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Chemical Bond

The attraction force by which the atoms are joined together to form a molecule, is called Chemical Bond. For example, two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom are joined together by chemical bond to form a molecule of water.

Valency
 

The ability of an atom to make chemical bond with other atom is determined by its valency. Valency is measured by the no. of valence electrons in its outermost shell (valence shell), which take part in the formation of chemical bond.

Electronic theory of valency: Two scientists W. kossel and G.N Lewis are the inventors of this theory. According to this theory during the formation of chemical bond each atom wants to obtain the most stable electron configuration like an inert gas. Octet Rule Octet Rule rule that states that during the formation of chemical bond each atom gain, lose, or share electrons to attain the outermost energy level filled up with 8 electrons like an inert gas.

Why compounds are formed ?


Most of the atoms have incomplete outer shells. When an atom react with other atom, both of them exchange or share electrons such that they can obtain the most stable electron configuration like an inert gas. The potential energy of this system (molecule) is lower than that of the individual atoms. This is why compounds are formed.

Chemical Bonding
Chemical compounds are formed by the joining of two or more atoms. A stable compound occurs when the total energy of the combination has lower energy than the separated atoms. The bound state implies a net attractive force between the atoms in a chemical bond. The two extreme cases of chemical bonds are

Ionic bond  Covalent bond




Other Chemical bond are: metallic bonds, hydrogen bond and van der Waals bonds etc.

Ionic Bonds
What is an Ionic Bond?
 An Ionic Bond is a chemical bond resulting from the

TRANSFER of electrons from one bonding atom to another  During the formation of ionic bond one atom becomes positive ion by loosing electron and the other becomes negative ion by gaining that electron.  The electrostatic force of attraction between these two types of ions make bond between them.

What are the characteristics of an ionic bond?


1.

Ionic bonds are formed by the electrostatic force of attraction between the anion and cation. So they shows polarity.

2. Crystalline at room temperature. 3. Have higher melting and boiling point compared to covalent compounds 4. Conduct electrical current in melted or solution state but not in the solid state

Formation of ionic bond

Covalent Bonds
What is an Covalent Bond?
A covalent bond is a chemical bond resulting from SHARING of electrons between 2 bonding atoms.  During the formation of covalent bond each atom provide same number of electrons and form one or more electron pair.  This electron pair is shared by both atoms and thus they fill up their outermost shell by 8 electrons  A covalent bond is formed between two nonmetals.


What are the characteristics of a covalent bond?


1. Covalent bonds have stable and definite directional shape, because the atoms in a molecule are oriented in a three dimensional space 2. They do not conduct current in melted or solution state 3. Low melting and boiling points

4. They are soluble in non-polar solvent like benzene, chloroform Electron from Hydrogen atom but not in polar solvent like water Electron from carbon atom

Formation of covalent bond

METALLIC BOND Metallic bond is found in metals; holds metal atoms together very strongly.

Metallic Bond- A Sea of Electrons

Some Characteristics of Metallic Bond


 In a metal atom, the valence electrons are loosely bound to the

nucleus.  Depending on the crystal structure the central atom is surrounded by 8 or 12 atoms, but the central atom has not enough electrons to make covalent bonds with all the surrounding atoms. So, the valence electrons are not bounded to any particular atom, but move about freely all over the atoms.  Thus a metal can be treated as a combination of many positive ions surrounded by delocalized sea of electrons.  These electrons bound many atoms by resonance, which is called metallic bond.  For the high speed of these electrons, metal shows high conductivity of electric current.  It is also good conductor of heat and has very high melting points  Examples; Na, Fe, Al, Au, Co

ENERGY AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS Exothermic reactions These reactions give out heat energy. Combustion is an exothermic reaction. Endothermic reactions These reactions take in heat energy from their surroundings. These cause temperatures to fall.

How to calculate whether a reaction is endothermic of exothermic


Forming a bond releases energy Breaking a bond requires energy The energy required to break a chemical bond: the energy released when a bond is formed If the total bonding energy of the reactant is greater than the total bonding energy of resultant element then this reaction is exothermic and vice versa is endothermic.

1. What type of reaction is it? 2H2O p 2H2 + O2 H-O-H + H-O-H p H-H + H-H + O=O Bond kJ/mol H-O 459 H-H 436 O=O 498 # 4 required 1836 # 2 1 released 872 498 1370

1836 466 2H2O + 466 kJ p 2H2 + O2 So, this is an endothermic reaction

2. What type of reaction is it? H2 + Cl2 p 2HCl H-H + Cl-Cl p H-Cl + H-Cl Bond kJ/mol # required # H-H 436 1 436 Cl-Cl 243 1 243 H-Cl 432 2 679 H2 + Cl2 p 2HCl + 185 kJ So, this is an exothermic reaction

released

864 864 185

3. C25H52 + 38O2 p 25CO2 + 26H2O Bond kJ/mol # C-C 348 24 C-H 413 52 C=O 799 H-O 459 O=O 498 38 required 8352 21476 # released

50 52 18924 48752

39950 23868 63818 15066

3196 5950 1224 C2H5OH + 3O2 p 2CO2 + 3H2O + 1224 kJ Thus, molar heat of combustion, (Hc=1224 kJ/mol h = 1224 kJ/mol x 1 mol/46.08 g = 26.6 kJ/g

4. C2H5OH + 3O2 p 2CO2 + 3H2O Bond kJ/mol # required # C-C 348 1 348 C-H 413 5 2065 C-O 360 1 360 H-O 459 1 459 6 O=O 498 3 1494 C=O 799 4 4726

released

2754