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By Mohsen Kamyar
Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
 Introduction
 BP and BPM
 What are the challenges
 Business Process Modeling Techniques

 Activity Diagram

 Tools
 Simulating
 Globalizing markets
 Needs to fast changes in processes
 Decrease in change cost

 Optimizing all the processes after each change

 Useful underlying techniques

 Web services

 Including WSs in models

BP and BPM
 BP:
 Itis the way a company handles a business
request, e.g. A loan request in a bank, or an
incoming order in a shipping company. It is
nothing concrete, it is the way people and
systems interact to handle a business request.
 BPM:
 An abstraction of the way people and systems
interact to handle a business request described
in some kind of language, e.g. UML Activity
BPM Advantages
 Betterunderstanding
 Documentation
 Optimizing
 Simulating
 Continued optimization
 Creating systems for supporting it
 Work Flow Management Systems
Business Analyst Tasks
 Understanding existing processes in
 Should be one of them
 Model current processes
 Improve processes
 Using criteria like Model Key Performance
Indicators (KPI)
 Model improved processes
What are the challenges
 Difficultiesin modeling the interaction
between humans and systems
 Lack in understanding processes
 Different views
 Interaction between the organization and
outside business
 Existing different level of abstractions
according to different levels in
organization job places
Business Process Modeling
 Firstwe should select a good approach
(technique) for modeling
 For this purpose we should first consider
three factors
 Propertiesof modeling objects
 Characteristics of the modeling environment

 Intended use of the model

Business Process Modeling
 Main approaches
 Input/Output Flow
 Activities are nodes
 Work Flow
 Activities are arrows (e.g. activity diagram)
 Agent-related view
 e.g. Collaboration diagram
 State Flow
Business Process Modeling
 Ifan organization is functionally structured and
processes are not identified, it is suitable to use
input/output view or agent-related view
 When the processes are identified the workflow
view, or state-oriented view, or both should be
 There is no need to work sequentially, i.e. first
get a full input/output view, then identify the
processes, than describe each process
Business Process Modeling - Case Study
 StateFlow as a Way of Analyzing
Business Processes – Case Studies,
Logistics Information Management,
Vol.15(1), pp. 34-45, 2002.
 Business process modeling, support and
 Knowledge management
 Computer supported communication and
 Technology enabled organizational change
 Requirements Engineering and Agile System
 Object-oriented modeling and design
 Introduction of IT in operational practice
 Base standard for specifying the business
process model
 Similar to UML activity diagram
 Has much more model symbols
 Can model around 21 different work flow
Activity Types in BPML
UML Activity Diagram
 Consists of
 Actions

 Control flow
 Split and Join

 Decisions

 Swimlanes
Other BPM notations
 Thereare some efforts for formal
description of the business processes
A Formal Model for Business Process Modeling
and Design (ISL: Information Systems
 From Business Process Model to Consistent
Implementation: A Case for Formal Verification
Methods (IBM Zurich,
numbered.pdf )
Other BPM Notations
 Afterall each one can develop his profile
for business process modeling
 For example Sparx Systems using a uml
extension for business process modeling in his
product Enterprise Architect. This profile has
been developed by Hans-Erik Eriksson and
Magnus Penker.
 And as another example we can do it:
A simple BPProfile
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
- <UMLProfile>
<Documentation id="BPProfile" name="UML Profile for Business Modeling" version="1"
notes="A set of stereotypes and tagged values for modeling business processes" /> <!--
The profile content -->
- <Content> <!-- List of stereotypes used in this profile -->
- <Stereotypes> <!-- <<UseCaseModel - EA supports this thru Package>> -->
- <Stereotype name="useCaseModel" notes="A model that describes the busness processes of
a business and their interactions with external parties">
- <AppliesTo>
<Apply type="package" />
</Stereotype> <!-- <<UseCaseSystem>> -->
- <Stereotype name="useCaseSystem" notes="Top level package in a use case model, may
contain use case packages, use cases and relations">
- <AppliesTo>
<Apply type="package" />
</Stereotype> <!-- <<Use Case Package>> -->
- <Stereotype name="useCasePackage" notes="A use case package is a package that may
contain use cases and relationships">
- <AppliesTo>
<Apply type="package" />

Standards for Global Internet Computing



Process Coordination Framework
Business Integration Modeler editors,
models, and transformations
Main challenge in exporting models
 There is not a complete set of conversion
rules from BPMNs to IT field (WSDL,
 Main concept in IT field for executing
models is Work Flow Management
WFMS requirements
 Well establised IT infrastructure
 SOA: Applications called as services
 Ressources to model the business, to implement
 them and to support and monitor the running
 instances.
 The organisation must be ready for change.
 get new ways of working.
 Skilled people!
Example Export
WFMS Advantages
 Higher productivity
 Moves knowledge from people to documented
 Rapid adaptation to the market
 Location of bottlenecks and runtime changes of
 Statistics about processes
 Continued optimisation
 Reuse of services and processes
 All processes are implemented in same
WFMS Challenges
 Difficult to map from business process model to
 Services to be called are not documented or
required datais missing in the process
 Workflows can be very complex and they can be
difficult to comprehend
 Limitations in the WFM system compared to
 Many technologies and platforms are involved. It
requires a lot of the process developer.
 Business Process Execution Language for Web
 Defined by IBM, Microsoft, SAP, BEA, Siebel
 Builds on top of XML and Web Services
technology stack
 Extensible for new language elements
 IBM BPEL: Staff activity, Java snippet, Control links
 Islike a programming language combined with
graphically representation
 Properties of a BPEL process
 Isitself a web service. Has a WSDL interface
 Can be synchronous or asynchronous

A BPEL process consists of

 Activities
 Structured activities
 Control flow
 Variables
 Partner links
 Graphical Notation
 Thereare tools that support for all steps in
modeling business processes and then
using models
 IBM Web Sphere Business Modeler
 BEA Aqua Logic BPM Suite

 Sparx Systems Enterprise Architect

IBM WebSphere Business Modeler
 Provides comprehensive, user-friendly business
process modeling and collaboration tools to
graphically model processes across people,
partners, and applications
 Allows companies to quickly redesign processes
as business needs change
 Supports multiple modeling methodologies and
industry standards
 Simulates and validates modeled processes and
provides key performance metrics
 Provides a team environment to share and
maintain versions of models
IBM WebSphere Business Modeler
BEA AquaLogic BPM Suite
 Complete product suite for creating,
executing and optimizing business
 Thistechnique always is used to
determine the bottlenecks.
 Simply we assume a model as queue system
 Then run a simulation to find queues that