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COMPRESSION OF FIELD REVERSED CONFIGURATIONS

FOR MAGNETIZED TARGET FUSION


presented by
Dr J. H. Degnan
Air Force Research Laboratory
Directed Energy Directorate
Presented at Symposium on Current Trends in International
Fusion Research
7-11 March 2005
2
COMPRESSION OF FIELD REVERSED CONFIGURATIONS
FOR MAGNETIZED TARGET FUSION
J.H.Degnan, A. Brown (2), T.Cavazos (1), S.K.Coffey (2), M.Frese (2), S. Frese (2), D.Gale (1),
C.Gilman (1), C. Grabowski (1), B. Guffey (2), T.P.Intrator (3), R.Kirkpatrick (3), G.F.Kiuttu,
F.M.Lehr, R.E.Peterkin, Jr (1), N.F.Roderick (4), E.L.Ruden, R.E.Siemon (5), W.Sommars (1), Y F.
Thio (6), P.J.Turchi (3), G.AWurden (3), S. Zhang (3)
Directed Energy Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, NM, USA
(1) SAIC, Albuquerque, NM, USA
(2) NumerEx, Albuquerque, NM, USA
(3) Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, USA
(4) Permanent address: Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico,
Albuquerque, NM, USA
(5) University of Nevada Reno, Reno, NV, USA
(6) DOE-OFES
This research was sponsored by DOE-OFES
3
Elements Of Magnetized Plasma Compression, aka
Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF)
Thin i mploding liner
Mega-ampere current
10 keV plasma
Magnetic
guide field
Typical parameters:
Initial Final
n 10
17
cm
-3
10
20
cm
-3
T 300 eV 10 keV
B 100 kG 10 MG
Guide-field coils
Plasma pr eheat er and i nject or Liner i mplosi on system
FRC
Conical theta pinch
Thin i mploding liner
Mega-ampere current
10 keV plasma
Magnetic
guide field
Typical parameters:
Initial Final
n 10
17
cm
-3
10
20
cm
-3
T 300 eV 10 keV
B 100 kG 10 MG
Guide-field coils
Plasma pr eheat er and i nject or Liner i mplosi on system Plasma pr eheat er and i nject or Liner i mplosi on system
FRC
Conical theta pinch
~10
4
MTF Is A Hybrid Of ICF And MFE
ICF relies on rapid imploding boundary to achieve adiabatic
compression of fuel
- requires driver to deliver megajoules in nanoseconds
- requires several 10s cm/microsecond implosion velocity
- validated by underground tests
MFE relies on magnetic field to confine modest density, high
temperature plasma for seconds or longer
- problems are instabilities and impurities
- has achieved gain ~ 0.5 (gain = energy out/energy in)
MTF uses magnetic field to suppress thermal conduction , imploding
boundary to compress plasma
- requires 10s of megajoules in ~1 to 10 microseconds
- requires ~ 1 cm/microsecond implosion velocity
- greatly reduced driver power (x100 to 1000) relative to ICF
5
Magnetized Target Fusion
Magnetized target fusion (MTF)
identified in US and Russia as an
alternate approach intermediate between
MFE and ICF parameter regimes
Closed magnetic field configurations
reduce electron thermal conduction
losses
Enables (slower) adiabatic compression
with modest driver requirements
~10X radial compression required
Typical precompression plasma
parameters: 100 eV, 10
17
cm
-3
, 5 T
Required Plasma Energy vs. Density
for various transport assumptions
1
10
3
10
6
10
9
10
12
10
14
10
16
10
18
10
20
10
22
10
24
10
26
Density (cm
-3
)
P
l
a
s
m
a

E
n
e
r
g
y

(
J
o
u
l
e
s
)
CT Classical
CT Bohm
ICF electron
thermal cond.
Chi=1m2/sec
MFE
MTF
ICF
LANL
6
Closed magnetic field lines
Magnetic field line tension squeezes axially when radially compressed
Particles that drift across flux surfaces are lost to open field lines beyond
separatrix
Equilibrium lifetime is anomalously long (many Alfven times), but not
theoretically understood
LANL
Field Reversed Configuration
Self Organized Magnetic Equilibrium
7
Initial diagnostics for FRC formation
Diamagnetic field exclusion magnetic probe
array
Radial view laser interferometry
Axial view fast photography
Current and voltage probes on all discharges
Later additional FRC formation diagnostics
Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) probe arrays for
purity monitoring and temperature, density
information
LANL
Diagnostics
8
AFRL eight chord laser interferometer installed on
FRC formation system at LANL
9
time (Qs)
10 12 14 16 18 20 22
n

/
1
0
1
6

(
c
m
-
3
)
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
r ! 0.0 cm
r ! 0.7 cm
r !1.9 cm
r !2.4 cm
r !3.0 cm
r !3.4 cm
r !3.6 cm
r !4.2 cm
r !5.2 cm
Density vs. time at various radii via Abel Inversion.
The radii chosen correspond to the closest approach of each laser
chord to the FRC axis (impact parameters). Shot 1973
10
radius (cm)
0 1 2 3 4 5
n

/
1
0
1
6

(
c
m
-
3
)
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
10 Qs
12 Qs
14 Qs
16 Qs
18 Qs
20 Qs
impact parameters
Density vs. radius at various times for FRC
inferred from Abel Inversion algorithm.
11
FRC
parameter
How
measured
goal Experiment
peak
Experiment
equilibrium
comments
density laser
interfer-
ometry
10
17
cm
-3
~ 6 x 10
16
~ 2 x 10
16
has toroidal
profile
Temperature
T
i
< T
e
via
density
and
pressure
from field
exclusion
~ 200 eV
~ 200300
eV
~ 100 eV
lifetime via
n, p vs t
~ 20 Qsec ~ 10 Qsec may be
limited by
crowbar
ripple
FRC status as of mid 2003: achieved parameters are
approaching pre-compression goals
12
ASSEMBLY DRAWING
SOLID LINER
PP-99028-1A
1999 SHOT SERIES r = 5 cm, 1 m/m < t < 2 m/m
30 cm TALL CYLINDRICAL LINER
ENGINEER:
CHECKER:
DRAFTSMAN: U.S. AIR FORCE
SCALE:
DRAWING NO.
TITLE:
PL-WSP
D.GALE
COMPUTER FILE NAME: :
D.GALE
1/3
S99ASY6A.DWG
SHT 1 OF 1
FRC Compatible Imploding
Liner Hardware Design
- The 30 cm long liner
implosion experiments
extend our experience to
longer liners
- The diagnostics on these
initial shots include flash
radiography, interior
magnetic field
compression, discharge
current and voltage, and an
interior instrumented
impact package
13
Shiva Star Facility at AFRL
Shiva Star Capacitor Bank (up to 9 Megajoules, 3 Qsec)
available now for implosion - compression experiments
82 kV, 1300 uF, 44 nH
for first Z-pinch driven
long liner experiments
~12 Megamp, ~10 Qsec
risetime discharge
implodes 30 cm long, 10
cm diameter, 1.1 mm
thick Al liner in 24 Qsec
4.4 MJ energy storage
gives 1.5 MJ in liner KE
14
Radiographs from FRC compatible
Liner Implosion on Shiva Star
t = 0.0 Qsec, diam = 10 cm
Achieved velocity, radial convergence, symmetry, stability
needed for compression of FRCs to MPC conditions
13 x radial
convergence
Shot 1
20.0 Qsec
Shot 2
22.0 Qsec
Shot 2
23.0 Qsec
Adjacent
lower
electrode
Mid-gap
Central probe
package (1 cm
dia.)
Liner
Lower electrode
Liner
Central probe
package
(0.64 cm dia.)
Shot 1
23.5 Qsec
15
Avoiding Sliding Liner-electrode
Contact
Avoiding the sliding liner-electrode
contact is desirable in order to:
- Avoid impeding FRC injection into
interior of liner
- Improve purity of injected FRC
- Improve axial diagnostic access
Two approaches to achieving this are:
- Using deformable liner-electrode
contact for Z-pinch driven liner
- Using a theta-pinch driven liner
16
Connecting current to the liner
Uniform-thickness liner
Variable-thickness or shaped liner
Glide-plane electrodes
used in 1999 Shiva-Star experiments
would interfere with FRC injection
Shaped liner recently tested
Liner
17
2D-MHD simulations indicate feasibilty of
deformable liner-electrode concept
Deformable Liner-Electrode Contacts Offer Advantages in Purity of the
Compressed Plasma and Diagnostics Access for Z-pinch Driven Liner;
these examples are for 8 cm diameter electrode apertures
Double frustrum and smooth liner
initial thickness profiles
Double frustrum profiled
liner density contours at ~ 1
Qs before peak compression
Smooth profiled liner
density contours at ~ 1 Qs
before peak compression
18
2D-MHD simulated density contours for similar
parameter liner implosion, at 0.5 Qs before stagnation.
Experimental radiograph for portion of liner
adjacent to electrode, at 22 Qs after start of current,
approximately 0.5 Qs prior to peak compression.
Bottom of liner to top of field of view is
approximately 4.5 cm.
Static radiograph of portion of liner adjacent
to electrode, prior to experiment. Inner
diameter = 9.78 cm.
Overlay of 2D-MHD simulation density contours and radiographs at
approximately same size scales.
Deformable contact liner implosion performed with 8 cm
diameter electrode apertures; results indicate that Z-
pinch imploded liner approach is feasible
19
Top: radiograph of liner at t=0, near mid-gap,
ID = 9.78 cm, OD = 10.0 cm.
Bottom: radiograph of liner at t = 22 Qsec, near
mid-gap. ID of non-m=0 portion $ 0.58 cm,
corresponding to radial compression of inner
surface ~ 17. We believe that the m=0 portion
is right at mid-gap. If there had been an FRC
inside, it would be compressed > 10x radially
prior to significant growth of this instability.
Mid-gap radiograph indicates ~ 17 x radial
compression of inner surface
We suspect this late m = 0 feature is due to release of initial axial compression,
combined with thickness derivative discontinuity (from double frustrum thickness
profile) at 9 cm from mid-gap. Both the initial axial compression and the thickness
derivative can be removed by design change.
20
Left: 200 nanosec optical framing photo, axial view, of load. Inner
diameter of opening is 8.0 cm. Photo used Xenon flash backlighting.
Right: 200 nanosec optical framing photo, axial view, of load at
21Qsec into implosion discharge. Inner diameter of smallest part of
liner (most imploded part) is 1.5 cm.
Axial view fast optical photos indicate symmetric
implosion of inner surface of liner with inner
diameter consistent with simulation
21
Mach2 2D-MHD simulation density contours for half height of liner at t =
21 Qs and 22 Qs for double frustrum liner thickness profile from z = 0 to 6
cm, uniform thickness 1.1 mm from z = 6 to z = 14.5 cm, thickness tapers
from 1.10 to 1.075 mm from z = 14.5 cm to mid-gap. Electrode aperture
radius is 4 cm.
t = 21 Qs
t = 22 Qs
R = 4.0 cm
R = 0 cm
Z = 0 cm
Z = 15 cm = mid-gap
An ~ 1 mil (.025 mm) thinning of liner over central cm
near mid-gap would explain late m = 0 feature
22
Alternative liner thickness vs profiles are being
examined via Mach2 simulations
A family of such simulations uses an analytic profile which includes Gaussian
thinning region a few cm from electrodes
)

'
+

'

'
+

'

+
+

'
+

'

+ !
2
00
n / 1 n / 1
3
z z
exp 1
z B
A
z B
A
R z r
Z
0
= distance from liner midplane. Z
o
= 11.5 corresponds to 3.5 cm up from electrode. Z
00
= 3.5
A is the half width at half max and is a measure of the amplitude.
Other parameters are defined in following table (next slide)
23
Case A n
Base
line
1.3 0.5 5.0 5.5 15 11.5 0.0 1.0
01 1.3 0.5 5.0 5.5 15 11.5 0.001 0.50
03 1.3 0.5 5.0 5.5 15 11.5 0.005 0.5
05 1.3 0.5 5.0 5.5 15 9.5 0.003 0.5
06 1.3 0.5 5.0 5.5 15 9.5 0.005 0.5
07 1.3 0.5 5.0 5.5 15 8.5 0.003 0.5
07_1 1.3 0.5 5.0 5.5 15 8.5 0.004 0.5
07_2 1.3 0.5 5.0 5.5 15 8.5 0.005 0.5
08 1.3 0.5 5.0 5.5 15 9.5 0.003 1.0
08_01 1.3 0.5 5.0 5.5 15 9.5 0.004 1.0
08_2 1.3 0.5 5.0 5.5 15 9.5 0.005 1.0
09_01 1.3 0.5 5.0 5.5 15 10.5 0.004 1.0
09_02 1.3 0.5 5.0 5.5 15 10.5 0.005 1.0
R
0
R
1
z
1
z
0
A
Deformable liner thickness profile parameters
24
4 cm electrode inner radius
Baseline 01 03 05 06 07
07-1 07-2 08 08-1 09 09-1
Contour plots show half (15 cm) of 30 cm tall, 5 cm initial outer radius, Al liner position and shape at 21
microseconds after start of 1300 microfarad, 80 KV, 44 nanoHenry initial inductance Shiva Star discharge,
with standard safety fuse. Initial liner thickness is 1.1 mm at mid-gap (15 cm above lower electrode).
2D-MHD simulations indicate that use of Gaussian thinning
regions a few cm from electrodes controls divergence of liner
ends; variants of this are being investigated computationally
15 cm
mid-gap
25
Current peaked at ~ 12 megamps, at ~ 10 Qs after start of current
rise. Insulator crowbar occurred at ~ 17 Qs, as expected.
Normal current delivery to liner and symmetry were
obtained for experimental Bi-frustrum profile)case
1.40E+7
-1.10E+7
-7.50E+6
-5.00E+6
-2.50E+6
0.00E+0
2.50E+6
5.00E+6
7.50E+6
1.00E+7
1.25E+7
30.000E-6 0.000E+0 5.000E-6 10.000E-6 15.000E-6 20.000E-6 25.000E-6
I_corrected CCW.dat
I_sum_arms.dat
I_bdot1.dat
I_bdot2.dat
I_bdot3.dat
MTF shot on Dec 09, 2003
26
Simulation Details: FRC Formation
and Translation
The FRC formation uses a flux-based
resistive diffusion model.
The simulation includes
Thermal diffusion
Radiative emission
After about 2 Qs, the forming FRC
translates itself down the formation region
into the liner implosion region.
We generally use an FRC from ~ 4 Qs into the
formation simulation to insert (interpolate) into
the imploding liner simulation.
27
FRC Formation and Injection Setup
Formation
And
Translation
Region
Implosion
Region
Schematic
(not to scale)
axis
axis
Liner (not in
formation/translation
phase)
Actual Block Structure
Flux Input: 1
Flux Input: 2
Flux Input: 3
Flux Input: 5
Flux Input: 4
m
28
FRC Formation and Translation: Te
& Flux
t = 0 Qs t = 1 Qs t = 2 Qs t = 3 Qs t = 4 Qs t = 5 Qs
L
i
n
e
r

I
m
p
l
o
s
i
o
n

R
e
g
i
o
n
29
Integration of the Two Simulations
Around 13 to 14 Qs, we interpolate
the FRC simulation data into the
liner implosion simulation and
continue the implosion.
We can vary the time of the insertion
(relative to the liner implosion) and
the age of the FRC.
The following series of figures
shows the liner (in white), the
temperature, and the flux lines as
the liner implodes.
In this particular simulation, an FRC
4.2 Qs old is inserted into the liner at
13 Qs as shown at right.
30
Early Liner Evolution with Injected FRC
t = 13 Qs t = 13.5 Qs t = 14 Qs t = 14.5 Qs
The downward
momentum of the
FRC tries to force
it out the bottom
of the liner.
The mirror field
trapped in the
imploding liner
captures it, but
some mass
escapes.
The white line is the liner.
31
Liner Evolution with Injected FRC
t = 15 Qs t = 16 Qs t = 17 Qs t = 18 Qs t = 19 Qs
This combination of timings seems to capture
and re-center the FRC.
The grid motion is stopped at 17.4 Qs
The lower portion of the grid is shown in the inset
32
Late Liner Evolution with Injected FRC
By 20 Qs, the
liner has com-
pressed to an
inner radius of
0.5 cm.
The temperature
in the center of
the FRC is over
8 keV.
There are
temperatures as
high as 13 keV
within the FRC,
near the axis.
t = 19.5 Qs t = 20 Qs
33
Design concept for integrated
FRC formation hardware with
imploding liner compression
hardware is evolving
- adequate space for existing
FRC formation load hardware
design in vertical orientation
under Shiva Star center section
with implosion load hardware
- even more space available with
re-positioning of FRC vacuum
pump
34
Presently planned layout of FRC Formation
Hardware Under and Around Shiva Star
Main = single re-configured
Shiva Star module
PI = pre-ionization bank
Bias, guide, and cusp banks
in NE sextant of floor space
rail mounted FRC formation
train is under Shiva Star B
transmission line when mated
to implosion chamber
rail mounted FRC formation
train is withdrawn to NE
corner of workspace for FRC
formation experiments with
greater formation diagnostics
complement, allowing other
uses of Shiva Star
Re-configured Shiva Star module
FRC formation load in axial orientation
35
Can Imploding Liner Magnetized Plasma
Compression Be Made Repetitive?
Implosion-compression of several-cm-radius shells on the 1 to 10 microsecond time
scale can be used for magnetized target fusion (MTF)
This can be done in a manner with standoff of the driver, e.g., using arrays of laser
or particle beams, which enables repetitive operation (for power plants or
propulsion)
Similar to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) drivers, but with 10
3
to 10
4
times
slower pulses, hence easier
There are also schemes for repetitive operation of magnetic pressure driven liner
implosions (R.W. Moses et al, LA-7683-MS, 1979), and for pneumatic pressure
driven implosions of rotationally stabilized, re-usable liquid Li liners (P.J. Turchi et
al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1613 (1976))
A plasma jet spherical array compression scheme has also been proposed
(Y.C.F.Thio et al, Proceedings of Second Symposium of Current Trends in
International Fusion Research, 1999)
Single shot versions of such implosion-compression can be done now via magnetic
pressure implosions, using our existing large capacitor bank
Such single shot implosion-compression experiments can be used to investigate
critical technical issues before developing and building more expensive, repetitive
drivers