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A Presentation on

Design Validation of Power Axle of a Rail Car by Finite Element Analysis

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Degree of Master of Technology in Design Engineering By

Gangadhar USN: 1DS07MDE05

Under the guidance of

Mr. Mahesh G. S.
Assistant Professor Department of Mechanical Engg., DSCE

Mr. Kiran M.
Design Engineer IMAC Designs Bangalore.

Department of Mechanical Engineering

DAYANANDA SAGAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING


Shavige Malleshwara Hills, Kumaraswamy Layout, Bangalore 560 078

2011

Contents
Introduction Literature Review Methods and Methodology Problem Definition and Scope of the work Results and Discussions Conclusions and Future work References

Introduction
Rail Vehicles Types of Rail Vehicles
Railways Subways Tramways

Train under test track

Parts of Rail Coach

Standard names used in Rail Coach

Bogie Parts

Introduction to Axle
It connects two wheels and gives same rotational speed. The axle has two bearings at the axle boxes Wheel axle set is dynamically loaded during run It is a rotating component of bogie subjected to heavy loads and fatigue loads Types of wheel and axle sets
Power wheel set Trailer wheel set Trailer wheel with out side brake disc Wheel set with three discs mounted axle
Trailer wheel set

Introduction to Axle (contd.)


Axle Manufacturing
Axles are manufactured by forging technique through hydraulically operated arms Oxy-acetylene cutter is used to get the required length of rod Normalizing, Quenching, Tempering and Ultrasonic testing

Wheel Manufacturing
Wheels are prepared by sophisticated casting process The scrap steel is melted in Ultra high frequency Electric Arc Furnace Pouring the molten metal through controlled air pressure system Normalizing, Quenching, Tempering and Ultrasonic testing

Accident data base


Sweden maintained a data base of railway accidents i.e Derailment It started from year 1980 to till April 2009 they found 35 cases. Which have been grouped in five categories according to their primary cause:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. broken rails or other track defects - 16 events axle failure on inside of the wheel - 5 events axle failure on outside of the wheel - 4 events wheel defects - 4 events other causes (impact with objects on track, unidentified causes etc.) - 6 events

Importance of Power Axle Study


Railway axles are subjected to variable amplitude loads The weight of railway vehicle is introduced through the bearings During service additional loads like track interaction, curving, asymmetric loading of axle Other parameters like torsional axle strains, wheel flats, wheel out of roundness, passenger load spectrum, whether and breaking conditions.

Importance of Power Axle Study (Contd.)

Distribution of Fracture Places in the Railway Traction Shafts and Axles

Typical Fractures of Traction Shafts-Axles in (a) Section 1 (b) Section 2 (c) Section 3 (d) Section 4 (e) Section 5

Importance of Power Axle Study (Contd.)

Different Cracks on (a) Axle in UK (b) Under break seat (c) Close to wheel Seat

Cracks in Axle Centre (a) Radial Cracks (b) Volume Defect

Literature Review
Tests to detect cracks at carriage axles and to evaluate the quality of axles surfaced The periodicity for testing using probabilistic fracture mechanics Traction of shafts and axle of railway vehicles under accidental and unpredictable conditions Fatigue study of railway axles The effects of corrosion on fatigue properties Rotary bending and press fitting on stress intensity factor and crack growth Crack propagation under rolling contact between wheel and track Thermal and stress analysis of brake discs in railway vehicles

Methods and Methodology


Introduction to FEM Features of FEM Basic steps involved in FEM
Geometrical modeling Discretization Formulation of elemental equations Derivation of elemental properties Assembly of equations Boundary conditions Computation of strain Computation of stress

Introduction to ANSYS
Evolution of ANSYS Features of ANSYS ANSYS modeling Importing solid models from CAD systems Mesh generation Solving the problem Reviewing the Results

Problem Definition
Introduction The objective of the problem Methodology

Power axle CAD model

Power axle with mounted members

Material Properties
Property Material Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Density Specific Heat Thermal Conductivity Allowable Stress Thermal expansion coefficient Convection film coefficient For Axle structure A4T 200 GPa 0.3 7850 kg/m3 427 J/kg 0 C 42W/m 0 C 145 MPa --For Wheel structure Cast Steel 200 GPa 0.3 7833 kg/m3 465 J/kg 0 C 42W/m 0 C -10.5e-6/ 0 C 22.7 W/m2 0 C

Stress and Moment Calculations

Section of axle considered for calculations

Representation of Forces and Formulae's

Formulaes Used for Theoretical Calculations as Per EN 13104

P1 = (0.625 + 0.0875 h1 / b) m1 g P2 = (0.625 - 0.0875 h1 / b) m1 g For all axles defined in the scope of this standard Y1 = 0.35 m1 g Y2 = 0.175 m1 g H = Y1 Y2 = 0.175 m1 g Q1 = [ P1 (b + s) P2 (b s) + (Y1 Y2) R Fi (2s yi )] Q2 = [ P2 (b + s) P1 (b s) - (Y1 Y2) R Fi yi ]

Moment Calculations and Design inputs

Design Input Values Sl No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Symbol M1 M1+M2 F1 H1 B g R Rb Quantity 7500 kg 8500 kg 4.41 kN 1040 mm 1000 mm 9.81m/sec2 410 mm 210 mm Sl No 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Symbol Y0 rb s P=P Brake Disc mass F1 Y1 Fi Quantity 250 mm 210 mm 750 mm 41.69 kN 200 Kg 4410 N 1295 mm 55000 N

Sectional Moment and Stress calculations


At section 1 y=0 Moment Mx = P1 y=52700*0=0 At Section 2 y=250 mm Mx= 23.7 kN Mx = 1.232 kN-m My= 5.128 kN-m Mz=1.232 kN-m MR=sqrt ((23.7 + 3.609)2 + 5.1282 + 1.2322) = 27.8 kN-m Stress =1*32*27800/ ( *.1583) = 72 MPa =1*32*23700/ ( *.1583) = 61.3 MPa (without braking)

Sectional Moment and Stress calculations (contd.)


At Section 3 y=615 mm d=130 mm D=210 mm r=75 mm K=1.02 Mx= 21.8 kN Mx = 6.7 kN-m My= 5.128 kN-m Mz=1.232 kN-m MR= 29 kN-m Stress = 137 MPa =105 MPa (without braking)

Sectional Moment and Stress calculations (contd.)


At Section 4 y=1000 mm K=1 d = 130 mm (0.13 m) Mx= 19.87 kN Mx = 4.81 kN-m My= 5.128 kN-m Mz=1.232 kN-m MR= 25.24 kN-m Stress = 117.3 MPa =93.7 MPa (without braking)

FEM Representation

Geometry Model with Built Up Geometry

Element Representation of the Shaft with Axle

FEM Representation (Contd.)

Bending Moment Diagram for the Given Loading

Figure shows bending moment for the given load of power axle. The maximum bending moment value is around 23.8 kN-m which is exactly matching with theoretically calculated value of 23.7 kN-m

FEM Representation (Contd.)

Bending Stress Diagram for the Loads

The bending stress diagram represents only half of the axle. The bending Stress at section 1 is zero which is matching with the theoretical calculations

FEM Representation (Contd.)

Bending Stress at Section 2

The stress value is around 61.523 MPa which is very near to theoretically calculated value of 62.3 MPa

FEM Representation (Contd.)

Bending Stress at Section 3

The value is around 103.622 MPa which is calculated without considering the stress concentration factor. If stress concentration factor is used for calculation, the stress value equal to 1.02*103.622=105.69 MPa which is very close to the theoretical value of 105 MPa.

FEM Representation (Contd.)

Bending Stress at Section 4

The maximum stress value equals to 94.815 MPa which is near to the theoretical value of 93.7 Mpa So FEM values are matching with theoretically obtained values.

FEM Representation (Contd.)


Starting Conditions

Maximum Stress in the Structure

Stress developed is only 42.461 MPa which is less than the allowable value of 145 MPa for the given material

FEM Representation (Contd.)


Braking Conditions

Stress with One Brake Disc

Figure shows failure of shaft as the stress 156.479 MPa exceeds the allowable stress limit 145 MPa of the problem

FEM Representation (Contd.)


Braking Conditions

Stress on Axle with two break disc

Figure shows the safety of the axle with two symmetric brake discs as the stress developed is within the allowable range of the material which is 126.71 MPa

Results and Discussion


Initially the axle is checked for self weight condition And next axisymmetry approach of problem is checked for rotation, interference and thermal conditions

3D Mesh of the Solid Axle

Results for self weight condition

Deflection Due to Self Weight

Maximum deflection due to self weight is around 0.00268mm taking place at the center The three dimensional has built and simply supported condition is given at wheel position

Results for self weight condition

von Mises Stress Plot

Maximum von Mises stress is around 0.659035 MPa due to self weight of the problem Maximum stress are taking place in the middle wheel position and brake pad position

Axisymmetric Analysis

Section Extracted from the Axle Model (Half Model)

Axisymmetric Map Mesh of Axle

The problem is analysed for 600 rpm rotational load considering 100KMPH maximum speed Area is extracted along the axis and map meshed using 4 noded plane42 elements The geometry is divided to ease the map mesh of the problem More divisions are considered across sharp geometrical variation regions

Rotational loads

Deformation Under Rotational Load

Radial Stress Distribution Under Rotational Load

Almost negligible deformation of around 0.00571mm is taking place in the structure Maximum 7.68 MPa stress is taking place due to rotational load of 600 rpm of the axle

Rotational loads (Contd)

Hoop Stress Plot of Wheel

von Mises Stress Plot of the Wheel

Maximum Hoop stress is around 4.62 MPa stress taking place in the structure Maximum von Mises stress is around 5.72 MPa is taking place in the structure

Rotational loads (Contd)

von Mises Stress in the Axle

Radial, Hoop and von Mises Stress Variation

Maximum von Mises stress is around 1.7MPa at the middle of the axle Wheel mounting position the stress variation for radial, hoop and von Mises stresses are represented. Here stresses are observed maximum at the web position and negligible at the axle position

Interference Analysis

Radial Stress Distribution of Wheel

Hoop Stress Distribution of Wheel

Maximum compressive stress is around 34.227 MPa and maximum tensile stress of around 0.250181 MPa is taking place on the combined structure Maximum hoop stress is around 53.185 MPa on the wheel structure and 35.255 MPa of compressive stress on inner axle structure

Interference Analysis (Contd.)

von Mises Stress Distribution in the Wheel

von Mises Stress in the Shaft Due to Contact Pressure

von Mises stress of around 67.689 MPa on the interface region of wheel and axle. In the problem an interference of 25microns is applied to increase load carrying capacity Maximum von Mises stress is around 33.808 MPa taking place at the axis due to contact pressure

Thermal Analysis

Temperature Plot During Braking on the Wheel

Maximum temperature developed is around 174.8 0 C. This temperature is mainly on the wheel face and almost room temperature can be observed across the wheel axle

Thermal Analysis (Contd.)

von Mises Stress Due to the Thermal Loading

von Mises Stress on the Axle Due to Temperature Load

Maximum stress is around 47.4 MPa due to temperature load can be observed von Mises stress in the structure. Maximum von Mises stress is around 27.5 MPa on the center of axle

Modal Analysis
Set No Frequency(Hz) 1 2 3 4 5 487.56 487.72 1167.5 1168.1 1365.9

Modal Frequencies Mode Shape for the I st Modal Frequency

Modal nature of the shaft. Maximum displacement in the member is around 0.14788m taking place at the centre showing lateral vibration Since this frequency is higher than the operational frequency of 10Hz corresponding to 600 rpm

Summary of Loads
Description von Mises Stress (MPa) Maximum stress at the centre under normal 103.622 running conditions Static Torque conditions Braking condition with single brake disc 42.461 156.429

Braking condition with two brake disc 126.171 arranged symmetrically Self weight Rotation Interference Thermal loads 0.659 1.7 33.08 27.5

Conclusions
Initially a free body diagram is represented for the power axle based on loads coming on the structure during operation Theoretical calculations are calculated for the loads Totally 4 sections are considered for theoretical moment and stress calculations Further Finite Element verification is carried out to check the stress condition The axial model is built using CATIA software for the specified dimensions Further analyses carried out with rotational load corresponding to 100KMPh Interference effect is studied on the problem. The interference load of 25 microns is applied Transient thermal analysis is carried out to check the thermal effects on the axle during braking The modal analysis results for axle shows, first natural frequency of 486Hz which is very high compared to the operational frequency of 10Hz All the results shows, a combination of these loads are by law of superposition also are within the allowable working stress of the material

Further Scope
The analysis can be extended for harmonic loads which will come across junction of rails. The structure can be optimized with reference to weight and for stress concentration at the flange region. The shape of the wheel can be further optimized to reduce thermal effects The structure can be tested composites for better strength to weight ratio and possible reduction of heat effects Any possible residual stress effects can be explored. Seismic effects on wheel and rail also can be explored. Rail curvature effects can be considered. Rail surface irregularities effect also can be considered Wear out wheel surface imperfections also can be studied for functional safety of the axle.

References
1. 2. A.S. Watson, K. Timmis , A Method Of Estimating Railway Axle Stress Spectra Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 2010. M. Ognjanovic, A. Simonovic, M. Ristivojevic, T. Lazovic, Research of Rail Traction Shafts and Axles Fractures Towards Impact of Service Conditions and Fatigue Damage Accumulation, Engineering Failure Analysis 17 (2010) 15601571 Viktor Jemec, Jo e Jurman & Janez Grum, Evaluation of Defects and Cracks In Carriage Axles Using Non-Destructive Testing, Ndt For Safety November 0709, 2007, Prague, Czech Republic J Rudlin, A Muhammed and C Schneider, Inspection Reliability and Periodicity For Rail Axle Inspection, Rail Axle Inspection S. Beretta , A. Ghidini, F. Lombardo, Fracture Mechanics and Scale Effects In The Fatigue of Railway Axles, Engineering Fracture Mechanics 72 (2005) 195208 S. Beretta, M. Carboni, G. Fiore, A. Lo Conte, CorrosionFatigue of A1n Railway Axle Steel Exposed to Rainwater, International Journal of Fatigue 32 (2010) 952961 M. Madia a, S. Beretta, U. Zerbst, An Investigation On The Influence of Rotary Bending and Press Fitting On Stress Intensity Factors and Fatigue Crack Growth In Railway Axles, Engineering Fracture Mechanics 75 (2008) 19061920 M. Luke, I. Varfolomeev a, K. Ltkepohl, A. Esderts, Fatigue Crack Growth In Railway Axles: Assessment Concept And Validation Tests, Engineering Fracture Mechanics (2010)

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References (Contd.)
9. Yongming Liu, Liming Liu, Sankaran Mahadevan, Analysis Of Subsurface Crack Propagation Under Rolling Contact Loading In Railroad Wheels Using FEM, Engineering Fracture Mechanics 74 (2007) 26592674 10. Reibenschuh, M.; Lerher, T.; raml, M.; amec, B.; Potr, I, Thermal and Stress Analysis of Brake Discs In Railway Vehicles, Advanced Engineering 3(2009)1, Issn 1846-5900 11. Aar Manual Of Standards and Recommended Practices Wheels and Axles,S-600, 1981railway Applications Wheelsets And Bogies, Powered Axles Design Method, English Version Of Din En 13104,Feb, 2002 12. University Of Cambridge, Department Of Engineering, Dynamics And Vibrations, Annual Report-1996\1997. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Norton, Robert L., Machine Design An Integrated Approach, Prentice-Hall: New Jersey, 1998, 2 nd printing Kelley, Fundamentals Of Mechanical Vibration, Tata- McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited, 2000. Groover, Mechanical Vibration, New Chand & Bros, 2000. Klaus-Jurgen Bathe Finite Element Procedures, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.- Sixth Edition 2002 Introuduction to the Finite Element Method, Desai/Abel CBS publishers 2002 Rober D. Cook, David S Concepts and Application of Finite Element Analysis Joh Wiely & Sons Pte. Ltd. Fourth Edition 2003 19. Tirupathi R. Chandrupatla, Ashok D. Belegundu, Finite Elements in Engineering Prentice- Hall of India Pvt. Ltd, 2003 20. User Guide, ANSYS 10.0, Reference Mannual, 2010

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