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Course Outline

Introduction General Trends AC drives blocks

Motors, types, efficiency Power devices and configuration Control Implementation and algorithms

VVVF and its performance Scalar, Vector and Sensorless control Selection and Applications (pumps, transport, wind) References Modern Power Electronics and AC drives, B. K. Bose Power Electronics, Mohan

1- Introduction
Definition (Ac Drive) VV, VVVF Important of using ac drives. Important of using induction motor.

An Ac drive converts constant volt constant frequency supply to variable volt variable frequency VVVF supply to feed an Ac motor Alternative names (frequency changer, converter, inverter, adjustable speed drive ASD, and others)

Starting and Speed control methods developed over the years (VC, PC, VVVF)
Y-D starter Autotransformer Soft starter Double cage/Deep Bar Rotor added R Stator Added R Voltage control Pole changing Slip energy recovery VVVF control (VSI,CSI)

Simple Simple Moderate No con Simple Simple Simple Simple Complex Complex

Low High Low Moderate High Moderate Low Moderate high High

Trends in the Past Two Decades

Reduction in volume Reduction in price

Volume dropped from 80s to now to 10%

Prices dropped more than half

Life Time Motor Operating Costs

Advantages of induction motor over DC motors:

1- Greater overload capability. 2- Greater power to weight ratio. 3- Higher maximum speed. 4-Lower maintenance.

Effect of technological advancements on AC drives

1. Gate controlled power switches 2. Microprocessors 3. Field oriented control

General configuration

Ac Drive

Ac Motor

VVVF Constant volt, constant frequency supply, 3ph-380V, 50 Hz

Per phase equivalent circuit and power flow

Electrical Input power Pin= 3 v I pf Pg,P12

Mechanical output =T

stator cu losses 3I12 r1

No load (iron) losses 3I2rm = 3v2/rm

rotor cu losses 3I22 r2

mechanical losses rotation & windage

T-n C/C (cont.)

Constant load

T ny

Volts / hertz concept

n1= 60 f1/p E= 4.44 N f Kw = K E/f T= k Is For constant below f1= V/f = constant (constant flux, constant torque) For f>f1 = V= constant (flux weakening, constant power) B, DC case


Volts / hertz Torque speed c/c

Volts/hertz control

T-n curve E/f constant

T-n curve V/f constant




0 . 0 2

0 . 0 2

0 . 0 4

0 . 0 4

Reference Wave

0 . 0 6

0 . 0 6

0 . 0 8

0 . 0 8

0 . 1

0 . 1


Reference signal fm and amplitude Am

0 . 1 2

0 . 1 2


Carrier Wave

0 . 1 4

0 . 1 4

0 . 1 6

0 . 1 6

0 . 1 8

0 . 1 8

0 . 2

0 . 2

0 . 2 2

0 . 2 2

0 . 2 4
0 . 2 6

0 . 2 4

Hysteresis band

0 . 2 6

0 . 2 8

0 . 2 8

0 . 3

0 . 3

0 . 3 2

0 . 3 2

0 . 3 4

0 . 3 4

0 . 3 6

0 . 3 6

Driver Block

0 . 3 8

0 . 3 8

0 . 4

0 . 4

0 . 4 2

0 . 4 2

0 . 4 4

0 . 4 4

0 . 4 6

0 . 4 6

Upper transistor base Lower transistor base

0 . 4 8

0 . 4 8

Reference signal fc and amplitude Ac

0 . 5

0 . 5

Adjustable-speed drives (ASDs) allow induction-motor-driven loads such as fans and pumps to operate at speed ranges as wide as 10 to 300 percent of fixed speed. They replace dc drives in general and high performance except in very special cases.

By controlling motor speed so that it finely corresponds to varying load requirements,

ASD installations can increase energy efficiency (in some cases energy savings can exceed 50 percent), improve power factor and process precision, and afford other performance benefits such as soft starting and over speed capability. They also can eliminate the need for expensive and energy-wasting throttling mechanisms such as control valves and outlet dampers.


2.1- Reliability:
Reliability is a measurement for dependence on drive
Requirements for increasing reliability
-Improved understanding of circuit operation and power devices transients. - Liberal component de-rating. -Decreasing the number of parts through circuit integration and increasing design margins due to better device have resulted in typical annual field failure rates of 2-3%.

2.2- Improved user interface:

- Short start-up time
- Requirements for short start up time -Modular drive construction -Powerful microprocessors -More precise self tunning algorithms -Increased user friendliness

-Initial installation start-up time.

-Main repair time.

2.3- Communication with high level controls

- Development of communication system - Digital communication

-Re-tune the drive setting. -Change entire algorithms. -Difference between (RS232C RS485).
Comparison Baud rate Communication distance
RS232C RS485

(9.6-19.2) K

200 K

(10-15) m

600 m

2.4- User friendliness

- Definition of user friendliness - As the drive complexity continue to diverge there will be a strong requirement to make drive functionality as transparent as possible to the user.

2.5- Improved drive robustness

Robustness is immunity to various disturbances and changing in operating parameters Main two aspects Consistent performance over wide range of operating parameters.

Immunity to self or external generation, ability to survive AC line transients, ride through capability during short(50msec) power loss.

2.6-Expanded auxiliary features:

- Motor electronic overload protection - Automatic braking by DC current before starting

-Stall prevention by reducing motor speed during overloads

-Large range of V/F curves

-Energy saving by reducing motor voltage at light loads

-Memorized diagnostic messages, even after a power loss. - speed jump to avoid load resonance T

2.7- Cost reduction

- Transferring from hardware functions to software. - Using circuit integration. - Riding the wave in performance and cost improvements with a new power devices.

General AC Drive Construction

AC- Drive
VVVF AC/AC converter AC/DC Converter DC/AC Converter

FVFF 3-phase AC supply

AC Motor

Driver ct


R I V E r

Elec. signals

Reference Command

Mech. signals

Components of ASD
Motors Power converters and devices Control algorithms and control implementation

Classification of motors

Motor comparison
Machine Type Feature

IM Wound field low low low high Complex high high low Multiphase Special design high low high high Complex Low high low High power high speed applications

Synchronous Machine Synch Reluctance low low medium v. high Complex high high high Torque pulsations PM BLDC-SPM high high high low simple low medium low Field weakening regions & PM materials


Efficiency Power density cost Max. speed Control algor. Noise Reliability Torq. ripples Research activity

medium low medium v. high Complex high high high Torque pulsations

Evaluation of motors for EV and HEV

Features Power density (kW/kg) Efficiency (O/I) Controllability (SSE/OS/ST/DY Reliability (F/T) Maturity Cost (LE) Total IM 3.5 3.5 4 5 5 5 26 BLDC 5 5 4 4 4 3 25 SRM 3.5 3.5 3 5 4 4 23 PM hybrid 4 5 4 4 3 3 23

Select 3 different 10 Hp AC drives, one BLDC and one Induction motor drive and one SRM Compare between both drives based on the table given previously Set evaluation levels from 1-5 Use the best value of each feature as the highest grade and the lowest value as lowest grade and set the levels linearly Set a value for each motor Depending on the application multiply each feature by a weight Calculate the score for each type of drive and select the most suitable

Motor Technology
First design a basic motor matching general needs of adjustable-frequency power and variable-speed operation. Second, this design must inherently have the adaptability to be configured to match the specific needs of many different drive applications. Third, by relaxing inappropriate constraints associated with fixed-frequency, fixed-voltage, fixed-speed applications, the design can be tailored to meet the performance objectives by making the appropriate design tradeoffs. This includes the typical design tradeoffs specified below

Motor Design Trade Offs

Objective Decrease current ripples Higher Peak Torque Parameter Change Increase leakege inductance Oversize motor Decrease stator and rotor inductances Decrease stator resistance Increase stator resistance Decrease inductances Increase stator coil turns Decrease stator wire and slot size Decrease stator coil turns Increase flux densities Change slot shapes Increase overall volume of core Increase stator coil turns Decrease slot sizes Decrease flux density Alter shape and volume of material Decrease stator resistance Decrease rotor resistance Reduce flux density

Lower Primary Time Constant

Higher Stator Resistance

Lower Inductances

Lower Flux Density

Lower Magnetic Noise Level

Higher Efficiency

Current waveform for ASD and standard Motor Design

Leakage Ind. standard

Leakage Ind. high

Standard Design

ASD Design

Special Designs of I.M.

More suitable for inverter operation 1-Less rotor resistance 2- increase leakage inductance 3-Modified rotor slot geometry 4-Direct fan cooling

Multiphase motors
In ASD, no number of phase restriction Five six and nine are the most common Better reliability and redundancy Lower torque pulsations with higher freq. Reduced current harmonics and amplitude Excellent for EHV Ships & Aerospace When loosing a phase Limp home 32 voltage (30 non zero) space vectors

5- ph inverter

5-ph motor

Source \ Load AC DC DC AC

Rectifier Cycloconverter Chopper Inverter

3- Power Electronics In drives

3.1 Power devices

3.2 Power converters

Discrete Devices Circuit Integration Monolithic Hybrid

VSI CSI Resonant link Cycloconverter

3.1 Power Devices

Uncontrolled Diode

On-controlled Thyristor Transistor BJT

On-Off Controlled




The device is integrated with


P r o t e c t i o n


P r o t e c t i o n

Dr ct



Dr ct

CSI Controlled Drives for IM

LCI Controlled Drive for Synchronous Motor

Features Max freq. PWM BW Sw losses On resistance Cond losses Driving signal Dr ckt cost Drct complexity Avalaibility

BJT med small Med Low Low Current 0.110A High high complex Excellent

MOS high wide Low Med Med Voltage 5V100mA Low low simple Excellent

IGBT Med Small Low Low Low Voltage 5V100mA Low low simple Excellent (more expensive)

Devices LV

At LV IGBT has the lead 1200 V, 100 khz, 500A Limits of discreet devices are almost reaches

Devices H.V
GCT and HVIGBT are compared GCT at ultra high powers HVIGBT at high power

6.6 kV 4.2kV 2.4kV HVIGBT 690 575 480 240 120


Conventional IGBT






The switch maximum current Is is related to the motor RMS current Im by Is>Im*sqrt(2)*1.1*1.5. The Best PWM frequency represents the industry practice and it is the most economical compromise between Current Ripple, Acoustic noise, Device derating and Snubber losses. It isn t Economical to use any of the devices to its maximum ratings (better to use another one or some combinations).

Trends in Power Devices.

Development of discrete devices -Increasing rating of IGBT allows it to dominate higher power applications. -Consolidation of BJT by improving their performance. -Development of MOS gated devices. -Faster diodes to take adv of IGBT high operation frequency. -Development of new semi-cond material (SiC, GaAs) will increase device junction operating temp and speed.

Advance in the AC Drives Industry is mainly related to those great Breakthroughs In the field of Power electronics as it is the milestone of this industry.

3.2 Power converters

Power converters main topology
Ac constant Volt & frequency Ac variable V, F





Control Converter

Drive Topologies
Conventional voltage source PWM converter. Current source load commutated & PWM converter. Suppressed DC link converter. Resonant converter (series and shunt) Matrix converter.

Bridge Rectifier L
3-phase input VVVF output

PWM Inverter

L reduces AC line harmonics and improve the PF. C keeps constant voltage on the DC bus. H controlled rectifier limit capacitor pre-charge currents Used for multi machine drives. May operate on voltage or current controlled mode.

Bridge Controlled Rectifier L
3-phase input VVVF output

Bridge Controlled Rectifier



For high power drives L keeps the supply current almost constant limited to single motor drive LCI is very popular in industry Co used to absorb motor leakage inductance energy Ci used for load commutation of induction motors

VSI Converter Control Ct PF Speed range Complex Complex Good 0---3

CSI Simple Complex Poor 0----1.5 V good V good

Motor maint. V good Performance Ratings Cost Typical App Good (dynamics)

Low & med (1.5M) High (20M) D-High M-Low Pumps, multi m/c D-Med M-low Fans, comp, single m/c

Trends in power converters

Development in the topology of converters has slowed down. Traditional D.C rectifier filter PWM controlled inverter is most common topology, development is to decrease its cost / performance ratio. LC CSI is for high power applications. Cycloconverter development stopped. Resonant link converter is confined to very special application Enhancing PWM techniques to decrease harmonics.

MV Drives


The decision on control strategy

Type of power converter and its control HW Open loop, closed loop or sensorless Position speed or torque control One, Two or four Quadrant operation Accuracy and response time required Single or multi-machine drive Range of speed, includes zero and field weakening Is the drive to give robust or parameter insensitive response Do pulsation torque, harmonics and power factor need control

Control Technology
Control Algorithms
Voltage and current control DSP, Qc, Qp PWM PLC, DCS, other ---------------------------------------Open loop Adjustable speed drive Closed loop VVVF Rectifier Inverter - Scalar V/F - Vector (FOC) Direct Indirect Sensorless DSP Electronic Voltage Board DTC gate drive and circuit current AI techniques Control
Estimation Algoritm

Control Implementation




Torque & Speed reference

Voltage regulation
A voltage controlled PWM can be implemented successfully in scalar and field oriented control techniques, which are providing command voltages. The basic principle of the PWM voltage regulation can be implemented on the PWM general form by considering the reference, and carrier signals. Generally, the output voltage in the basic system is suffering from harmonics. There are successful modified techniques were very active to decrease these harmonics.

Carrier and reference signal Frequency ratio and Modulation index Over modulation Analog and digital generation Ac= 1

FR = fc/fr MI= Ar/Ac


A. Sine PWM
 Three-phase sine PWM waveforms
 Frequency of vtri and vcontrol
Frequency of vtri = fs





Frequency of vcontrol = f1 where, fs = PWM frequency f1 = Fundamental frequency

 Inverter output voltage

When vcontrol > vtri, VA0 = Vdc/2 When vcontrol < vtri, VA0 = -Vdc/2 where, VAB = VA0 VB0 VBC = VB0 VC0 VCA = VC0 VA0

V C0

V B0

Fig. 7 Waveforms of three-phase sine PWM inverter.


Space Vector PWM
 Output voltages of three-phase inverter (4)
 The eight combinations, phase voltages and output line to line voltages


C. Space Vector PWM (7)
 Comparison of Sine PWM and Space Vector PWM (1)

Locus comparison of maximum linear control voltage in Sine PWM and SV PWM.

Current regulation
A current controlled PWM converter operated with a switching frequency in kHz range with good dynamic response and low harmonic content. It is the most commonly used power converter in the low to medium power range of high performance drives . The control circuit generates the sine reference current wave of desired magnitude and frequency, which is compared with the actual phase current. As the current exceeds a prescribed hysteresis band, the upper transistor in the half-bridge is turned off and the lower transistor turned on. As a result, the output voltage is transitioned from +0.5Vd to 0.5Vd and the current starts to decay. As the current crosses the lower band limit, the upper transistor is turned on, and the lower transistor switched off. The actual current wave is thus controlled to track the sine reference wave within the described hysteresis band by back-and-forth switching of upper and lower transistor .

Current regulation
Hysteresis block DC




i*bs i*cs



Hysteresis band

Higher band limit

Reference wave

Lower band limit Actual current


+ 0.5 Vd

PWM voltage wave - 0.5 Vd

Control of ASD

Open loop V/f constant

Open loop VSI, volts/hertz control drives.
Rectifier Inverter

Scalar open loop VSI

V*S e



+ V



The frequency [*e is the command variable and it is close to the motor speed, neglecting the small slip frequency. The scheme is defined as volt/hertz control because the inverter voltage commands V*s is generated directly from the frequency signal through a volt/hertz constant gain G. In steady state operation, the machine air gap flux ]m is approximately related to the ratio Vs/[e. Maintaining the rated air gap flux will provide maximum torque sensitivity with stator current which is similar to that of a dc machine. As the frequency approaches zero near zero speed, the stator voltage will tend to be zero and it will essentially be absorbed by the stator resistance

closed loop V/f control





+ +



G2 Open loop -V/f constant G1

Current limiter

Closed loop torque and flux control

Rectifier Inverter

*e V*S


T*e+ Ter


+ +


v abc
Te , m Estimator

i abc

CSI (independent current and slip control)

* R

Vd Id
* e


G1 Tacho I
* d * sl

+ +


Vector or field oriented control

In FOC the ac motor is controlled like a separately excited dc motor. In the dc motor when neglecting the armature demagnetization effect, and field saturation the torque equation is given by: Te = Kt Ia If Where Ia represents the torque component of the current, and If represents the field component of the current. The two currents Ia are If are completely independent. Normally If is set to maintain the rated field flux, and the torque is changing by changing Ia. Since, the change is independent; the torque sensitivity remains optimum in both transient and steady state operation. This technique can be implemented typically on the ac machine. Generally, the three-phase to two-phase transformation is the first step when implementing the FOC technique

Basics of 3-phase to 2-phase transformation



b-axis q-axis s d-axis

DQ0-ABC Transformations
as i* ibs ! * ics

cos U s sin U s 1 2T 2T cos(U s  ) sin(U s  ) 1 3 3 cos(U  2T ) sin(U  2T ) 1 s s 3 3

cos(U s 

* ds i* i qs * i0 s

Abc dq0

cos U s * ds i* 2 sin U s i qs ! 3 * 1 i0 s 2

2T 2T ) cos(U s  ) * 3 3 as i* 2T 2T ) ibs sin(U s  ) sin(U s  3 * 3 1 1 ics 2 2

Vector or FOC
Iqs I`q s Vs

Vs Iqs q- axis I`ds I`s Is

q- axis

Ids Is d- axis I`s

(a) Increase of torque component

(b) decrease of field component

Fundamentals of Field Oriented Control inverter fed Induction motor drive


+ * + -


Id* Iq*


d-q to a-b-c Transform

Ias* ibs* ics*


Unit Vector


Sensed Parameters

Control Implementation (DSP)

Started in the 90s High speed, acuracy and good interface features 32 bit, 3.3 V, 30-100MIPS (30-10ns)

DSP-TC9486F/XB series

A/D, PWM channels w/ dead time features Event manager and SW tools C and Asm programing

Cost DSP Qc med low

Interfaces good poor

prog easy hard


Comparison of Control Algorithms

Open loop
Scalar Low speed perf. Dynamic perf. Param. sensitive Cost Sp or pos sensor Appl to HPDr Poor V. poor No V. low none No good poor No Low simple No

Closed loop
SensVector Good (Ind) Poor (Dir) excellent Yes (Ind) No (Dir) high complex Sensorless Medium V. good Yes low none

Yes (Ind-Dir) Yes

PLC Wind energy Pumps Multiple Centrifugals and energy management Others

PLC control
It is required to program the drive to run on a desired schedule and repeat it Other machines will run at at the same schedule and shifted The schedule is 0 to 20s charge at 100 rpm, 20 to 30s acc to 1200rpm, 30s to 3m at 1200rpm, 15s to drop to 50rpm and run for 40 s at 50 rpm go back to 100 rpm in 5s

0 1 2 3 4

AC drive x1|x2|x3|x4|

L1|L2|L3|T1|T2|T3 F|R|Sp1|Sp2|ac/dc|db|c c|y1|y2|y3|y4|y5

Time, speed and setting schedules

sp1 sp2 Time 0-20 20-30 30-3:0 3:0-3:15 F sp1 sp2 a/d 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 n 100 1200 100 1 0

1200 1 0

1 1

Acc1=10 Dec0=15

1200 50 50 50 100

3:15-3:55 1 0 3:55-4:00 1 0

Power in the Wind

m. =

1 . 2 ! mv 2

.A.v (kg/s)


1 ! V . A.v 3 2

wher e density (kg/m )

A v cross sectional area (m2) fluid velocity (m/s)

Power in the Wind

Tip Speed Ratio
where Cp = f(P)

Z .R P! v

Tip-speed ratio is the ratio of the speed of the rotating blade tip to the speed of the Wind stream.

Cp vs. P

Power in the Wind

Variable Speed vs. Fixed Speed
Fixed Speed As speed increases the power grasped from the wind decreases No need for power electronics components No harmonics problems Less cost No voltage surges Variable Speed Grasps the maximum power at different wind speeds Power converters is needed to supply fixed voltage & frequency Harmonics exist Increased cost due power electronics components Voltage surges (spikes)

Wind Energy Conversion Systems

Grid Connected WECSs: SCIG

Generator rating = 1.1 Turbine Rating Converter Rating = 1.2 Turbine Rating

Wind Energy Conversion Systems

Grid Connected WECSs: DFIG

Rotor Side Converter Rating = 0.25 Stator Side Converter Rating

Wind Energy Conversion Systems

Grid Connected WECSs: Direct Coupled
Synchronous generators or permanent-magnet synchronous generators can be designed with multiple poles which implies that there is no need for a gear box

Wind Energy Conversion Systems

Generator Squirrel Cage Induction Generators Doubly Fed Induction Generators Advantages 1. Lower capital cost. 2. low maintenance. 3. better transient performance. 4. absence of separate source for excitation (DC supply in case of SG) 1. Reduced converter cost, converter rating is typically 25% of total system power 2. Improved efficiency 3. Allows converter to generator or absorb reactive power 4. Control may be applied at a lower cost due to reduced converter rating 1. Lower maintenance cost and operating costs 2. Generator speed can be regulated without the need for gearbox 3. Eliminates the need for separate excitation 4. No significant losses generated in the rotor Disadvantages 1. Increased converter cost since converter must be rated at the full system power. 2. Generator requires reactive power and therefore increases cost of initial ACDC conversion stage of converter 1. Stator winding is directly connected to the grid and susceptible to grid disturbances 2. Increased capital cost and need for periodic slip ring maintenance

Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generators

1. Higher initial cost due to high price of magnets used 2. Permanent magnet costs restricts production of such generators for large scale grid connected turbine designs 3. High temperatures and sever overloading and short circuit conditions can demagnetize permanent magnets

Application of ASD in pumps

Power electrical = I Vx pf
Where: Power electrical = [W], V = voltage [V], I = Current [A]

Power mechanical=2

* T* N/60

Where: N = Speed [rpm], T = Torque [Nm],

Power fluid = g Q H


Where: Power fluid = [W], g = 9.81 m/s2, Q = Flow quantity [m3/s], H=Pressure head [m], water = density of water

The following table shows the theoretical power required as the motor speed & system flow decrease p1/p2= (n1/n2)3 Speed
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30%

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30%

Power Required
100% 72.9% 51.2% 34.3% 21.6% 12.5% 6.4% 2.7%

Comments on flow example

The table shows that reducing motor speed results in a reduction in the power required. Significant energy savings are the result. For example, to reduce the flow from 100 percent to 50 percent cuts the required power to 12.5 percent. Eight times less power is used (8 = 100% power/12.5% power). The power required drops exponentially when motor speed is reduced, providing you with substantial energy savings. ASD energy savings are estimated using computer analysis. The overall ASD energy savings is calculated as the theoretical energy savings minus the losses due to running the ASD and the drop in motor efficiency at lower speeds.

If you have a system using a motor that serves a varying load, an Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) may benefit you. Examples of such systems are fans that reduce flow for non-design conditions or pumps that use control valves to vary flow. ASDs tailor motor performance to match present conditions. Advantages include:
Energy savings Improved process flow Softer/easier motor starting Faster response than valves or dampers

Throttling verses Speed change for pump system H-Q curves

Throttling verses Speed change for pump system H-Q curves and power savings
Throttled Operating Point head Hs H H2


N1 Q ! Q2 N 2
Operating point

P P2

H N1 ! H2 N2 P N1 ! P2 N 2

Reduced speed operating point



The following example show the energy saving when operate a pump (rated flow=0.25m^3/sec, at speed 1500rpm) with constant speed to fill a canal with dimension (500m length, 5m width, 3m height).
The volume of water required = 5 x 3 x 500=7500 m^3 The number of hours required =7500/(.25 x 60 x 60)=8.33 hr Assume the input power to the pump = P kW The energy consumes 8.33P kWh

If operate the pump with VSD to fill the same volume Operate 2 hours at rated speed q=0.25m3/sec, v1=0.25 x 2 x 60 x 60=1800m3 Operate 4 hours at 0.75 x 0.25 m3/sec v2=2700m3 V3=7500-2700-1800=3000m3 Operate at 0.5 x 0.25 m3/sec, it s operating for 6.67 hr From affinity laws P proportional to cubic speed P (at 0.25)=P kW, P (at 0.75 x .25)=0.42P kW, P (0.5 x .25)=0.125P kW Energy required 2 x P+4 x 0.42 x P+0.125 x 6.67 x P=4.5P kW Percentage of energy saving = 8.33P-4.5P/8.33P=45.8%

Example 2
The opposite figure shows an operating point of a pump at speed n1=1450 rpm. By using throttled valve it operate at flow QM =500m3/hr,h1=65m,and eff.=75%. And by using inverter to provide variable speed operation its operate at the same flow QM but at head h2 = 12.5 m, and eff.=85%. Required 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Power input with the valve control Power input with the speed control Power saving Energy saving (assume the pump operate 8000 hr/year) Saving and payback period (assume cost of kWh = 8 piaster)

power with valve = QM * h1*p*g/eff.1=118 kw power with VSD = QM *h2*p*g/eff.2=20kw power saving =(118-20)/.9=109kw energy saving = 109*8000 (op hours) =871000 kWh/y Operating cost saving = 871000*.08=6980 L.E. Payback period =10000 (ASD cost)/6980= 1.435 year

Adjustable speed control of centrifugals Sample Cycles (centrifugals)

Speed Dec/brake const speed current Acc time


Energy saving with multiple inverters

Drives can share dc bus or use CSI drives which have regeneration capabilities

Example Braking Energy Transferred to Acceleration

speed power

200 kW


End Of Ac Drives