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ADVANCED WELDING TECHNOLOGY

By:HEMANT KUMAR

SYLLABUS
Unit-I 1. Introduction: Importance and application of welding classification of welding process. Selection of welding process. 2. Brief review of conventional welding process: Gas welding Arc welding MIG & TIG welding Resistance welding Electroslag welding Friction welding. 3. Welding of Steel, CI, Al, Stainless steel 4. Maurer/ Schaefflar Diagram. 5. Soldering & Brazing.

Welding Definition & Classification




Process of permanent joining two materials (usually metals) through localised coalescence of heat or force.

Selection of the welding process


Nature of joint  Materials to be welded  Geometry of component  Quality  Strength & mechanical properties  Time factor  Cost  Welding Environment  Source of energy


Gas Welding



2C2H2

2O2

----- 4CO + 2H2

Heat

4CO + 2H2 + 3O2 ---- 4CO2 + 2H2O + Heat

Types of Flames

Comparison b/w Flames


S. No.
Temperature Materials O2:C2H2 1:1

Neutral Flame
3200 CI, MS, SS Cu, Al

Oxidizing flame
3300 Cu or Zinc alloys 1.2:1

Reducing Flame
3100 Lead ,HSS 1:1.2

Oxy- Fuel Welding


 1. 2. 3. 4.

Oxygen is used with other fuel gas to produce flame & coalescence of heat. Hydrogen Propane Butane Natural gas

Advantage
Most versatile. Considerable control over temp. by varying supply of gases. Deposition rate is controlled Low cost & versatile equipment Portable & low maintenance

Disadvantage
Not for heavy sections Lower temp of flame limits its use. Flux used causes irritating smoke. Refractory metals & reactive metals cannot be welded Long heat up time Larger HAZ More safety & handling problem with gases.

APPLICATION
Joining up to thickness 8 mm. Materials having harmful effect of rapid heating & cooling. Materials like- CI, SS, LCS, HCS, Cu, Zn, Ni, Mg etc. In automobile & aircraft industry for sheet-metal applications.

Arc Welding

PRINCIPLE
Heat is generated from arc struck between an electrode & work piece. Temp.= 5500 Celsius Stand off dis.= 1 - 5 mm. Arc length = 0.6 - 0.8 of electrode dia. Current =150 1000 Amp. Voltage = 40 - 45 volts (DC) 50 -60 volts (AC)

ARC GENERATION
Supply is on, voltage is applied, electrode & w/p are stuck together and hence current flow starts; then the electrode is kept 2-5mm and due to current flow electron jumps gap & ionization of gap takes place and arc is initiated.

Methods to initiate arc:


1. 2. TOUCH METHOD PASS-AWAY METHOD

Varients
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Carbon Arc Welding. Shielded Metal Arc Welding. Submerged Arc Welding. TIG (or GTAW) Welding. MIG (or GMAW) Welding. Electroslag Welding. Electro gas Welding. Plasma Arc Welding. Arc Spot Welding. Stud (Arc) Welding.

Heat is generated by electric arc struck between a tungsten electrode and the job. A shielding gas (argon helium, nitrogen, etc.) is used to avoid atmospheric contamination of the molten weld pool. A filler metal may be added, if required.

Tungsten Inert Gas ARC WELDING (TIG/GTAW)

SPECIFICATION 0f TIG
Temp. = 5500 Celsius Welding torch angle= 70- 80 degrees Filler rod angle= 10-20 degree Current= 100-500 Amp Electrode diameter = 2-5 mm Filler rod diameter = 2-6 mm Flow rate of gases = 7-11 lit/minutes Electrode material = W, W alloys, Thoriated W, Zerconiated W. Shielding gases = Ar, Ne, He etc

ADVANTAGE
Applicable to wide range of materials (ferrous & non-ferrous). Good for welding thin sections (0.125mm) and delicate work pieces high quality and appearance of weld. Clear visibility No flux entrapment risk

DISADVANTAGE
Restricted to flat or horizontal welding. W in weld pool causes seviour problem Filler rod end causes contamination of weldment Costly.

APPLICATION
Al, Mg, Cu, Ni, and their alloys. Carbon alloys, SS, High temp & hard surfacing alloys like Zr, Ti. Welding thinner sections. Welding of expansion bellows, transistor cases, instrument diaphragm & sealing joints Rocker motor chamber fabrication in launch vehicles.

METAL INHERT GAS ARC WELDING (MIG)


Heat is generated by electric arc struck between a consumable metal electrode and the job. A shielding gas (argon helium, nitrogen, etc.) is used to avoid atmospheric contamination of the molten weld pool. It needs Wire Electrode feed mechanism.

Process of MIG

ADVANTAGE
    

Versatility - readily applied to a variety of applications and a wide choice of electrodes Relative simplicity and portability of equipment Low cost Adaptable to confined spaces and remote locations Suitable for out-of-position welding

DISADVANTAGE
    

Not as productive as continuous wire processes Likely to be more costly to deposit a given quantity of metal Frequent stop/starts to change electrode Relatively high metal wastage (electrode stubs) Current limits are lower than for continuous or automatic processes (reduces deposition rate)

RESISTANCE WELDING
Heat generated at interface due to resistance offered. H= I*I*R*T Autogenous Weld (no filler needed)

Variants
Spot welding Seam welding Projection welding Upset/Butt welding Flash Butt welding Percussion welding

Electrode Material
0.99Cu 0.1Cd- LCS, Al & Mg alloy. 0.992Cu 0.8Cr- SS, Ni alloy, Ni plated steel 0.05Be 0.1Ni 0.1Co 0.975Cu- Low electrical & high thermal conducting materials.

SPOT WELDING

Welding steps
   

SQUEEZE TIME- Both workpices are squeezed together, by app of pressure by electrodes. CURRENT SUPPPLY- Now welding current is applied for short time. HOLD TIME- Current is off but the forces remains applied for proper weld. OFF TIME- the forces on the work is removed.

PARAMETERS & USES


    

Voltage= 5-25 volts Current= 100-5000 Amp Time= 0.06-3 sec Materials welded Ferrous- Hardanable steel, HSS, SS, Coated Steels etc. Non-Ferrous- Al, Al-Mg alloys, Al-Mn alloys, Cu, Cu-Al alloys, Ni, Ni alloy, Monal (Ni-Cu) alloys etc.

ADVANTAGE
      

Low cost High welding speed Less skilled labor. Elimination of wrapping/distortion of parts High uniformity & quality of products Easy automation No need of edge preparation

APPLICATION
 

 

Spot weld up to 12.5mm thickness Attachment of braces, brackets, pods, clips of box, container & trays are welded Automobile & aircraft industry. Joining sheet metals

SEAM WELDING

ROUND, SQUARE, RECTANGULAR WELDS EXPECT Cu & HIGH Cu ALLOYS ALL OTHER MATERIALS ARE WELDED CAN BE USED FOR LAP, BUTT JOINTS

APPLICATION

ADVANTAGE  Gas & liquid tight welds.  Overlap may be less than spot welding  Single seam weld or parallel welds can be produced

DISADVANTAGE


ONLY STRAIGHT OR UNIFORM CURVE CAN BE WELDED DIFFICULT TO WELD THICKNESS MORE THAN 3MM SPECIAL DESIGNE OF WELD ROLLS

PROJECTION WELDING

PRINCIPLE


Current flow is concentrated at the contact surface by an embossed projection. Projection effectively localizes the current

ADVANTAGE
      

No of simultaneous weld Thick joints Less interference by rust, oil & work coating Long electrode life Can be used for complicated shapes Better heat balance Lower current & pressure

DISADVANTAGE
 

Limited to metals which can be embossed For proper weld all projection must have equal height.

APPLICATON
     

Various automobile parts Small fasteners & nuts can be welded Refrigerator condenser Cross wire welding Grating of boilers Household grills.

FRICTION WELDING
solid-state welding Heat through mechanical friction b/w a moving work piece & a stationary component . Technically, because no melt occurs, so its a forging technique .

Friction Welding Process

Process Parameters

Process Specification
Peripheral velocity= 50-200 m/min Axial pressure= 30-200 N/mm2 Material Welded- Al, Ti, Ni, Cu and their alloys, Brass, Bronze, Mg, Carbon steel, SS, Tantalum etc.. Dissimilar material welds- Alloy steel to carbon steel, super alloys to carbon steel, SS to carbon steel

ELECTROSLAG WELDING
Highly productive, single pass process (thickness 25-300 mm) in a vertical position Arc is initially struck by wire fed into the weld location & then flux is added. Additional flux is added until the molten slag extinguishes the arc. The wire is then continually fed and the filler metal are then melted using the electrical resistance of the molten slag to cause coalescence.

Processes

Points to Consider
ADVANTAGE Butt & T joint square face Large thickness upto 600mm Alloy steel are welded Extremely high deposition rates Residual stress & distortion is low Low flux consumption No spattering & flashing occurs. DISADVANTAGE

More costly for section below 60mm Hot cracking Tends to produce larger grain size Limited to vertical & uphill position Tendency to notch sensitivity in HAZ

APPLICATION
Heavy casting, forging plates (butt weld) Welding of thick LCS & MCS. High strength structure steel Large cross-section of flyovers, structures, marine ships etc.

WELDING of CAST IRON


Good fluidity & high solidification shrinkage.  SMAW, GMAW, Oxy-fuel, flux coated arc, Termite welding processes are applicable Grey CI:  Certain precaution like preheating & low cooling rates. White CI:  Considered as un weldable. Malleable CI:  Post weld heat treatment  Very low cooling rates to prevent it to change to White CI. Nodular CI:  Proper flux is needed to prevent losing of Mg which is responsible for ductility.


WELDING of ALUMINIUM
     

Higher heat input needed (Reverse DC polarity) Thick sections needs preheating High reflective hence no red colour is appered during heating GMAW, GTAW, Resistance welding is common. PAW, EBM are specially used SMAW & oxy fuel welding are used when strength is not essential

WELDING of STEEL
LCS(0.13-0.3 %C):  arc welding is preferred MCS(0.3-0.5 %C):  Pre weld heat treatment is common  Post weld heat treatment is sometimes necessary for thin sections HCS(0.5-1.5%C):  Pre & Post weld eat treatment is essential  Low H, S welding process  Should be welded in annealed condition HIGH STRENGTH LOW ALLOY STEELS:  SMAW, TIG/MIG, Flux coated ,Submerged arc welding are applicable.  Low Hydrogen welding  Resistance welding can be applied

SOLDERING
Two or more metal items are joined together by melting and flowing a filler metal into the joint The filler metal having a relatively low melting point Soldering is characterized by the melting point of the filler metal, is below 400 C The filler metal used in the process is called SOLDER It is distinguished from welding by the base metals not being melted during the joining

Process- Soldering

Application
Assembling electronic components to printed circuit boards  Permanent but reversible connections between copper pipes in Plumbing systems  Jewelry components are assembled and repaired by soldering


Solders
     

tin-lead (general purpose) tin-zinc for joining aluminum lead-silver for strength at higher than room temperature cadmium-silver for strength at high temperatures zinc-aluminum for aluminum and corrosion resistance tin-silver and tin-bismuth for electronics

Typical Soldering Example