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MONOCLONAL

antibodies
Dr.T.V.Rao MD

Beginning of Monoclonal Era




Georg Kohler and Cesar Milstein fuse mouse lymphocytes with neoplastic mouse plasma cells to yield hybridomas that produce specific antibodies. This offers a limitless supply of monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies permit diagnostic tests that are specific, and function as probes.

Discovery of Monoclonal Antibodies




Monoclonal antibodies were produced in mice using a technique described by Khler and Milstein et al.. They were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1984 (along with Jerne) for their work.

Nobel prize in Medicine and Physiology was awarded to Khler, Milstein and Jerne in 1984

Monoclonal Antibodies


Monoclonal antibodies are Monospecific antibodies that are identical because they are produced by one type of immune cell that are all clones of a single parent cell. Given (almost) any substance, it is possible to create monoclonal antibodies that specifically bind to that substance

Nomenclature


The nomenclature of monoclonal antibodies is a naming scheme for assigning generic, or non-proprietary, nonnames to a group of medicines called monoclonal antibodies. This scheme is used for both the World Health Organization s International NonNonproprietary Names and the United States Adopted Names

Study of Myeloma leads to Discovery of Monoclonal antibodies




In the 1970 s the B-cell Bcancer myeloma was known, and it was understood that these cancerous B-cells all Bproduce a single type of antibody. This was used to study the structure of antibodies, but it was not possible to produce identical antibodies specific to a given antigen.

Fusion of Mice spleen cells with Myeloma cells produced Monoclonal antibodies

Characters of Monoclonal Antibodies




Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are a single type of antibody that are identical and are directed against a specific epitope (antigen, antigenic determinant) and are produced by B-cell clones of a single Bparent or a single hybridoma cell line. A hybridoma cell line is formed by the fusion of a one B-cell lymphocyte with a Bmyeloma cell. Some myeloma cells synthesize single mAb antibodies naturally

Hybridoma creates Monoclonal antibodies




Monoclonal antibodies are typically made by fusing myeloma cells with the spleen cells from a mouse that has been immunized with the desired antigen. However, recent advances have allowed the use of rabbit B-cells. B-

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Producing Monoclonal antibodies




First, a mouse is inoculated with the antigen to which the MA are to be produced. After this, the spleen is removed and fused with myeloma cells in order to produce the hybridomas that will be selected according to the antibody produced.

Hybridoma leads to Proliferation

Principles in Hybridoma technology


  

 

inject the protein into a mouse. - remove the spleen. - identify which spleen cells are producing antibodies. - separate these cells and grow in tissue culture tubes. - screen each Ab for cross reactivity. - select the Ab which doesn't cross react with any other protein.

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Monoclonal antibodies are produced by Hybridoma technique

Monoclonal


Diagnostic use

Although monoclonal antibodies were first produced in 1975 as research tools, scientists quickly recognized their practical uses, especially in diagnostic tests and in therapy. Several diagnostic procedures that use monoclonal antibodies are now available

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A breakthrough in Diagnostics


A monoclonal antibody can be used to detect pregnancy only 14 days after conception. Other monoclonal antibodies allow rapid diagnosis of hepatitis, influenza, herpes, streptococcal, and Chlamydia infections. infections.
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Helps in Critical Diagnostic decisions




They can be used to detect for the presence and quantity of this substance, for instance in a Western blot test (to detect a substance in a solution) or an immunofluorescence test.

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Monoclonal's helps In Immunodiagnostic tests




Monoclonal antibodies can also be used to purify a substance with techniques called immunoprecipita tion and affinity chromatography.

Limitations with Mouse Monoclonals




Problem in medical applications is that the standard procedure of producing monoclonal antibodies yields mouse antibodies, and these are rejected by the human immune system

Finding solutions for Human use




In one approach, one takes the DNA that encodes the binding portion of monoclonal mouse antibodies and merges it with human antibody producing DNA, in order to make bacteria produce antibodies that are half mouse and half human.
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Conjugated monoclonal antibody therapy:




Toxins or radioactive isotopes are bound to the constant region of the MAbs. When the MAb binds to the surface cells of a tumor the toxin or radioactivity will kill the cancer cells and all cells within a certain radius (a killing zone). In this way cancer cells within the tumor will be killed

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Knowledge on Monoclonal s advances




Mice have been genetically engineered to produce antibodies that have human constant regions (this is the part of the antibody that the human immune system recognizes as being foreign (mouse)). By using these hybrid (or chimeric monoclonal antibodies with human constant regions, the immune system only "sees" a human protein and does not react against them. So, they can be injected many times to kill all of the cells in a tumor.

Monoclonal antibodies for cancer treatment




Possible treatment for cancer involves monoclonal antibodies that bind only to cancer cells specific antigen and induce immunological response on the target cancer cell (naked antibodies). mAb can be modificated for delivery of [toxin], radioisotope, cytokine.

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FDA approves


The example described in class is Herceptin. Herceptin. These monoclonal antibodies can be used against certain forms of breast cancer and have passed clinical trials and been approved for use by the FDA. FDA.

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FDA approves and Trails on




The first FDA-approved FDAtherapeutic monoclonal antibody was a murine IgG2a CD3 specific transplant rejection drug, OKT3 (also called muromonab), in 1986. This drug found use in solid organ transplant recipients who became steroid resistant. Hundreds of therapies are undergoing clinical trials. Most are trials. concerned with immunological and

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Dr.T.V.Rao MD Email doctortvrao@gmail.com