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Session 4

Completeness Coherence Non-Verbal Communication


Definition of completeness


the Latin completus, past participle of complere (to fill up); com- + plere (to fill).

How to ensure completeness in communication


before writing.  Remember your purpose for writing.  Check for details.  Put yourself in the readers shoes.  Review for the five Ws.

Completeness in Facts and Figures


need to provide supporting evidence whenever you write

 Who  What  Where  When  Why

Tips for Writing Letters

All requests should:

Be specific and brief;  Be reasonable; and  Provide complete, accurate information.

If you want your reader to act promptly, your letter must encourage him or her to do so.  Make your inquiry easy to answer.

Request Letter
Dear Sir or Madam: Please send us information about your office copiers so that we will know whether one would be suited to our type of business. Yours truly, Fred Chan

Sample Good Letter


Definition of Coherence
From the Latin cohaer re, equivalent to co- + haer re (to stick, cling)  Refers to how something sticks together  In writing, refers to how well a paragraph's ideas or sentences stick together, and how well the language fits together


in communication is being organized in ideas.  Ideas should be well-defined and arranged according to a definite plan to achieve unity of purpose.

Rules for Coherence

Stay focused
Refrain from mentioning facts and trivia that are not necessary.  Dont elaborate on facts YOU find interesting.  Focus on the READERS interests.

Rules for Coherence

Keep your message simple (KISS) and straightforward to ensure that the person receiving it understands exactly why youve written it.  Tell a story have a beginning, middle, and end.

Analyzing the Audience

Know your audience. Your readers background will affect how they interpret and reacts to your document.  To get your point across effectively, consider the following:

Your audiences level of responsibility; Your audiences membership in your organization; and Your audiences attitudes toward and familiarity with the subject you address.

Analyzing the Audience

Where your document will be read -inside the company or outside, in the Philippines or abroad -- is important when choosing your words.

Please respond before Labor Day. Call me during office hours.

Analyzing the Audience

When your audience reads your document can impact the response you get from it.  As you write, remind readers why youre writing to them now. Has something significant happened that might affect their situation?

Organization Patterns



Introduction  Body  Summary

Conclusions  Recommendations

Conclusions  Recommendations

Introduction  Body

Organizing Ideas
Chronological  Geographical/space  Cause-to-effect  Classification  Problem-solution  Comparison or contrast  General to specific/Specific to general

Organizational Patterns
Direct > indirect  Concept > application of the concept, examples  Data > conclusions  Problem, question > solution, answer  Most important > least important

Direct vs. Indirect Pattern

When you expect the audience to be pleased, mildly interested or at worst, neutral


When you expect the audience to be uninterested, unwilling, displeased or perhaps even hostile


Advantages of the Direct Method

Saves the readers time  Sets a proper frame of mind  Prevents frustration

Typical business messages that follow the direct pattern

Routine requests and responses  Orders and acknowledgements  Non-sensitive memos  E-mail messages  Informal reports  Informal oral presentations

Advantages of the Indirect Method

Respects the feelings of the audience  Encourages a fair hearing  Minimizes negative reactions

Typical business messages that follow the indirect pattern

Letters and memos that refuse requests, deny claims, and disapprove credit  Persuasive requests  Sales letters  Sensitive messages  Some reports and oral presentations

Coherence in a Paragraph
 Stick to the point  The ideas have a clear and logical relation to each other.  Put

details, examples or incidents in logical order

4 3 2 1

Use the inverted pyramid technique


Broad, General Statements

More Specific Statements Examples and Quotes


Coherent Paragraph
In a coherent paragraph, each sentence relates clearly to the topic sentence or controlling idea.  If a paragraph is coherent, each sentence flows smoothly into the next without obvious shifts or jumps.

Coherent Paragraph
Thesis: Working at the local coffee shop was my favorite job.


Pleasant environment A. Friendly customers B. ________________ Good schedule A. Short shifts B. ________________ Good pay A. Generous tips B. ________________



Coherent Paragraph

A coherent paragraph also highlights the ties between old information and new information to make the structure of ideas or arguments clear to the reader.

The Topic Sentence

The topic of a paragraph is stated in one sentence. This is called the topic sentence.

The key issue is developed throughout the remainder of the paragraph.

The topic sentence is usually the first sentence of a paragraph, but not necessarily.

Every sentence in a paragraph should support the main idea expressed in the topic sentence.

The Topic Sentence

Topic sentences are particularly useful for writers who have difficulty developing focused, unified paragraphs. Topic sentences help writers to develop a main idea or claim for their paragraphs, and, perhaps more importantly, to stay focused and to keep paragraphs manageable.

The Topic Sentence

If the topic sentence is too long or wordy, it may be more efficient to use lists or bulleted points.

The rest of the paragraph consists of sentences that develop or explain the main idea.
Through the centuries, rats have managed to survive all our efforts to destroy them. We have poisoned them and trapped them. We have fumigated, flooded, and burned them. We have tried germ warfare. Some rats even survived atomic bomb tests conducted on Entwetok atoll in the Pacific after World War II. In spite of all our efforts, these enemies of ours continue to prove that they are the most indestructible of pests.

Techniques to Establish Coherence

Repeat key words or phrases.  Create parallel structures.  Be consistent in point of view, verb tense, and number.  Use transition words or phrases between sentences and between paragraphs.

Repeated Keywords or Phrases

A keyword or phrase in one paragraph or the last sentence of the paragraph is picked up in the first sentence of the following paragraph.

Consistency and Repetition

Particularly in paragraphs in which you define or identify an important idea or theory, be consistent in how you refer to it. This consistency and repetition will bind the paragraph together and help your reader understand your definition or description.

"I Have a Dream"

I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal. I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood. I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. I have a dream today.

Transitional Words
Using transitional words and phrases helps papers read more smoothly.  Transitions indicate relations, whether from sentence to sentence or from paragraph to paragraph.

Examples of Transitional Words


also, besides, furthermore, in addition, moreover, again accordingly, as a result, consequently, hence, otherwise, so then, therefore, thus, thereupon after all, all in all, all things considered, briefly, by and large, in any case, in any event, in brief, in conclusion, on the whole, in short, in summary, in the final analysis, in the long run, on balance, to sum up, to summarize, finally



Examples of Transitional Words


as a rule, as usual, for the most part, generally, generally speaking, ordinarily, usually in essence, in other words, namely, that is, that is to say, in short, in brief, to put it differently contrast, by the same token, conversely, instead, likewise, on one hand, on the other hand, on the contrary, rather, similarly, yet, but, however, still, nevertheless, in contrast


Contrast and Comparison:

Examples of Transitional Words


at first, first of all, to begin with, in the first place, at the same time, for now, for the time being, the next step, in time, in turn, later on, meanwhile, next, then, soon, the meantime, later, while, earlier, simultaneously, afterward, in conclusion by the way, incidentally for example, for instance, for one thing




Examples of Transitional Words



likewise, similarly, moreover here, there, over there, beyond, nearly, opposite, under, above, to the left, to the right, in the distance


Oral Communication

Self-confidence Stage fright

"Self-confidence is the first requisite to great undertakings."

Dr. Samuel Johnson, 18th century writer

Lasting self-confidence comes from a sense of control.

When you feel in control of yourself and your life, you feel confident enough to do and say the things that are consistent with your highest values.

The many ways most of us are called on to perform regularly


Passing an exam Making a sale Interviewing for a job Making a presentation at work Performing in a recital or competition Attending a social event

Fear of Public Speaking

Public speaking is said to be the NUMBER ONE fear reported in surveys of American adults, topping such fears as the fear of flying, financial problems, and even death!

Public speaking produces anxiety in most people.

Physical Symptoms of Stage Fright


Trembling, twitching, feeling shaky Pounding heart Muscle tension or soreness Sweating Clammy hands or feet Nausea, vomiting or diarrhea Watery eyes


Red face Quivering lips Dizziness or lightheadedness Difficulty breathing Trouble swallowing Flushes or chills Ringing in the ears Distorted vision Voice distortion Uncontrolled movements

Be aware of stage frights psychological aspects

Fear is normal

A degree of nervousness helps to pump up necessary adrenaline. Look at the nervousness as a challenge. A presentation is short, and not a life-or-death situation.

Be rational

Dealing with Stage Fright

Prepare.  Pace yourself and breathe normally.  Interact with the audience.  Concentrate on the message.  Channel your nervous energy.  Communicate confidence.  Dont memorize your speech.

Tips on controlling nervous jitters


Realize that people want you to succeed. Relax. Take a deep breath. When you get nervous, you breathe shallowly. If you concentrate on breathing deeply, youll get enough air to speak and ease your panic.

Tips on controlling nervous jitters

Use good posture.

We have more power and energy when we stand erect with weight balanced equally on our feet.

Concentrate on the message, not on how you are coming across.

Tips on controlling nervous jitters

Use eye contact. This will help your audience know that you are speaking to them, not at them.  Do not apologize.  Forget perfection.