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Strategies for Managing Change

regarding the adoption of HINARI

(module 6.4)

How the change is implemented is critical for the successful adoption of new information resources Review several models and concepts for managing change Apply these methodologies to your institutional setting regarding the adoption of HINARI

Broad Concept of Change

Change is a permanent part of life. No matter who we are, where we live, how old or young, we all make changes in our lives. Most of us struggle with change The ways we change inside, the ways we grow and learn, and become transformed are because of the changes in our lives.
Orlando A, Anaam C. The Change Agent

Change agent
an individual who influences clients decisions in a direction deemed desirable by a change agency; roles include develop the need for change diagnosis the problem establish information exchange channels create an intent to change in the clients translate an intent into action stabilize adoption and prevent discontinuance

Conditions for successful change

dissatisfaction with the status quo people have the necessary knowledge and skills tools needed to are available implementers have time to learn, adapt, integrate and reflect on change rewards or incentives exist for participants participation in process is expected and encouraged have support for innovation by key players and stakeholders

Resistance to change
lack of trust perception that change is not necessary perception that change is not possible relatively high cost fear of personal failure loss of status or power threats to values and ideas social, cultural or organizational disagreements resentment of interference

Exercise 1
Think of one successful change in your work environment. List the successful change variables that were in place. What was the critical factor(s) for the success of the change? Think of some unsuccessful change from your environment. List the resistance to change variables that were present. What was the critical factor(s) that thwarted the change?

Exercise 1
Regarding the use and implementation of HINARI, list some of potential resistance to change factors in your institutional setting.

Three Phases
Unfreezing phase - old ways are no longer appropriate and that change is needed Changing phase - select an appropriate and promising approach Refreezing phase the new approach is implemented and it becomes established

Everett Rogers: Innovation/Decision Process Model

Rogers: Adopter Categories

innovators - the first 2.5% to adopt the innovation early adopters - the next 13.5% to adopt the new idea early majority - next 34% of the adopters late majority - the next 34% to embrace the change laggards - the last 16% to adopt the innovation

Adopter Categories Definitions

Innovators have a great interest in new ideas and a desire to be daring and risky can cope with uncertainty regarding change may not be respected by other members of the organization Early Adopters are the critical group for change/opinion leaders contain role models for others that respect them for judicious innovation decisions are not too far ahead of the organization as compared to innovators decrease uncertainty when they adopt new ideas

Adopter Categories Definitions

Early Majority adopts new ideas before the average members of the organization not opinion leaders/make decisions slowly and carefully follow with deliberate willingness in adopting change but rarely lead Late Majority adopts innovations after the majority of the organization generally are skeptical and cautious respond to pressure from their peers and new organizational norms

Adopter Categories Definitions

Laggards are isolated and interact with others with traditional values usually make decisions on what has been done in the past possess almost no opinion leaders often are suspicious of change and change agents

Rogers: S-shaped Curve

a period of slow adoption before experiencing a sudden period of rapid adoption and then a gradual leveling off

Exercise 2
For the successful utilization of HINARI in your institution, identify individuals that would be: Innovators Early adopters Early majority Late majority Laggards Opinion leaders in the early adopters group

Exercise 2
List two or three strategies you would use to work with the opinion leaders. How would you deal with the laggards (and you can be honest)?

Useful Strategies
establish a sense of urgency create a guiding coalition develop a compelling vision and strategy communicate the change vision widely empower stakeholders for broad-based action on the vision generate short-term wins consolidate gains and produce more change anchor new approaches in organizational culture

Exercise 3
For your institutions adoption of HINARI, how would you utilize the strategies and suggestions listed above? What would be most useful and why? Identify the key (most difficult) issues to overcome for the successful adoption/utilization of HINARI. What strategies do you propose to surmount these hurdles? Implement the strategy that you have developed (to be done after the completion of the course)!

Strategy for Stakeholders

Identify the stakeholders whose commitment is required. For each type of stakeholder, describe the needed change, perceived benefits and expected resistance. Develop action plans including ones for the stakeholder groups that are not sufficiently committed. One critical group often ignored is higherlevel administration; they must be included one of the key groups.

Exercise 4
For the optimal use of HINARI, who are the key stakeholder groups? How would each group benefit from HINARI? Which would be the most difficult group to work with and what strategy would you use? How would you involve the administration?

Cautionary note
Consequences of innovation can include undesirable consequences:
direct or immediate results indirect or consequences that are a result of the innovation anticipated or recognized/intended changes unanticipated consequences that are neither intended or recognized

Goal of innovation or change

Dynamic equilibrium
Change occurs at a rate that the institution can cope with it System can adapt to the change The organization is not overloaded with too rapid change that leads to an inability to adjust or disequilibrium Can this be achieved with HINARI?

This is the end of Module 6.4

Updated 05 2007

Further resources
Rogers, Everett M. Diffusion of Innovations 5th edition Simon & Schuster, 2003 This is the end of Module 6.3

Updated 05 2007