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ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO

ARTEMISININ
DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO
PRINCIPAL SCIENTIST INDIA

EMAIL -- amcrasto@gmail.com http://www.slidestaxx.com/anthony-melvin-crasto-phd

A SHORT PICTORIAL PRESENTATION-- JAN 2012

amcrasto@gmail. com

ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO

Cheaper malaria drug on the horizon, say German researchers; 200 million malaria sufferers worldwide Malaria sufferers in the developing world cannot afford medicine German researchers announced Tuesday they had discovered a process to make the most effective anti-malaria drug cheaper and easier to produce in large life-saving quantities. The breakthrough offers hope to the more than 200 million malaria sufferers worldwide, especially in poor countries, by making artemisinin more affordable, the Max Planck Society said. "There is an effective treatment against malaria but it is not accessible to all of the more than 200 million people worldwide who are affected by the disease," it said in a written statement. "Millions, especially in the developing world, cannot afford the combination drug preparation, which consists mainly of artemisinin," it added. In addition, it said the medication's price varied because of the seasonal nature of the basic ingredient which mainly grows in China and Vietnam.

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Malaria is a vector borne parasitic disease caused by the genus Plasmodium, affecting over 100 countries of the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Four different Plasmodium species infect humans and cause distinct disease patterns: P. falciparum (malaria tropica), P. vivax (malaria tertiana), P. malariae (malaria tertiana) and P. ovale (malaria quartana) P. falciparum and P. vivax account for 95% of malaria infections. Of these two parasites,P. falciparum is the most deadly one, causing cerebral malaria which, if remain untreated, leads to coma and ultimately death of the patient. 40% of the world populations live in areas with the risk of malaria. Around 300-500 million clinical cases of malaria are reported every year, of which more than a million die of severe and complicated cases of malaria. Malaria is known to kill one child every 30 sec, 3000 children per day under the age of 5 years.
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Artemisinin

IUPAC Name 3,12-Epoxy-12H-pyrano[4,3-j]-1,2-benzodioxepin-10(3H)-one, octahydro-3,6,9-trimethyl-, (3R,5aS,6R,8aS,9R,12S,12aR)Other Names (+)-Arteannuin; (+)-Artemisinin; (+)-Qinghaosu; Arteannuin; Artemef; Artemisine; Artemisinin; Artemisinine; Huanghuahaosu; NSC 369397; QHS; Qing Hau Sau; Qing Hau Su; Qinghaosu; Qinghosu CAS Number 693968-64-9 Physical Data
Density: 1.24 g/ml

Melt. point: 152 - 157C

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Because artemisinin itself has physical properties such as poor bioavailability that limit its effectiveness, semisynthetic derivatives of artemisinin have been developed. These include: Artesunate (water-soluble: for oral, rectal, intramuscular, or intravenous use) Artemether (lipid-soluble: for oral, rectal or intramuscular use) Dihydroartemisinin Artelinic acid Artenimol ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Artemotil

Total synthesis
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synthesis
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The biosynthesis of artemisinin


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synthesis
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Artemisinin: An Ancient Remedy for Modern Malaria Sometimes old remedies can be the best, particularly when they've been around for a couple thousand years. Take sweet wormwood, for example. Archaeological findings indicate that the Chinese were using wormwood to treat 26 malaria more than 2,000 years ago. The weed Artemisia annua or qing ho in Chinese is even mentioned in the Recipes for 52 Kinds of Diseases, an early medical text found in a tomb dating from 168 BC. But its curative powers were not put to a rigorous test until 1967, when the government of the People's Republic of China began to examine systematically indigenous plants used in traditional remedies as potential sources of drugs.

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It is a drug that has its roots in ancient Chinese medicine. In the fight against malaria, a disease that over 200 million people are estimated to have caught in 2010, some 655,000 of whom died of it, protecting the effectiveness of artemisinin-based drugs has become vitally important. A number of Indian pharmaceutical companies have been among those manufacturing and marketing drugs that are likely to foster resistance to artemisinin in the malaria parasite, according to the latest World Malaria Report that was recently released. However, India's Drugs Controller General initiated action earlier this year to stop the production and export of these drugs. Artemisin and its derivatives have saved countless lives after the single-celled parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, that causes the most dangerous forms of the disease became resistant to the drug chloroquine. However, strains that are resistant to even artemisinin have emerged in parts of South-East Asia and could potentially spread, as has happened with earlier antimalarial drugs.
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References 1. A. Butler and T. Hensman, Educ. Chem., 2000, 37(6), 151. 2. R. K. Haynes et al, Angew. Chem. Int. Edn, 2004, 43, 1381. 3. J. L. Vennerstrom et al, Nature (London), 2004, 430, 900. 4. G. D. Brown, G.-Y. Liang and L.-K. Sy, Phytochemistry, 2003, 64, 303. 5. R. Jambou et al, Lancet, 2005, 366, 1960.

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http://www.amazon.com/Artemisinin-Artesunate-Artemisinic-Derivatives-Artemisia/dp/0978747399

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Pictures speak
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THANKYOU EMAIL amcrasto@gmail.com An academic presentation and will not be used for any commercial purpose. My small effort to initiate interest for antimalarials
DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, HELPING MILLIONS WITH WEBSITES