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Advanced Aircraft Corrosion Protection

A Coatings System Approach to Reduce Chromates


Joseph H. Osborne
Boeing Phantom Works Seattle
Joseph.h.osborne@boeing.com 425-237-8518

March 8-11, 2004

2004 Air Force Corrosion Program Conference

Slide 1

Getting the Chromate Out


Reduced Chromate
Topcoat
NonChromate Primer

Choice depends on local regulations

Topcoat
Chromate Primer
Chromate Conversion Coating

Chromate Conversion Coating

Topcoat
NonChromate Primer
NonChromate Conversion Coating

substrate Topcoat
Chromate Primer
NonChromate Conversion Coating

substrate

substrate

substrate

Adhesion Promoters
Dont meet MIL-C-81706

Key Performance Goal: Long Term Corrosion Protection Coating system: 2000+ hours neutral salt fog
Conversion coating: 168 hours
March 8-11, 2004

2004 Air Force Corrosion Program Conference

Slide 2

Requirements for Successful Technology Transition


Meet Performance Requirements
Capable Engineering properties
Meet performance specifications

Adaptable Processing characteristics


Appropriate for production environment

Specification coverage

Technical Order / Military or industry specifications

What are the real performance requirements?


Current specification limits Equal or better than todays coating systems

Safety of personnel and airframe/vehicle is prime concern


March 8-11, 2004

2004 Air Force Corrosion Program Conference

Slide 3

Overview
AACP program
Goals AC-131/Boegel Performance data Producibility data

Other applications
Painting Bonding

March 8-11, 2004

2004 Air Force Corrosion Program Conference

Slide 4

Program Description
Funded by Aging Systems Command/AFRL
Aging Aircraft Office (ASC/AAAV)

Transition Demonstration of coating system

Topcoat technologies developed for C-17 (APC) Nonchromate Conversion Coating technologies developed by AFOSR/AFRL/DARPA (Boegel/AC-131)

Program Plan

Phase I: Laboratory validation of performance and process Phase II: Flight test
Coat test vehicles, summer 2004

Deliverables:

Coating system description Laboratory validation data Analysis of flight testing Processing description for T.O. 1-1-8

March 8-11, 2004

2004 Air Force Corrosion Program Conference

Slide 5

AACP Coating System

Flight Operations

Depaint

Depot Maintenance

Repaint

Repaint
Clean & Seal Alkaline Clean Brighten Conversion Coat
(AC-131)

Prime & Paint


(Cr primer, APC Topcoat)

Cleaning steps determined by conversion coating


CCC requires active bright metal surface AC-131/Boegel adheres to surface oxides
Doesnt require brightener process Does require clean waterbreak free surface

March 8-11, 2004

2004 Air Force Corrosion Program Conference

Slide 6

AACP Coating System


Focus on coating system and process
Paint hanger roll-in to roll-out Include depaint

Cleaning Processes - Alkaline - Brighten

Conversion Coating - Boegel - AC-131

Primer - 85582 - 23377 - PR1432

APC Topcoat

Cleaning steps determined by conversion coating


CCC requires active bright metal surface Boegel adheres to surface oxides
Doesnt require brightener process

March 8-11, 2004

2004 Air Force Corrosion Program Conference

Slide 7

Program Schedule
Pgm goals: Coat Aircraft component June 04

Task Name Contract dates Contract Start Contract end Phase I -- Performance Verification and Optimiza Task 1 -- Performance Verification Inspectability techniques Material optimization Coating System Verification Task 2 -- Process Verification Cleaners/Deoxidizers Kitting for large volumes Large volume applications Coatings removal techniques Contaminations/surface quality Task 3 -- Qualification Data Package Define system requirements Flight Qualification Tests 5/5 5/21 5/5 5/7 5/5 5/5 5/28 5/28

Dev. Producibility data to support Flight test coating system


M A 5/5 M 2003 J J A S O N D J F M A M 2004 J J A S

Phase II -- Operational Testing Task 1 -- Coating System Definition Task 2 -- Operational Test Monitoring Task 3 -- Coupon monitoring

6/7

March 8-11, 2004

2004 Air Force Corrosion Program Conference

Slide 8

Performance and Producability Verification


Boegel EPII Cleaning and Brightening Depainting Corrosion and weathering data

March 8-11, 2004

2004 Air Force Corrosion Program Conference

Slide 9

AC-131/Boegel conversion coating


Boegel is Boeing Developmental name
Licensed to AC Tech
AC-131 (painting), AC-130 (bonding)

Mixed Zr/Si oxide system Silane coupling agent chosen to match primer, sealant, or adhesive chemistry
AC-131/Boegel-EPII is epoxy functionalized epoxy primers/adhesives Boegel-AM is amino functionalized polyimide adhesives

Water solution -- ~3-5% solids Spray on, no rinse, ambient dry Little or no waste
Neutralize and sewer

Superior adhesion
Aluminum, titanium, CRES
Common surface preparation

pigmentable for corrosion protection and optical properties


March 8-11, 2004

2004 Air Force Corrosion Program Conference

Slide 10

AC-131/Boegel EPII
Optimized for adhesion of epoxy coatings
Superior adhesion to Al, Ti, CRES

A water-like solution with reactive ingredients


Long shelf life, 12 hour pot life once mixed 2 part kit, prepare amount needed for job

Spray applied to part/airplane


spray drench
Solution flows off part

dripless spray
Apply to wet surface but minimize drainage

Dry in place, no rinse required


Thick coatings reduce paint adhesion
Remove drips and solution from pockets and recesses

March 8-11, 2004

2004 Air Force Corrosion Program Conference

Slide 11

Large volume applications


BCA Paint Hanger Trials
Replacement for Alodine 1000 Meets production engineering reqmts on new clad aluminum fuselage

Production Laboratory Testing

Ability to mix and use Process compatibility with masking and equipment Ability to Strip Paper/Tape compatibility Compatibility over Composites

Wet/Dry Adhesion Corrosion


March 8-11, 2004

Rain Erosion Forward and Reverse Impact Acrylic Crazing Titanium Stress Corrosion Hydrogen Embrittlement
2004 Air Force Corrosion Program Conference
Slide 12

Sandwich Filiform Salt Spray

Inspectability of Boegel/AC-131
Dyes and fluorescents Good color definition with dyes No effect on adhesion performance Weatherability/cleanability data to be developed

AC-131

AC-131 with Water Soluble dyes

Alodine 1200S

March 8-11, 2004

2004 Air Force Corrosion Program Conference

Slide 13

Cleaners/deoxidizers
Goals
Eliminate need to brighten aircraft
Alkaline clean to water break free

Understand what condition is clean enough

Boegel/AC-131 adheres to oxides


Do not need extensive deox/brighten like CCC
Metal bonding and paint adhesion studies

Boegel/AC-131 improves paint adhesion to rivets

Boegel improves adhesion to leached alodine


An oxide condition possibly on the surface after depainting

Need effective cleaner/process for depainted surfaces


How clean is clean enough?

March 8-11, 2004

2004 Air Force Corrosion Program Conference

Slide 14

Process Schemes with AACP System


Low Risk
Clean & Seal Alkaline Clean Brighten Prime & Paint Conversion Coat

Alkaline clean / brighten / AC-131 / Prime&Paint


Eliminates chromate conversion coating Reduces rinse water (no rinse after AC-131/Boegel) Meets current engineering requirements
Clean & Seal Alkaline/acid Clean Conversion Coat Prime & Paint

Stretch Goal

detergent clean / AC-131 / Prime&Paint


Eliminates chromate conversion coating Eliminates brightener step and associated rinses Shows promise need to define cleaning process
2004 Air Force Corrosion Program Conference
Slide 15

March 8-11, 2004

Depainting
Does not depaint like conventional systems
Topcoat removes first from primer Additional dwell time or manual effort needed to remove primer
Alodine / MIL-PRF-23377 Alodine / MIL-PRF-85582 Boegel EP II / MIL-PRF-85582

Hours (80-100% Primer Removal)

Boegel EP II / MIL-PRF-23377

25

20

AA2024
Hours (80-100% Primer Removal)
Boegel EP II / MIL-PRF-23377 Boegel EP II / MIL-PRF-85582

15 25

10

20

Ti 6,4

0
PR 3133 (Ammonia) PR 5044 (Peroxide) PR5000 / PR3170 (Peroxide / Solvent) TRP Inc. ES-1 (MeCl2 / Formic Acid)

15

10

0
PR 3133 (Ammonia) PR 5044 (Peroxide) PR5000 / PR3170 (Peroxide / Solvent) TRP Inc. ES-1 (MeCl2 / Formic Acid)

March 8-11, 2004

2004 Air Force Corrosion Program Conference

Slide 16

Material Optimization / Performance Verification


ACRAC Data Chromate primers
Spray sealants Nonchromate primers Goal: performance equal or better than standard system

March 8-11, 2004

2004 Air Force Corrosion Program Conference

Slide 17

ACRAC Coatings at 5688 Hours NSS


AA2024-T3 substrates

Chemidize/Boegel/ Boeclene/Alodine/ 85582/APC-g 85582/APC-g


CB82G
March 8-11, 2004

Boeclene/Boegel/ 85582/APC-g
BB82G

Boeclene/Alodine 10PW22-2/APC-g
BA10G
Slide 18

BA82G

2004 Air Force Corrosion Program Conference

ACRAC ASTM B117 Salt Spray 2500 hrs


Alodine 1200S AC 131

MIL-PRF-85582 Deft 99-GY-001

March 8-11, 2004

2004 Air Force Corrosion Program Conference

Slide 19

ACRAC ASTM G85-A5 Prohesion 2500 hr


Alodine 1200S MIL-PRF-85582 Deft 99-GY-001 AC 131

March 8-11, 2004

2004 Air Force Corrosion Program Conference

Slide 20

Weathering Data at 1500 Hours


Weathering Data 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
Akzo 10P20-4/ ECW-104
March 8-11, 2004

Deft 03-GY-321

Deft 99-GY-001

60 85 DeltaE

Deft 02Y040

Deft 44GN72

SW E90G203

Akzo 10P20-4/ ECW-104

Deft 02Y040

Deft 44GN72

PRC 1432GV

2004 Air Force Corrosion Program Conference

PRC 1432GV & Deft 02Y040

SW E90G203
Slide 21

Specification Summary
Spec #
BAC5663

Process
Aluminum Alloy Conversion Coating for Paint Titanium Alloy Conversion Coating for Paint Titanium Alloy Adhesive Bonding

Implementations
BCA-Fuselage rivets (737 console) (final paint) F-22

D950-10313-1, Rev C; BSMS25-002; BSPS-07-002 BSMS-25-001; BSPS-07-001, HP 4-136 Rev A; D950-10413-1 Rev A, D720PM-PP006, Rev A; S697-10090-1 Rev A; 5PTPHB25; Assorted DoD TOs D210-13577-1; SRM 51-70-09; SRM 51-70-10; Assorted DoD TOs HP 4-136 MRB

F-22; X-32; B-2 spares; Delta IV; AH-64; F-22; CH-47; CH-46

Aluminum Alloy Adhesive Bonding Stainless Steel Adhesive Bonding

CH-47, Airline SRMs, C-5 AH-64

March 8-11, 2004

2004 Air Force Corrosion Program Conference

Slide 22

Adhesion to Boegel-EPII Coated Rivets


Scribed wet tape Rivet Rash
OTS

Depainting

AC-131

Rain Erosion
AC-131 coated

Clad Fuselage skins leached rivets


March 8-11, 2004 Slide 23

2004 Air Force Corrosion Program Conference

F-22 Forward Boom


Phosphate-fluoride is typical conversion coating for titanium Process tanks not available, so different approach was needed. First application
AV #2 1997
poor poor good

HF/HNO3 etch

Phosphate fluoride

Boegel

Current:
Forward & aft booms Titanium tubes

March 8-11, 2004

2004 Air Force Corrosion Program Conference

Slide 24

Titanium bonding
B-2 Ti core to composite X-32 Ti-Ti, Ti-composite F-22

Replaces chromic acid anodize

Aft Boom composite reinforcement Studs for insulation blanket installation Repair/reinforcement of structure

Delta IV Ti-composite end fittings Helicopters

Comanche (RAH-66) rotor caps, components

March 8-11, 2004

2004 Air Force Corrosion Program Conference

Slide 25

737 Aisle Stand Frame Cell


Produced at Boeing-Portland
AA7075 parts are currently anodized and painted in separate facilities BMS10-11 primer, Nextel Suede finish coat Cell designed to produce frames in a dedicated line

BAC5663 Released
Replaces anodizing

Mechanical (grit blast) and chemical deox Boegel EPII processing is the enabling technology Estimated benefit
Run time reduced by Flow time reduced from 27 to 2 days

Implementation Strategy
Probably drawing change

March 8-11, 2004

2004 Air Force Corrosion Program Conference

Slide 26

Aisle Stand Flow Diagram


Process Name: AISLE

STAND FRAME CELL


Scope of Operations

Standard Work Sheet From: Raw Material to finished painted part and in To: Stores in two days

Date: Dept. Head

9/20/02
Supervisor

Model Number: Model Name:

737

Clean
C/T 1 min

Drill Tap
C/T 10 min

Straighten
C/T 1 min

Tab Removal
C/T 5 min

in coming from T-20 134 minutes for first part through the line Total touch time = 74 minutes Planning standards = 29 minutes
C/T 2 min

C/T 45 min REF. QA op

Customer Requirements Takt Time = 137 Min. 70 Parts Per Month Daily Requirement 3.5 Parts 737 Monthly Rate 14 Planes

Penetrant

C/T 2 min

C/T 2 min C/T 2 min

C/T 2 min
Boe-gel Dwell location

C/T 2 min

Hand Finish

Part Mark

out going

Sand blast

Mask

Boe-gel application

254A1307-1 254A1237-2 254A1237-4 254A1238-3 254A1239-3

Paint Booth

Goals
27 flow days reduced to 2 days @ a one shift operation 2nd shift operation available for additional part numbers

= ship set
Boe-gel rest time = 60 min

Quality Check

Safety Precaution

Standard Work in-process

#. of pieces of std. work in-process

TAKT Time

Operator Number

March 8-11, 2004

2004 Air Force Corrosion Program Conference

Slide 27

OC-ALC Backshop Demonstration


Coated several parts in TF-33 refurb shop
February 18, 2004

Glen Graham is technical point of contact Evaluate potential for work cell environment

TF-33 cowl
Scuff sand/overcoat application
Needed cleaning to waterbreak free condition Scrap part, not painted

Engine support assembly (??)


Titanium panels, stainless rails, aluminum brackets Cleaned to WBF, coated, 2 hour dry, prime

Miscellaneous aluminum brackets


Racked for painting, coated, 2 hour dry, prime
not cleaned well, showed orange peel (marginally acceptable)

March 8-11, 2004

2004 Air Force Corrosion Program Conference

Slide 28

Conclusions
AC-131/Boegel EPII coating systems are capable for depot and field processing environments
Performance equivalent to present systems
Chromated primer is still required

Superior adhesion to aluminum, titanium, and stainless steel Colored for process and in-process and end-item inspection Potential to eliminate aggressive brightening
Reduction in process steps and processing time

Potential to provide stand-alone corrosion protection


Ongoing inhibitor incorporation work.

Flight testing in AACP program will validate performance capabilities for mold line use
Language for T.O. 1-1-8 for implementation

Other potential painting and bonding applications


Adaptable to multiple part configurations and work cells
March 8-11, 2004

2004 Air Force Corrosion Program Conference

Slide 29