP SSH for connectivity with client PCs Gy interface for connectivity with GGSN FTP to transfer CDRs to EMM HTTP/LDAP for configuration via RMA
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CIP
y

CIP is a new charging interrogation protocol that uses IP instead of SS7 and is based on diameter application The three messages of CIP are
First Interrogation
x RET,RET result operation at the start of call

Intermediate Interrogation
x RET,RET result operation during the call

Final Interrogation
x RET, RET result operation at the end of call
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CAP

CIP

IDP

First Interrogation
RET, RET Result

ACR

Intermediate Interrogation
RET, RET Result

Last ACR

Final Interrogation
RET,RET Result

From CAP to CIP


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CAP

CIP

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Traffic Cases
y

The following traffic cases will be discussed


Voice Call SMS MNP

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Voice Call

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Voice Call
1. 2. 3. 4.

5.

6. 7.

A call is initiated from a charging system subscriber.The OCSI of the subscriber in the VLR, routes the call to the SSF. The SSF collects data about the call and triggers CCN. CCN performs a SDP selection and sends the data, collected in step 2, in a first interrogation to SDP. SDP reserves money from the account and sends the calculated call time to CCN, together with other call data such as announcements to be played. CCN tells the SSF to play announcements if this has been requested by SDP. Further on, CCN tells the SSF to setup the call and to supervise it based on the call time calculated by SDP. The call lasts longer than the call time sent to the SSF, so a notification is sent to CCN. CCN requests SDP to make another reservation from the account with an intermediate interrogation.

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Voice Call (Contd) (Contd)


8. 9.

SDP makes a new charging analysis and deducts the amount previously reserved from the account. In this example it is assumed that there is still sufficient funds left on the subscribers account. SDP then reserves money for the next period and forwards a new call time to CCN. CCN passes the new call time on to the SSF.
1. Note: Step 69 can be repeated several times. In this example, steps 1017 describes what happens when the subscriber's account balance reaches the account empty limit.

10. 11. 12.

The call lasts longer than the call time sent to the SSF and a notification is sent to CCN. CCN requests SDP to make another reservation from the account with an intermediate interrogation. SDP makes a new charging analysis and updates the account.The charging analysis shows that there is not enough money on the account to cover the requested period. SDP sends the calculated call time to CCN together with an indication that there is no money left on the account and that a call cutoff warning announcement is to be played. The time between the warning announcement and call cutoff can be configured. For this example 30 seconds is used.

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Voice Call (Contd) (Contd)


13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

CCN uses the 30 seconds indication from SDP and the time between call cutoff warning and call cutoff is excluded from the new call time. CCN then passes the new call time on to the SSF. The SSF notifies CCN that the time sent down in step 13 has expired. CCN sends the remaining 30 seconds and tells the SSF to play the call cutoff warning announcement. The SSF notifies CCN that the final 30 seconds has expired. CCN tells the SSF to play the call cutoff announcement and to disconnect the call. The SSF notifies CCN of the call disconnection. A final report is sent from CCN to SDP. SDP performs final charging of the call. SDP rates the total call and sends a final report result to CCN. CCN sends a call release to the SSF.

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SMS

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SMS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

An originating SMS is received by the MSC/SSF. The MSC/SSF analyses the data and interrogates the serving CCN. CCN interrogates SDP. SDP verifies the account status, reserves money and sends the result to CCN. CCN replies to the interrogation from the SSF based on the result from SDP. The MSC/SSF delivers the SMS to the SMS-C. The SMS-C confirms the delivery of the SMS. The MSC/SSF forwards the result to CCN. CCN forwards the result to SDP. SDP charges the corresponding account.
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MNP

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MNP
1. 2.

3. 4.

The call is initiated by the Charging System subscriber. If it is an originating or forwarded call: the called party number is sent to the MNP database. If it is a terminating call: the calling party number is sent to the MNP database. The MNP database returns MNP information to CCN, for delivery to SDP.
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Complete O&M guide to CCN

CCN O&M

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O&M Concept
y

Operation
By operation we mean network operation and co-ordination on a day to day basis Collection of data and analysing it Monitoring of critical alarms Ensuring high level of service

Maintenance
Keeping the network work correctly Troubleshooting Testing Reporting
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O&M Functions of CCN


Fault Management y Backup and Restore y DBN Disk Log y SS7 Management y Performance Management y Statistics(Statistical Counters)
y

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FAULT MANAGEMENT
OBJECTIVES

Use the user interface for receiving and viewing of alarms and notifications y Retrieve past alarms using log query y Review the error logs in the system y List important directories for log files in the system
y

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Fault management
y y

FM allows detect faults and malfunctions on node Two default viewers are used for FM
Alarm Viewer Notification Viewer

Alarms are actionable events, Notifications are for informational purposes only y OS writes events used for troubleshooting to error logs as do all programs, logs are stored on I/O y Alarms are of two types
y

Automatically Detected and Automatically Cleared (ADAC) e.g processor failure Automatically detected manually cleared (ADMC)
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ALARM viewer

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Alarm viewer guide


y y

Severity
Indeterminate, Minor, Major, Critical

Time y Type
CommunicationAlarm, QoS, ProcessingErrorAlarm, EquipmentAlarm, EnivironmentalAlarm
y y y y

Object Type
Name reflects the MO that triggered the alarm

Instance
Identifier of the MO that triggered the alarm

FaultID
Identifies the alarm within ObjectType and Instance

Cause
Description of probable cause
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Notification viewer

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Notification viewer guide


y y

Time
Time when notification was sent

Object Type
Identifies the type of object the notification is about

y y

Instance
Identifies the object the notification is about

Type
Integer value used to differentiate between different events belonging to the same object
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Log query
y y y y

Log query is a GUI that helps display alarm history. Open the Node Management Toolbox. The Node Management window appears. In Logging, click Log Query. The Database Selection window appears. Choose the current or the backup database option, and click Select. The Log Type Selection window, alike to the following example, appears. In the application list, select the log type to be queried, then click Select. The Query Tool window appears.
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Log Query Window

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Error logs
y y y

Linux Syslog
/var/log/messages

Applog
/opt/telorb/axe/tsp/applog

Console log
/opt/telorb/axe/tsp/consolelogs

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O&M interface protocols

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BACKUP AND RESTORE


Objectives

Describe the principles of backup and restoration of the TSP platform y Create a backup and restore the TelORB database y Create a backup of IO y Describe principle of Centralized Scheduler
y

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Backup and Restore


Database of CCN is called DBN y Creating a backup ensures that a checkpoint of all the data in DB is stored to a safe file system on IO y The following data is backed up
y

Site Database: all services running on IO SS7: all configuration files having SS7 settings NM: configuration of all 3PPs connected to NM
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Backup and Restore


y

There are three kinds of backups


DBN Backups IO backups FS backups

There are two kinds of restore


Zone Reload
x Entire system is restore from the active backup

Processor Reload
x Restore only certain processors
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Backup and Restore


y

Backups can be initiated in two ways


Manual Backups Scheduled Automatic Backups

Archiving Backups
Backups could be archived to external servers either tape drives or hard disks

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DBN Backup Guide


Log in to TelORB manager there is a tab called backup y There are two subsections under backup tag
y

Basic
x Shows a list of all the backups currently available on IOS x Only one of the backups are active marked with A

Archiver

We can also set the number of backups to be retained y DBN backups are scheduled in the scheduler
y
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Backups

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Scheduler

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DBN DISKLOG
Objectives

Describe the disklog functionality on CCN platform y Configure and Manage the disklog function on the CCN platform
y

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DBN DISKLOG
y y y

y y

Disk Log is used for point in time recovery Disk Log Is an incremental backup of POTs All critical information is disk logged such as subscriber account data so that it could be recovered even if the entire system is reloaded A transaction that updates such data stores changes in a log file on IO processors When the system is restored from backup the log for that backup is applied as well
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Disklog Snap

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SS7 MANAGEMENT
Objectives

Describe SS7 protocol stacks supported by CCN y Configure and Manage SS7 Function on TSP6 Platform
y

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Signalling Manager
Signalling Manager is a GUI used for management of SS7 stack of CCN y SS7 Stacks supported by CCN are
y

CAPv1-3 SCAP Diameter INAP


y

CCN supports both Sigtran and HSL


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How to Check Associations


y

Go to Signalling Manager
SCTP Get instance list
x Select FE x Note Endpoint ID

SCTP

SCTP Get Association list


x Select FE x Enter Endpoint ID x Select Association ID

SCTP Get Association Status


x Select FE x Enter Association ID x Check the Status of the Association
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PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT AND STATISTICAL COUNTERS


Objectives

To Know where the different counters of CCN are stored y To calculate BHCA stats of all services and requests coming to CCN y To Monitor load on different blades of CCN
y

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Load Viewer
y

Start the Load Viewer using the command win. The command is in the following form:
win -th <VIP_address> | -n | -s | -i | geometry +<xPosition>+<yPosition>

Each colour represents a different type of load


Yellow: Low priority load Green: Normal priority load Red: High priority load (Dicos), Kernel Activity (linux)
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Performance Counters
y y

Path
/opt/telorb/axe/tsp/NM/PMF/reporterLogs/CcnCounters

SMS counters
/opt/telorb/axe/ccn/bin/CleanCcnCounters.pl `ls ltr | grep Nov 24 | gawk {print$9} | grep Messaging-Charging-Originating-SMS /opt/telorb/axe/ccn/bin/CleanCcnCounters.pl `ls ltr | grep Nov 24 | gawk {print$9} | grep Messaging-Charging-DirectDebitSuccessful

Call Counters
/opt/telorb/axe/ccn/bin/CleanCcnCounters.pl `ls ltr | grep Nov 24 | gawk {print$9} | grep Voice-Charging-Originating-Call /opt/telorb/axe/ccn/bin/CleanCcnCounters.pl `ls ltr | grep Nov 24 | gawk {print$9} | grep Voice-Charging-First InterrogationSuccessful

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