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EKONOMI MANAJERIAL

Analisis & Strategi


Agus Sobari

Universitas Islam Sultan Agung Fakultas Ekonomi

Bab 1: Ruang Lingkup Ekonomi Manajerial


Target : Setelah mempelajari bab ini, anda Diharapkan bisa memahami : 1. Topik-topik apa saja yang dipelajari dalam Ekonomi Manajerial. 2. Pendekatan Analisis apa saja yang digunakan dalam Ekonomi Manajerial
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Definsi Ilmu Ekonomi Manajerial?


Douglas - Managerial economics is .. the application of economic principles and methodologies to the decision-making process within the firm or organization. Pappas & Hirschey - Managerial economics applies economic theory and methods to business and administrative decision-making. Salvatore - Managerial economics refers to the application of economic theory and the tools of analysis of decision science to examine how an organisation can achieve its objectives most effectively. Howard Davies and Pun-Lee Lam - It is the application of economic analysis to business problems; it has its origin in theoretical microeconomics.

Konsep Ekonomi Manajerial?


MICROECONOMIC S FINANCE

MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS
COMPETITIVE STRATEGY

STATISTICS

ACCOUNTANCY

MARKETING

topik-topik yang dipelajari berkaitan dengan bagaimana prilaku konsumen dalam memilih barang & jasa yang dibeli, bagaimana produsen menggunakan sumber daya dalam proses produksi, bagaimana sebuah perusahaan menetapkan harga dengan memperhatikan persaingan dan struktur pasar, dan bagaimana menentukan investasi dalam keadaan uncertenty dan imferpect information, serta keputusan-keputusan manajerial lainnya.

Definisi & Asumsi

Modeling

Analisis Teori

Prediksi

Jika prediksi tidak didukung bukti empiris, maka model diperbaiki atau diganti

Pengujian empiris

Jika prediksi Terbukti, maka model bisa digunakan selama Asumsi masih relevan
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Mengapa asumsi harus realistik?


Beberapa asumsi dari teori atau model seringkali tidak selalu nampak realistis dan tepat Namun demikian, kekuatan prediksi dan penjelasan dari model dan teori tidak selalu bisa dikaitkan dengan seberapa realistisnya asumsi yang mendasarinya. Sebuah model yang dibentuk dengan asumsi yang kurang realistis (unrealistic) mungkin sekali akan menghasilkan prediksi yang baik (good predictions) Peran asumsi dalan teori dan model adalah penting untuk menyederhanakan kompleknya permasalahan empiris Example: Overtaking
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Apakah Kriteria Sebuah Model yang baik itu ?




Model yang baik harus bisa memprediksi dan menjawab beberapa hipotesis (It allows us to make predictions and set hypotheses) Prediksi-prediksi dapat diuji secara berlawanan dengan bukti empiris (the predictions can be tested against the empirical evidence) Prediksi-prediksi tersebut dapat juga diperkuat dengan bukti empiris yang ada (the predictions are supported by the empirical evidence)
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Ekonomi Manajerial


Economics in general takes a positive and predictive approach not prescriptive or normative
trying to explain what is not what should be the main objective is to understand how a market economy works

Not very concerned about the descriptive realism of assumptions: I assume X does not mean I believe X to be true Some real tension if the models are used for prescription
assume perfect knowledge: OK for model-building cannot say to a manager: behave AS IF you had perfect knowledge
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Economic Analysis


Comparative Statics
begin with an initial equilibrium position - the starting point change something identify the new equilibrium, e.g:in neo-classical model of the firm
When demand increases? When costs rise? When a fixed cost increases?

This is the main purpose of the model -what it was designed to do




Normative prescriptions
it will cost me $30 per unit to supply something which will give me $20 per unit in revenue- should I do it? I must pay $20 billion to set up in my industry. Should I charge higher prices to get that money back?

Positive and Normative are linked by if? IF the aim of the firm is to maximise profit what will it do/what should it do?

What is the purpose of economic analysis? Why do we want to apply economic analysis to business problems?
For the academic economist: to understand, to make predictions about firms behavior The positive approach to theory: What is? For the businessperson: to assist decision-making, to provide decision-rules which can be applied The normative approach to theory: What should be? These purposes are different, they can lead to misunderstanding, and economists are not always honest about the limitations of their approach for practical purposes.

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What are these limitations?


If the aim is prediction, unrealistic assumptions are acceptable and may be needed;
for instance, the firm may be assumed to behave as if its managers had perfect knowledge of its environment

If the aim is to produce decision-rules which can be applied by practising managers, unrealistic assumptions will produce decision-rules which are not operational
for instance, set output and price by MC=MR
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How Can Managerial Economics Assist Decision-Making? 1. Adopt a general perspective, not a sample of one 2. Simple models provide stepping stone to more complexity and realism 3. Thinking logically has value itself and can expose sloppy thinking
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Why Managerial Economics?


 

A powerful analytical engine. A broader perspective on the firm.


what is a firm? what are the firms overall objectives? what pressures drive the firm towards profit and away from profit

The basis for some of the more rigourous analysis of issues in Marketing and Strategic Management.
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Links between Managerial Economics and Industrial Economics


In managerial economics, the emphasis is upon the firm, the environment in which the firm finds itself, and the decisions which individual firms have to take. In industrial economics (or industrial organization), the emphasis is (or was) upon the behavior of the whole industry, in which the firm is simply a component.
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What is Industrial Organization?


It studies how the performance of an industry is related to its structure, that is, to the number and size of firms it contains. It is the study of markets for goods and of the firms which produce them. It is the study of industry. It is more concerned with why markets are structured the way they are and behave the way they do.
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Beberapa pertanyaan dalam Industrial Organization:


Why are some markets monopoly-like while others are competitive? How can industry performance and structure be measured or analyzed? How does the performance of individual firms affect the structure and performance of the industry in which they operate? If industry performance seems deficient but remediable, which government policies are likely to help more than they cost?
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Paradigma SCP Performance) :

(The

Structure-Conduct-

Kondisi dasar : factors which shape the market of the industry, e.g. demand, supply, political factors Struktur : attributes which give definition to the supply-side of the market, e.g. economies of scale, barriers to entry, industry concentration, product differentiation, vertical integration. Prilaku : the behavior of firms in the market, e.g. pricing behavior advertising, innovation. Kinerja : a judgement about the results of market behaviour, e.g. efficiency, profitability, fairness/income distribution, economic growth. How can the government improve the performance in an industry?

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Kondisi Mendasar (Basic Conditions) Struktur (Structure) Prilaku (Conduct) Kinerja (Performance)
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Kebijakan Pemerintah

Kaitan antara Ekonomi Manajerial dan Ilmu Manajemen


Ekonomi Manajerial : adalah suatu disiplin yang berkaitan dengan pemecahan yang optimal berkaitan dengan penyelesaian masalah-masalah menajerial. Dengan demikian, tujuan utama dari penggunaan model adalah untuk memprediksi bagaimana sebenarnya perusahaan berprilaku (using models is to predict how firms will behave), dan bukannya memberi arahan bagaiamana seharunya mereka berbuat (not to advise them what ought to do). Para menajer diasumsikan dapat menemukan pemecahan yang optimal bagi perusahaannya dan bagaimanakah prediksi-prediksi tersebut dibuat. Ilmu Manajemen : pada dasarnya berkaitan dengan teknik terbaik dalam pengambilan keputusan dan karenanya cenderung bersifat normatif (hence it is essentially normative) ; perusahaan tidak diasumsikan dapat menemukan solusi optimal dalam memecahkan persoalan diperusahannya (firms are not assumed to find the optimal solutions for themselves). Pemecahan persoalan mereka justru diketemukan oleh peneliti dengan persepsi dan cara penyelesaian yang berbeda-beda.
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