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Intercellular Commication and Signal Transduction

Chapter 4

Intercellular Communication
Cells of body must communicate with one another Coordinates organ systems Takes place directly: Physical contact between cells
Gap junctions Direct linkage of surface markers

Or indirectly Extracellular chemical messengers or signal molecules Specific to target cell receptors

Chemical Messengers
Four types of chemical messengers
Paracrines
Local chemical messengers Exert effect only on neighboring cells in immediate environment of secretion site

Neurotransmitters
Short-range chemical messengers Diffuse across narrow space to act locally on adjoining target cell (another neuron, a muscle, or a gland)

Chemical Messengers
Hormones
Long-range messengers Secreted into blood by endocrine glands in response to appropriate signal Exert effect on target cells some distance away from release site

Neurohormones
Hormones released into blood by neurosecretory neurons Distributed through blood to distant target cells

Chemical Messengers
Cell responses brought about primarily by signal transduction
Incoming signals conveyed to target cells interior

Binding of extracellular messenger (first messenger) to receptor brings about intracellular response by either
Opening or closing channels
Chemically gated receptor channel

Activating second-messenger systems


Activated by first messenger
Receptor-enzyme

Relays message to intracellular proteins that carry out dictated response


G-protein coupled receptor

Figure 4-21

Receptor-enzyme: Tyrosine kinase pathway

Hormones
Endocrinology
Study of homeostatic activities accomplished by hormones

Two distinct groups of hormones based on their solubility properties


Hydrophilic hormones
Highly water soluble Low lipid solubility

Lipophilic hormones
High lipid solubility Poorly soluble in water

Mechanism of hydrophilic hormones via cyclic AMP second messenger pathway

Comparison of Nervous System and Endocrine System

Animation: Mechanism of action of a peptide hormone

Animation: Mechanism of action of a steroid hormone

Class Questions
1. There are 3 ways cells communicate. The 2 direct means of communication is through ___________ and _______________. Cells indirectly communicate through _______________. 2. Name and describe the 4 types of chemical messengers. Include which fluid medium they travel through: blood, extracellular fluid, intracellular fluid. 3. Why is a neurotransmitter different than paracrine signalling? 4. What is a syncytium? 5. What is a ligand? What is a receptor? 6. How does a chemical messenger know which organ to affect? 7. Name 3 ways that an extracellular chemical messenger can bring about an intracellular response. 8. Is the response between a chemical messenger and a particular receptor always the same? 9. How can a chemical receptor elicit a different response inside a cell? 10. In a second messenger system, where does the first messenger bind? Where is the second messenger?

Class Questions
11. There are 2 major 2nd messengers: cyclic AMP and Ca2+ . Describe the action of a hydrophilic hormone via activation of the cyclic AMP 2nd messenger pathway. If you draw pictures, you must label everything and explain what is happening. 12. How does using an 2nd messenger system amplify the response inside the cell? 13. How do some chemical messengers affect gene activity (hence, protein synthesis) within a cell? 14. Which type of hormone can affect gene activity, hydrophilic or lipophilic? Why?