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BIOLOGY

CLASS X SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

Standar Kompetensi: Menganalisis manfaat keanekaragaman hayati


Kompetensi Dasar: Mengkomunikasikan ciri-ciri Filum dalam Dunia Hewan dan peranannya bagi kehidupan

February, 2012. Deny Setiawan

1: Pengenalan Animalia Pertemuan 2: Porifera, Coelenterata, Platyhelminthes, Nemathelminthes, dan Annelida Pertemuan 3: Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata Pertemuan 4: Chordata Rendah, Pisces, Amphibi Pertemuan 5: Reptilia, Aves, Mamalia Pertemuan 6: Cadangan dan Review Materi
Pertemuan

Tugas Individu dirumah untuk setiap pertemuan! Membuat Rangkuman untuk tiap topik Membuat 5 Pertanyaan yang belum dimengerti, disertai dengan perkiraan jawaban yang logis dan jelas Ditulis tangan dalam kertas A4 HVS Dikumpulkan sesaat sebelum jam pelajaran dimulai

Membuat

Peta Konsep tentang Animalia Membuat 3 pertanyaan tentang Animalia Dikumpulkan hari ini juga

Eukaryotic Multicellular  Eukaryotic with no cell walls  Heterotrophy (consumers)  Have a specific tissue  Have backbone (vertebrate) or doesnt have backbone (invertebrate)  locomotion relates to ability to obtain food  Most animals develop from a zygote becoming an embryo


DIPLOBLASTIC

: 2 Layer : 3 Layer

Ectoderm and Endoderm Ectoderm, Mesoderm, Endoderm

TRIPOBLASTIC

Cacing pipih Ektoderm

Cacing gilig

Mesoderm (otot) Ektoderm Endoderm (usus) Mesenkim

Pseudoselom Endoderm (usus) Mesoderm (otot) Organ internal

Aselomata

Pseudoselomata

Cacing tanah

Mesoderm (otot) Organ internal Mesoderm (peritoneum)

Ektoderm Selom Endoderm (usus)

Selomata

Membuat

resume/rangkuman tentang:

Platyhelminthes Nemathelminthes Annelida


Membuat

5 pertanyaan tentang 3 filum tsb

Dikumpulkan hari ini juga

Known

as sponges

No

true tissues or organs No symmetry (sometime radial) No nerves, muscles, mouth or digestive system or Sessile Reproduce sexually and asexually Skeletons composed of CaCO3 or SiO2 spicules or spongin Filter feeders

In the mesohyl is the skeleton composed of tiny pointed structures made of silica or calcium carbonate called spicules. These structures act as an internal scaffolding, but also function in protection Among some sponges the skeleton consist of spongin fibers made of collagenous material; found in many of the commercial sponges

PADA MESOHIL TERDAPAT SEL:


SEL AMOEBOSIT FUNGSI: MEMBAWA / MAKANAN KE SEL LAIN MEMBENTUK SERAT RANGKA YANG KERAS DALAM MESOHIL SEL SKLEROBLAST : MEMBENTUK SPIKULA SEL ARCHEOSIT : MERUPAKAN SEL AMOEBOSIT EMBRIONAL DAN BERUBAH FUNGSI MEMBENTUK SPERMA DAN OVUM SEL SPIKULA : MERUPAKAN SEL-SEL PENYUSUN KERANGKA TUBUH

Sponges provide habitat for wide variety of animals. As many as 16,000 different species of animals have been found in one loggerhead sponge.

A. Asconoid Sponges Simple vaselike structure This stucture puts limitations on size; (increase in volume without a corresponding increase in the surface area of the choanocytes)

Types of Sponges (Canal Systems)

B. Synconoid Sponges The flagellated choanocyte layer has undergone folding forming finger like projections There is a single osculum but the body wall is more complex, with water being received through incurrent canals, which pass it along to radial canals through to the spongocoel Results in an increase in the surface area which allowed sponges to increase in the size

Types of Sponges (Canal Systems)

C. Leuconoid Sponges No atrium; several small chambers in which choanocytes are located There is a whole series of incurrent canals leading to the choanocyte chambers; water is discharges through excurrent canals The leuconoid sponges exhibit a significant increase in surface area and are, therefore, among the largest sponges

Types of Sponges (Canal Systems)

Class Calcarea (Calcispongidae)


Only sponges that possess spicules composed of calcium carbonate. Spicules are straight or have 34 rays, and do not have hollow axial canals. Today, their diversity is greatest in the tropics, predominantly in shallow waters

Class Hexactinellida (Hyalospongiae) Glass sponges; characterized by siliceous spicules consisting of six rays intersecting at right angles Widely viewed as an early branch within the Porifera

Class Demospongiae
Greater than 90 percent of the 5,000 known living sponge species are demosponges. Demosponge skeletons are composed of spongin fibers and/or siliceous spicules Siliceous spicules with one to four rays not at right angles, All members express the leuconoid body form

Yellow sponge growing on a wall on a Caribbean reef.

Asexual: production of external buds that detach or remain to form colonies internal buds called gemmules that form during unfavorable periods fragmentation (regeneration) Sexual (mostly hermaphroditic): eggs are retained in the mesohyl and fertilized by motile sperm that enter through the internal canals. Zygotes develop into flagellated larvae, which break loose and are carried away by water currents.

Polymorphism = more than one body form

They are radially symmetrical; oral end terminates in a mouth surrounded by tentacles. They have 2 tissue layers
Outer layer of cells - the epidermis Inner gastrodermis, which lines the gut cavity or gastrovascular cavity (gastrodermis secretes digestive juices into the gastrovascular cavity)

In between these tissue layers is a noncellular jelly-like material called mesoglea

with tentacles around the mouth Sessile


Tube

Coral polyp

shape Tentacles around mouth Motile, Free-swimming


Umbrella

Tentacles
Have nematocysts (stinging cells) cells) Coiled thread discharges like a harpoon Contains neurotoxin Paralyzes prey
Discharged nematocyst

Discharged nematocyst

Reproduction
1. Asexual budding from polyps or medusae 2. Sexual a. Medusae release sperm & eggs b. Some monoecious, some monoecious, dioecious c. Larvae free-swimming free-

Class Anthozoa: Sea Anemones

Sea Anemones (with sea urchins)

Sea Anemones Clown fish with sea anemone

Giant Sea Anemone

Rosy Sea Anemone

Class Anthozoa: Corals

Brain Coral

Coral

Colt Coral

Elkhorn Coral

Cabbage Coral

Flower Coral

Feather Coral

Gorgonian Fan Coral

Lamellina Coral

Sun Coral

Subergorgia Coral

Soft Coral

Sea Pen

Sea Fan

Sea Plume

Class Hydrozoa: Green Hydra

Hydra

Brown Hydra with buds

Brown Hydra eating

Hydra eating Daphnia


Hydra eats Daphnia

Class Scyphozoa: True Jellyfish

Fried egg jelly

Jellyfish

Jellyfish

Red-eyed medusa

Jellyfish

Jellyfish

Lion s mane

Jellyfish

Purple lion s mane

Upside down Jelly fish

Upside down Jelly fish

Sea Nettle

Jelly and diver

Giant Jelly off Coast of Japan

Portuguese Man 0 War (a Hydrozoan), NOT a true jelly fish

Portuguese Man 0 War

Tentacles of Physalia physalis

Portuguese Man o War vs. Box Jelly fish

Class Cubozoa: Box Jellyfish

Chironex fleckeri the Box jelly fish