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B LG S STEM SUBAYI TEMEL SERT F KA PROGRAMI Bilgi Mhendisli i Dersi

2011 Y l lkbahar Dnemi

Prof.Dr.Ziya AKTA
Ba kent niversitesi Bilgisayar Mhendisli i Blm Ba kan

Chapter 2
Knowledge & Knowledge Types
WEEK 4.

B L 584 Knowledge Management & Engineering / Z.Akta

Although the three terms are usually used interchangeably, knowledge is quite different than data and information.

B L 584 Knowledge Management & Engineering / Z.Akta

DATA
BF-G-S p.12

Data comprises facts, observations , or perceptions (which may or may not be correct). Alone, data represents raw numbers or assertions, and may therefore be devoid of context, meaning, or intent.

B L 584 Knowledge Management & Engineering / Z.Akta

INFORMATION
BF-G-S p.13

Information is a subset of data , only including those data that possess context, relevance, and purpose. Information typically involves the manipulation of raw data to obtain a more meaningful indication of trends or patterns in the data.

B L 584 Knowledge Management & Engineering / Z.Akta

KNOWLEDGE
BF-G-S p.13

Knowledge has been distinguished from data and information in two different ways : a) A more simplistic view considers knowledge to be at the highest level in a hierarchy with information at the middle level and the data to be at the lowest level. According to this view, knowledge refers to information that enables action and decisions , or information with direction.
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KNOWLEDGE
BF-G-S p.13

b) Another definition for knowledge states knowledge in an area as justified beliefs about relationships among concepts relevant to that particular area. Example:

A telephone number A phone book A phone number belonging to a good customer ,who needs to be called once per week to get orders

: Data : Information

: Knowledge
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KNOWLEDGE
BF-G-S p.15

Another definition is given by Wiig as follows: Knowledge consists of truths and beliefs, perspectives and concepts, judgements and expectations, methodologies and know-how and is possessed by humans, agents, or other active entities and is used to receive information and to recognize and identify; analyze, interpret, and evaluate; synthesize, and decide; plan, implement, monitor, and adapt i.e. to act more or less intelligently. In other words, knowledge is used to determine what a specific situation means and how to handle it.
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What is Knowledge?
A justified true belief (Nonaka and Takeuchi)  It is different from data & information  Knowledge is at the highest level in a hierarchy with information at the middle level, and data to be at the lowest level  It is the richest, deepest & most valuable of the three  Information with direction

REF: Becerra-F.et al.2004/CH2Sl.05 9

In the next slide it is shown that knowledge helps produce information from data or more valuable information from less valuable information. In that sense, the generated information facilitates action.

REF: Becerra-F.et al.2004/CH2Sl.xx

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Data, Information, and Knowledge


Knowledge
Value

Zero

Low

Medium

High

Very High

Data

Information

REF: Becerra-F.et al.2004/CH2Sl.06

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Example: Let us assume that the context of the coin toss is a betting stuation where John is offering to pay anyone $10 if the coin lands heads but to take $8 if the coin lands tail. Susan, considering whether to take up Johns bet, benefits from knowing that the last 100 times the coin was tossed it landed on heads 40 times and on tails 60 occasions. The result of each individual toss ( head or tail ) is data , but is not directly useful. It is therefore data but not information.

REF: Becerra-F.et al.2004 12

By contrast , the 40 heads and 60 tails resulting from the last 100 tosses are also data, but they can be directly used to compute probabilities of heads and tails, and hence to make the decision. These data are useful, and therefore they are also considered information for Susan. The information about 40 heads and 60 tails (out of 100 tosses) can be used to compute the probability of heads (0.40) and tails (0.60 ).

REF: Becerra-F.et al.2004/CH2Sl.xx

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The probabilities can then be used, along with information about the returns associated with heads ($10 from Susans perspective) and tails (-$8 , again from susans perspective ) to compute the expected value to Susan from participating in the bet. Both probabilities and expected values are information. Moreover, expected value is more useful information than the probabilities; the former can directly be used to make the decision, whereas the latter requires computation of expected value(beklenen de er; beklenti ).
REF: Becerra-F.et al.2004/CH2Sl.xx 14

The EV of the bet is: EV = pH x RH + pT x RT = 0.40 x (+$10.) + 0.60 x (-$8.) = + $4. - 4.8 = -$0.8 Hence it is not profitable for Susan to enter into the bet.
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Data, Information, and Knowledge:Example

REF: Becerra-F.et al.2004/CH2Sl.07

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Data, Information, Knowledge and Events

REF: Becerra-F.et al.2004/CH2Sl.08

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Alternative Views of Knowledge:


Knowledge can be viewed from a) subjective b) objective stance.
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Perspectives on Knowledge

Subjective View

Objective View

Knowledge as a State of Mind

Knowledge as Practice

Knowledge as an Object

Knowledge as Access to information

Knowledge as Capability

BF-G-S p.17
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B L 584 Knowledge Management & Engineering / Z.Akta

Subjective View of knowledge


Knowledge is viewed as an ongoing accomplishments, which continuously affects and is influenced by social practices. According to subjective view, knowledge can be considered from two perspectives:  Knowledge as a State of an individuals Mind
Organizational knowledge is viewed as the beliefs of the individuals within the organization.

Knowledge as Practice
Knowledge resides not in anyones head but in practice.
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Objective View of knowledge


Reality is independent of human perceptions and can be structured in terms of a priori categories and concepts.(a priori : nce gelen, ba ta gelen) There are three perspectives:  Knowledge as Objects
 

Knowledge as Access to Information Knowledge as Capability


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Knowledge as Objects
Knowledge is something that can be stored , transferred, and manipulated. Consistent with the definition of knowledge as a set of justified beliefs, these knowledge objects(i.e. beliefs) can exist in a variety of locations.

Knowledge as Access to Information


Knowledge is viewed as enabling access and utilization of information.

Knowledge as Capability
In that view the focus is on the way in which knowledge can be applied to influence action.
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Types of Knowledge
Knowledge has been classified and characterized in several different ways such as

Individual, social, causal, conditional, relational and pragmatic (practical) Or, as  Embodied, encoded and procedural.

embodied: ekillendirilmi , somutla t r lm , encoded : a message converted into code, procedural : relating to procedure ( yntemsel ).

REF: Becerra-F.et al.2004/CH2Sl.11

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Classification of Knowledge
More generally knowledge may be classified as follows: A) Procedural or Declarative Knowledge B) Tacit or Explicit Knowledge C) General or Specific Knowledge

REF: Becerra-F.et al.2004/CH2Sl.11

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A) Procedural and Declarative Knowledge  Procedural knowledge. know how It focuses on beliefs relating sequences of steps or actions to desired (or undesired) outcomes. (how to ride a bicycle or how to award a
contract in a government organization.)


Declarative knowledge (substantive knowledge or facts) : know what It focuses on beliefs about relationships among variables.
Declarative knowledge can be stated in the form of propositions, expected correlations, or formulas relating concepts represented as variables.
substantive: sabit , dayan kl , esas
REF: Becerra-F.et al.2004/CH2Sl.12 25

B L 584 Knowledge Management & Engineering / Z.Akta

B) Tacit and Explicit Knowledge




Tacit knowledge includes insights (vukuf, anlay ), intuitions(sezgi), and hunches (nsezi) .
This knowledge is difficult to express and formalize, therefore difficult to share. It is more likely to be personal and based on individual experiences and activities.

Explicit knowledge refers to knowledge that has been expressed into words and numbers.
Such knowledge can be shared formally and systematically in the form of data, specifications, manuals, drawings, audio and video tapes, computer programs, patents, and the like.

We can convert explicit knowledge to tacit knowledge .


REF: Becerra-F.et al.2004/CH2Sl.13

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C) General and Specific Knowledge


General knowledge is possessed by a large number of individuals and can be transferred easily across individuals.  Specific knowledge, or idiosyncratic (eccentricity) knowledge, is possessed by a very limited number of individuals, and is expensive to transfer.

Specific knowledge can be of two types: Technically specific knowledge and Contextually specific knowledge.

REF: Becerra-F.et al.2004/CH2Sl.14

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Technically and Contextually Specific Knowledge  Technically specific knowledge is deep knowledge about a specific area.


Contextually specific knowledge refers to the knowledge of particular circumstances of time and place in which work is to be performed.

REF: Becerra-F.et al.2004/CH2Sl.15

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Illustrations of the Different Types of Knowledge

2x2x3=12 types of knowledgeREF: Becerra-F.et al.2004/CH2Sl.16

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Knowledge and Expertise


Expertise can be defined as knowledge of higher quality . An expert is one who is able to perform a task much better than others .

REF: Becerra-F.et al.2004/CH2Sl.17

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Types of Expertise

Associational Expertise
e.g. A television repair technicians knowledge.

 

Motor Skills Expertise


It is predominantly physical instead of cognitive.

Theoretical (Deep) Expertise


We must apply creative ingenuity- ingeniuity based on our theoretical knowledge of the domain. This type of knowledge allows experts to solve problems that have not been solved before and, therefore, cannot be solved via associational expertise.

REF: Becerra-F.et al.2004/CH2Sl.18

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In addition to 12 types of knowledge, there are some other classifications of knowledge. Some of them are as follows :
 

Simple knowledge or Complex knowledge Support / Tactical / Strategic knowledge

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Additional Types of Knowledge


 

Simple knowledge focuses on one basic area Complex knowledge draws upon multiple distinct areas of expertise Support knowledge relates to organizational infrastructure and facilitates day-to-day operations Tactical knowledge pertains to the short-term positioning of the organization relative to its markets, competitors, and suppliers Strategic knowledge pertains to the long-term positioning of the organization in terms of its corporate vision and strategies for achieving that vision
REF: Becerra-F.et al.2004/CH2Sl.19 33

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Reservoirs of Knowledge

Artifact: rn

REF: Becerra-F.et al.2004/CH2Sl.20

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Characteristics of Knowledge


Explicitness
It reflects the extent to which knowledge exists in an explicit form so that it can be stored and transferred to others.

Codifiability (codify: Teachability

systematize, classify )

It reflects the extent to which knowledge can be articulated (kolayca anla l r bir ekilde ifade etmek)or codified, even if the resulting codified knowledge might be difficult to impart to another individual.

It reflects the extent to which the knowledge can be taught to other individuals, through training, apprenticeship, and so on.

Knowledge Specificity
It implies that the knowledge can be acquired or effectively used only by individuals possessing certain specific knowledge. It can be divided into two as contextual and technical knowledge specifity.
REF: Becerra-F.et al.2004/CH2Sl.21 35

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Conclusions
 

  

Knowledge is different from data & information Knowledge in an area can be defined as justified beliefs about relationships among concepts relevant to that particular area Knowledge can be of different types Knowledge has several characteristics Knowledge resides in several different places

REF: Becerra-F.et al.2004/CH2Sl.22

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ADDITIONAL NOTES FROM E. AWAD


Definitions
Knowledge: Understanding gained through experience or study Know-how, specificity. Unlike information, it is about beliefs and commitment. Intelligence: Capacity to acquire and apply knowledge; thinking and reasoning; ability to understand and use language. e.g., Fairmount is under 6 ft. of water; the sun broke through the clouds
REF: Elias AAD2005/CH2Sl.3 37

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Definitions
Memory: Ability to store and retrieve relevant experience at will; part of intelligence Learning: Knowledge acquired by instruction or study; consequence of intelligent problem solving Experience: Relates to what weve done and to knowledge; Experience leads to expertise.

REF: Elias AAD2005/CH2Sl.4

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Definitions
Common Sense: Unreflective opinions of ordinary people Heuristic: A rule of thumb based on years of experience

REF: Elias AAD2005/CH2Sl.5

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Data, Information, and Knowledge


Data: Unorganized and unprocessed facts; static; a set of discrete facts about events Information: Aggregation of data that makes decision making easier. E.g., P&L; has meaning, purpose, and relevance Knowledge is derived from information in the same way information is derived from data; it is a persons range of information
REF: Elias AAD2005/CH2Sl.6 40

B L 584 Knowledge Management & Engineering / Z.Akta

Data, Information, and Knowledge (Contd) Knowledge is an understanding of information based on its perceived importance or relevance to a problem area. It can also be thought of as a persons range of information. Information becomes knowledge with questions like what implications does this information have for my final decision?
REF: Elias AAD2005/CH2Sl.7 41

B L 584 Knowledge Management & Engineering / Z.Akta

Select Characteristics of Knowledge




  

Involves attribution(atfetme, nitelik verme) of meaning and significance by the knower. Knowing takes place in relation to existing knowledge Knowledge, by definition, is driven into practice Gregarious by nature and has a tendency to socialize itself Knowledge processes are part of an open system

Gregarious : social; colony (bees, wasps), flock, herd Attribution :ascription; to refer to a supposed cause, source, or author.
REF: Elias AAD2005/CH2Sl.8 42

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Types of Knowledge

  

Shallow and deep Explicit (codified) and tacit (embedded in the mind) Procedural (psychomotor skills) versus episodical (chunked by episodes; autobiographical) Common sensecollection of personal experiences and facts acquired over time that humans take for granted

REF: Elias AAD2005/CH2Sl.9

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Types of Knowledge
Proceduralunderstanding of how to do a task or carry a procedure  Declarativeinformation that experts can easily discuss; awareness or routine knowledge  Semantichighly organized, chunked knowledge that resides in long-term memory

REF:E.AWAD2005/CH2Sl.10 44

Understanding knowledge

Human Learning
Learning by experiencea function of time and talent  Learning by example: more efficient than learning by experience  Learning by discovery: Undirected approach in which humans explore a problem area with no advance knowledge of what their object is

REF: AWAD Sl.11 45

B L 584 Knowledge Management & Engineering / Z.Akta

Explicit and Tacit Knowledge


   

Explicit knowledgeknowledge codified and digitized in books, documents, reports, etc. Tacit knowledgeknowledge embedded in the human mind through experience and jobs. Explicit knowledge is easier to identify, because it is a physical entity Tacit knowledge is personal and hard to formalize and communicate

REF: AWAD/CH2Sl.12

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REF: Becerra-F.et al.2004/CH2Sl.xx

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