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HACCP

Implementation in Food Industries

CONTENTS
Part I
HACCP Introduction, History HACCP Key Concepts Why HACCP

Part II
HACCP Pre-Requisites Program

Part III
How to HACCP

Part IV
HACCP & Quality System (ISO)

Part V
HACCP Practicing Bottlenecks

Part VI
HACCP Future

Part I
Module 1 Introduction to HACCP

H A C C P

HAZARDS

ANALYSIS CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS


4

HACCP

HACCP

A preventive approach to food safety management

H A C C P

The most effective tool to prevent occurrence of food borne diseases and avoid consumer illness and injuries linked to the consumption of our products
7

H A C C P

Systematic approach to the identification and assessment of the hazards and risks associated with a food operation and the defining of the means of their control
8

Part I
Module 2 WHY HACCP

WHY HACCP ?
To have safe, reliable

and consistent quality product

10

WHY HACCP ?
Management of product safety Prevention of product safety incidents Limitations of traditional quality control External pressure Other benefits Foundation for the development of effective product management systems

11

WHY HACCP ?
Successful implementation of HACCP brings along;

Primary benefits
Product Safety

Secondary benefits:
Quality improvement Cost effectiveness Loss and down time reduction Increase consumer confidence in product safety Design of line/product Hygiene, housekeeping & improve manufacturing conditions Reduce maintenance Reduce inspection time Competitive advantage

12

EXTERNAL PRESSURE FOR HACCP

Government/Enforcement authorities Customers Demand Media Pressure Customer Protection Societies

13

Part I
Module 3 Where it has come from & Where does it work
14

WHERE DID HACCP COME FROM


Concept Originated during

NASA SPACE PROGRAM In 1960

Used Ist time in 1971 BY Pillsbury Company

Basic Idea behind; To provide risk free safe food for astronauts.
15

HOW TO ASSURE FOOD SAFETY ?

Traditional Quality Control - Inspection - Random sampling and testing Prevention base food safety assurance program - HACCP

16

HISTORY OF HACCP
1960 - Concept originated - U.S space program (NASA) 1971 - Used in by Pillsbury company in space program 1971 - Concept took proper form in National Conference on Food Protection. 1985 - Recommended by National Academy of Science (NAS) USA 1989 - Final approval by National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods (NACMCF) 1991 - Accepted by Codex Committee. 1995/6 - HACCP was first time used in US Regulations 1997 - UN/Codex Alimentarious HACCP System was developed and adopted by US regulatory authorities. 2000 - Embraced by USA, UK, European Union, Japan, Canada, Australia and New Zealand till now.

17

HACCP SCOPE
HACCP is for every one !!
From;

Farm to Fork

Stable to Table and Gate to Plate.


18

HACCP SCOPE
Commercially This system is mainly applicable to;
All food processing facilities/factories: Sea Food/Meat Juice & Beverage Dairy Industries Culinary/ Spices industry Hotels & Restaurants Air line kitchens Confectionery Cereal Rice Industry Food raw materials Hospitals Pharmaceuticals

&

All Specialized areas/operations where effect of food may become critical.


19

Part I
Module 3 HACCP Key Concepts & Basic philosophy
20

MODERN CONCEPT OF FOOD QUALITY

FOOD QUALITY & FOOD SAFETY

HACCP KEY CONCEPTS

21

CLASSIFICATION OF FOOD
According to Perisability;
1.Non perishable e.g. Flour 2.Semi Perisability e.g Apple 3.Perishable e.g. Raw meat

Key Perisability factors Water Activity


storage

(aw)

HACCP KEY CONCEPTS - Food Spoilage

22

CLASSIFICATION OF FOOD
According to Acidity;
Low Acid Food Medium Acid Food Acid food High Acid food

1. Acidity or pH plays important role in Product shelf life..


HACCP KEY CONCEPTS- Food Spoilage

23

CATEGORY 1 - PRODUCTS (HIGH RISK)


Products with pH value of 4.6 or above that the sterilized in hermetically sealed containers, or sterilized and aseptically filled into sterile hermetically sealed containers for ambient distribution. Products containing fish, egg, vegetable, cereal and/dairy ingredients (any substitute of these) which need to be refrigerated. i.e. Raw meat, fish and dairy products. Infant Formula
HACCP KEY CONCEPTS

24

CATEGORY 2 PRODUCTS (MEDIUM RISK)


Dried or frozen products containing fish, meat, egg, vegetable or cereal and/or dairy ingredients or any substitute for these or other products excluded in the food hygiene regulations.

Sandwiches and meat pies for fresh consumption.


Fat-based products e.g. chocolate, margarine, spreads, mayonnaise and dressings.

HACCP KEY CONCEPTS

25

CATEGORY 3 PRODUCTS (LOW RISK)


Acid product (pH value below 4.6) such as pickles, fruits, fruit concentrates, fruit juices and acid beverages. Unprocessed and unpacked raw vegetables. Jams, marmalades and conserves. Sugar-based confectionery products. Edible oils and fats

HACCP KEY CONCEPTS

26

FOOD MICROBIOLOGY
A subject dealing with the study of microbial life
Microbial Growth Factors

Nutrients Temperature Moisture Oxygen pH Presence of inhibitory substances


HACCP KEY CONCEPTS

27

FOOD CONTAMINATION
Presence of any any objectionable thing in food
Nature of contaminants could be; Physical Chemical Microbiological

HACCP KEY CONCEPTS

28

FOOD SPOILAGE
Any change in food which makes it unacceptable for human consumption.
It may be caused by variety of reasons; 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Insect damage Physical Injury Enzyme activity Chemical change Micro-organisms Product shelf depends upon rate of spoilage 1. Food preservation is done to stop spoilage
HACCP KEY CONCEPTS

29

FOOD POISONING
Wide variety of illness or clinical condition affecting the gastro-intestinal tract. Causes
Bacteria Virus Fungi Plants Chemical

In the form of food allergins and toxicants


HACCP KEY CONCEPTS

30

FOOD BORNE ILLNESS


Diseases caused by food products carrying pathogens
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Bacteria Viruses Parasites Chemical/toxins Enzymatic changes

HACCP KEY CONCEPTS

31

FOOD BORNE ILLNESS Two Types


Infectious;
Caused by ingestion of number of micro-organism of public health significance to cause illness e.g. Salmonellosis & Listeriosis

Intoxication;

Caused by ingestion of a performed bacterial toxin e.g. Staphylococcus aureus and botulism.
HACCP KEY CONCEPTS

32

FOOD PACKAGING & CONSUMER SAFETY


Having contact with food, it plays vital role in product safety
Type of packaging Resistance to damage Labelling

HACCP KEY CONCEPTS

33

IMPLICATION OF MAJOR FOOD INGREDIENTS

Food Type
Contaminants

Cause
Effect

Cost

34

SUMMARY OF FOOD INCIDENTS


Worldwide occurrence Involve physical. Chemical or microbiological hazards Wide range of causes
Raw materials Mishandling Change of process or formulations Cross contamination Inadequate maintenance Wrong addition Malicious contamination

Direct & indirect costs

35

SAFE FOOD HANDLING


Pre harvesting Post harvesting Transportation During Processing Post processing care Storage/Ware Housing By distributors By consumer

HACCP KEY CONCEPTS

36

Part II
Module 4 HACCP Pre -Requisites

37

HACCP PRE-REQUISITES

Statistical Process
Control

Manufacturing Practices

Good

Management commitment Plant design & Lay out

Supplier Quality Assurance Preventive maintenance System Environment monitoring Quality Management System

Good Laboratory Practices

HACCP
Training & education
Recourses (finance & manpower)

Incident Management

The HACCP Basic Support Network

38

BASIC REQUIREMENTS Management commitment A trained multidisciplinary team Product Knowledge Time Resource

39

GOOD PRACTICES SYSTEMS Manufacturing - GMP Distribution GDP Laboratory - GLP

40

HEALTH & SAFETY SYSTEMS Hazardous Chemical Control Occupational Health Procedures

41

ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS ISO 14001 Recycling and product safety

42

PLANNED PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE


Reliability of Key process equipment Breakdown maintenance not enough Poor maintenance may lead to more hazards

43

SUPPLIER QUALITY ASSURANCE


Specifications Audit program Auditors training Approval of supplier Approved supplier list Code of practice Third party audit and accreditation

44

STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL


Assure capability of meeting the process requirements Use in CCP monitoring provides trend information

45

SENSORY EVALUATIONS PRACTICES


Monitoring critical limits Trained panelists Application of HACCP techniques

46

INCIDENT MANAGEMENT & RECALL PROCEDURES


Must effectively manage potentially unsafe product incident Must be able to recall potentially unsafe product from the market place

47

Part III
How to HACCP

48

HOW TO HACCP ?

In 4 - STAGES
3

2
1
Planning and preparation
Implementation

Studies and the plan development

of the HACCP Plan

Maintenance of the HACCP System

49

Part III
Module 1 Planning & Preparation

50

STAGE - 1
Planning & Preparation
HACCP Concept Awareness for Top Management External Expert Team formation

HACCP Team Training


Gap Analysis to Assess Current Status

Plan the Project

51

HACCP TEAM
Team Leader (HACCP Expert) A Microbiologist An Engineer A Production representative A Quality. Assurance representative Any other person having crucial concern with the project.

52

HACCP TEAM RESPOSIBILITIES


Plans the project Completes study and generates HACCP Documentation Ensures verification of the Plan Communicates and trains Review deviation from CCPs Review HACCP activities in response to change schedules and conducts internal audits

53

ROLE OF HACCP TEAM LEADER


Keep management inform about the progress of the project Ensure that the right level of expertise is available Help the team to achieve its common task Maintain the team unity Ensure that each team member contributes his/her best Mange time effectively and help the team to appraise its progress

54

HACCP TEAM TRAINING - STAGE I


Basic awareness HACCP philosophy & scope Why HACCP Food Quality & Safety HACCP pre -requisites HACCP Plan development Role of Team members Gap Analysis HACCP documentation at planning stage

HACCP KEY CONCEPTS

55

GAP ANALYSIS
(Pre-designing assessment)
Objectives to achieve Current status

HACCP KEY CONCEPTS

56

GAP ANALYSIS
Considerable points

Supplier QA GMP GLP QMS Preventive maintenance Recall & incident management SPC Calibration Personnel/Plant Hygiene & House keeping Sanitation

HACCP KEY CONCEPTS

57

PLAN THE PROJECT


HACCP Milestone Plan
PERFORMANCE CHALLENGE
To implement a system of Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points in the process to ensure production of safe and quality products. Target Dates
01:01:00 01:01:00 07:01:00 17:01:00 01:04:00 10:01:00 05:05:00 25:01:00 01:02:00 21:02:00 15:03:00 30:03:00 03:04:00 10:04:00 20:04:00 30:04:00 10:05:00 07:08:00 15:08:00 31:08:00

PROJECT PRIORITY : HIGH

PROJECT TEAM LEADER : MAB

PROJECT TEAM : IDA, MA, QR, MNN, LIA, MDB


January February
06 08

March
10 12

April
14 16

May
18 20

June
22 24

July
26 28

August
30 32

ID
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Tasks
Start of project HACCP Steering group awareness training Team development and training Baseline audit and gap analysis Establish process capability Plan the HACCP study Determine method of implementation Agree actions and time table Process flow diagram Hazard analysis Identify CCPs Complete control charts Validate the HACCP plan Conduct awareness training of operators Set up monitoring system Train monitoring personnel Set up facilities and equipment Implementations action completed Verify implementation action through audit HACCP plan re-validation

02

04

Time of Completion

Project Duration :

32 weeks

Date of initiation of project :

01 : 01 : 00

Issuance of status report :

after every 15 days

Date of project completion :

31:08:00

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Part III
Module 2 HACCP Studies & Plan Development
59

STAGE - 2
HACCP Studies & Plan Development
Define Terms of Reference
Describe the Product & Intended use Construct Flow Diagram Validate Flow Diagram

Hazard Analysis
CCP Identification
Establish Critical Limits
Identify Monitoring Sys
Establish Corrective Action

Validate HACCP Plan

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HACCP TEAM TRAINING - STAGE II


Product & associated hazards Use of HACCP Principles Risk Assessment Usage of decision tree & CCP identification Establishing Critical limits Establishing monitoring system training monitoring people Corrective action HACCP documentation Establishing HACCP Validation system

HACCP KEY CONCEPTS

61

DEFINE TERMS OF REFERENCE


Type of hazard
Physical Chemical Microbiological

Scope

Which Product Which Process Whole process or any module Start and end points

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PRODUCT DESCRIPTION & INTENDED USE


Product Introduction Principle Raw materials used Recipe/Intrinsic control factors Process Parameter Packaging and finished product stage Storage Condition Shelf Life Consumer target group Usage Abuse potential
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PRODUCT DESCRIPTION & INTENDED USE


PRODUCT DESCRIPTIONS Name: Shango Type: Standardized and pasteurized Juice drink available in four flavors (Mango, Apple, Mango Orange mix and Orange) PACKAGING / DISTRIBUTION / STORAGE / DESCRIPTION Packaging: Filled in tetrapak and shrink wrapped in trays/packed in curuwall cartons Distribution: Trucks and small vans Storage: Normal room temperature Shelf Life: 6 months INTENDED USE & SPECIAL CONSUMER CONSIDERATIONS Product is taken as nutritious juice drink by all age groups. Keep in refrigerator after opening INGREDIENT
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Pulp/Concentrate Sugar Stabilizer Flavors Colors Citric Acid Malic Acid Sodium Benzoate Sodium Citrate

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CONSTRUCT FLOW DIAGRAM


Raw materials Packaging Process activities Temperature & Time profile Equipment design Re-work Storage condition Distribution Waste handling

65

Process Flow Diagram - Fruit Juices/Drinks

Batch preparation

- Proper st orage of mat erials

Pasteurization Section

Aseptic Tetra Filling

Raw Materials Weighing

Stabilizer mixing Sugar Syrup P reparatio n

P ulp & Other Ingredients

- Accurat e & Caref ul weighing - Pulp/ Concent rat e - Sugar - Flavor - Vit - C - Color - St abilizer - So d i um B enz o at e - Cit ric acid/ M alice acid - Sodium Cit rat e - et c ...

Pump

Balance Tank

Regenerat or-1 Homogenizer-1 Regenerat or-2 St erilizer Holding Tube Regenerat or-2 Homogenizer-2 Regenerat or-1 Cooler

Balance Tank of aseptic filler Filling Tube

Sealing

Product Pump
Bat ch Preparat ion Tank

Forming
- Hydrogen per oxide - Qualit y - Quant it y

Filtration

P asteurizatio n Temperature

Conveyer

Standardization
TBA 1 9 - M ain heat er Temperat ure

Final Analysis

Tray Packing/ Shrink Wrap Stacking

Aseptic Storage

Storage

Warehousing

66

FLOW DIAGRAMS VERIFICATION


ON SITE

CONFIRMATION & VERIFICATION

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HACCP PRINCIPLES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Conduct Analysis Identify Critical Control Points (CCPs) Establish target levels/critical limits Establish monitoring system Establish corrective action system Establish verification System Establish documentation system

68

HACCP PRINCIPLES

Hazard Analysis & Risk Assessment

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HAZARDS
1. 2. A potential to cause harm to the consumer Safety A property that may cause a product to be unsafe for consumption

70

HAZARDS TYPES
PHYSICAL CHEMICAL BIOLOGICAL

71

PHYSICAL HAZARDS
Dirt Fruit pits Stones Wood Glass Metal Hairs Bones Insects broken parts

72

CHEMICAL HAZARDS
1. Agricultural Chemicals Pesticide, Antibiotics, Growth stimulators, Growth hormones and Fertilizers etc.. 2. Industrial Chemicals Cleaners, Sanitisers, Oils, Lubricants & Greases Ammonia and Polychlorinated biphenol etc... 3. Naturally Occurring Chemicals Aflatoxins 4. Environmental contaminants Lead, Arsenic, cadmium, mercury and PCVs 5. Food Chemicals Seasoning, Preservatives, acids, additives, sulfites and processing aids

73

MICROBIOLOGICAL HAZARDS
Clostridium botulinum
Clostridium perfringens Salmonella Listeria monocytogenes Staphylococcus aureus Shegella sp. Vibrio parahaemoliticus Bacillus cereus Vibrio cholera Comphaylobactor sp. Brucella sp. Streptococus sp. E. coli

74

RISK
The chance (probability) that a given hazard will occur. HIGH RISK

MEDIUM RISK
LOW RISK

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HOW TO CARRY OUT HAZARD ANALYSIS


By answering following questions for each raw materials & process step; What can go wrong leading to unsafe product How can we prevent it going wrong What is the best control approach Is this currently in place

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HAZARDS ANALYSIS
Considerable points;
Ingredients Intrinsic factors Procedures used for processing Microbial contents of food Facility design Equipment design and use Packaging Sanitation Employee health, health and education Storage condition Intended use Intended consumer

77

HAZARD ANALYSIS & RISK ASSESSMENT


Identify Hazards

Determine Preventive Measures

Identify Contamination Point


Determine Probability

Assess risk severity

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HAZARD ANALYSIS TOOLS


Fishbone diagram Brain Storming Documentation Hazard analysis chart HACCP Softwares Statistics Researching and evaluating the information

79

PREVENTIVE MEASURES
Physical, Chemical or other factors can be used to prevent or eliminate an identified hazard or reduce it to acceptable level

80

PREVENTIVE MEASURES EXAMPLES


Factors capable of control Process steps Use of approved supplier Control storage Time management] Segregation Application of effective cleaning methods Application of effective training methods Effective pest control

These are used to control not monitoring


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HACCP ANALYSIS CHART


Process Step
Raw Materials Chicken portions

Hazard and source Preventive Measures


Metal from de-boning knives 1. 2. Knife control procedures Effective metal detection of finish products

Cooking

Survival of Salmonella

Correct lethal temperature and time regime

82

HACCP ANALYSIS CHART


Process Step
Raw materials: Sodium Benzoate

Hazard and source Preventive Measure


Physical ,Chemical and Biological Sources: Raw materials itself before reception or in storage if not stored properly Biological, Raw milk & Environment CIP Reception of risk free materials and store them properly

Process: UHT Temperature

Risk free milk, Perform (adulterant tests) Hygienic Environment. Temperature sensor calibration. (Monthly)

83

INFORMATION SOURCES
Team members Scientific literature Technical consultants & research organizations Company specialists Supplier/ Customers Trade associations Experimental data Mathematical models
84

HACCP PRINCIPLES

Identification of Critical Control Points (CCPs)

85

CCP IDENTIFICATION

What is a Critical Control Point (CCP) How do we find them

86

CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS (CCP)


A point, step or procedure at which control can be applied and a food safety hazard can be prevented, eliminated or reduced to an acceptable level.

87

RAW MATERIAL DECISION TREE


Q1. Is there hazard associated with raw materials?

Yes

No

Q2. Are you or the consumer going to process this hazard out of this product?

Process to next raw materials

Yes
Q3. Is there a cross contamination risk to the facility or to other products which will not be controlled?

No

Sensitive raw materials


High level of control required .. CCP

No
Process to next raw materials

Yes
Sensitive raw materials High level of control required ..

CCP

88

RAM MATERIAL DECISION TREE MATRIX


Raw Materials Q1 Q2 Q3 CCP HACCP Team Comments

89

PROCESS DECISION TREE


Q1. Is there a hazard at this process step? What is that ?

Yes
Q2. Do preventive measure(s) exist for the identified hazard?

No

Not a CCP Modify step, process or product YES

Stop*

Yes
Q3. Is the step specifically designed to eliminate or reduce the likely occurrence of the hazard to an acceptable level?

No

Is control necessary at this step for safety

No
Yes

Not a CCP

Stop *

No
Q4. Could contamination occur at or increase to an unacceptable level?

Yes
Yes
Not a CCP

No

Q5. Will a subsequent step or action eliminate or reduce the hazard to an accpteptible level?

Not a CCP

Stop *

No
Stop *

CCP

* Proceed to next step or process step

90

PROCESS DECISION TREE MATRIX


Process Step and Hazard Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 CCP HACCP Team Comments

91

Controlling the Critical Control Points (CCPs)

92

CONTROLLING THE CCP S


BY:
Critical Limits & Target levels Monitoring Corrective Actions Responsibility Validation

Principles 3, 4, & 5
93

HACCP CONTROL CHART


HACCP CONTROL CHART
Fruit Juice/Drinks
CCP No. Process steps Hazard Types Preventive Action Critical limits
Procedure

Monitoring
Frequency Responsibility

Corrective Action
Procedure Responsibility

94

IDENTIFIED CCPS
HACCP CONTROL CHART
Fruit Juice/Drinks
CCP No. Process steps Hazard Types Preventive Action Critical limits
Procedure

Monitoring
Frequency Responsibility

Corrective Action
Procedure Responsibility

Blending Section/Batch Preparation


01
Sodium Benzoate

UHT Section/Pasteurizationst. incharge/ Instrumentation incharge


02
Balance tank strainer UHT Temperature

03

Aseptic Tetra Filling


04
Hydrogne peroxide Quality/dosage quantity

05

Main heater Temperature

95

CCPS WITH HAZARDS TYPES & PREVENTIVE MEASURES


HACCP CONTROL CHART
Fruit Juice/Drinks
CCP No. Process steps Hazard Types Preventive Action Critical limits
Procedure

Monitoring
Frequency Responsibility

Corrective Action
Procedure Responsibility

Blending Section/Batch Preparation


01
Sodium Benzoate

Proper weighing

UHT Section/Pasteurizationst. incharge/ Instrumentation incharge


02 03
Balance tank strainer UHT Temperature

P, B B

Weekly Cleaning Temperature sensor calib. (Monthly)

Aseptic Tetra Filling


04
Hydrogne peroxide Quality/dosage quantity

Quality evaluation for being food grade Measure and add exact dosage /badge

05

Main heater Temperature

Temperature sensor calib. Annually

96

HACCP PRINCIPLES

Establishing target levels/ critical limits

97

WHAT ARE CRITICAL LIMITS


The value of a preventive measure, determined during monitoring, that distinguishes acceptable and unacceptable.

98

CRTICAL LIMITS
Considerable points;
Chemical Limits Physical limits Procedural limits Microbiological limits Must be measurable by test or observation Criteria which must be met for each preventive measures at CCP Not necessary the same as the existing processing parameters

99

TARGET LEVEL/CRTICAL LIMITS


Temp OC
82 Safety Buffer Zone Critical Limit Target Level

75

100

ESTABLISHING CRITICAL LIMITS


HACCP CONTROL CHART
Fruit Juice/Drinks
CCP No. Process steps Hazard Types Preventive Action Critical limits
Procedure

Monitoring
Frequency Responsibility

Corrective Action
Procedure Responsibility

Blending Section/Batch Preparation


01
Sodium Benzoate

Proper weighing

Permissible limits

UHT Section/Pasteurizationst. incharge/ Instrumentation incharge


02 03
Balance tank strainer UHT Temperature

P, B B

Weekly Cleaning Temperature sensor calib. (Monthly) Quality evaluation for being food grade Measure and add exact dosage /badge Temperature sensor calib. Annually

No choking or leakage/damage Set point 140oC

Aseptic Tetra Filling


04
Hydrogne peroxide Quality/dosage quantity

Food grade No heavy metals No arsenic or lead Exact quantity as per standard Set point Temperature 360 0oC Pressure 0.5 bar

05

Main heater Temperature

101

HACCP PRINCIPLES

Establishing Monitoring Systems

102

MONITORING
Observations or measurements to assess whether preventive measures at critical points are being implemented effectively.

Observation at CCPs that the process is


operating within critical limits

103

CCP MONITORING
Considerable points;
1. Continuous 2. Non Continuous

Monitoring

On line Off Line Observational procedures

Frequency Responsibility
104

CCP MONITORING
HACCP CONTROL CHART
Fruit Juice/Drinks
CCP No. Process steps Hazard Types Preventive Action Critical limits
Procedure

Monitoring
Frequency
Per batch

Corrective Action
Responsibility
Pasteurization operator

Procedure

Responsibility

Blending Section/Batch Preparation


01
Sodium Benzoate

Proper weighing

Permissible limits

Careful weighing

UHT Section/Pasteurizationst. incharge/ Instrumentation incharge


02
Balance tank strainer UHT Temperature

P, B

Weekly Cleaning

No choking or leakage/damage Set point 140oC

03

Temperature sensor calib. (Monthly)

Physical inspection for choking and leakage Temperature monitoring from panel & graph

Hourly

UHT operator

Hourly

UHT operator

Aseptic Tetra Filling


04
Hydrogne peroxide Quality/dosage quantity

Quality evaluation for being food grade Measure and add exact dosage /badge

Food grade No heavy metals No arsenic or lead Exact quantity as per standard Set point Temperature 360 0oC Pressure 0.5 bar

Check lab release for quality Record dosage/ check end usage Temperature monitoring from regulator Pressure form gauge

Per can/ Every can

Tetra operator/Foreman

05

Main heater Temperature

Temperature sensor calib. Annually

Hourly

Tetra operator

105

CCPS LOG SHEET


Line/product: Monitoring Procedures: . Monitoring frequency: Target levels: Time Results Deviation? CCP Ref. No. Date: Shift: Corrective action .. Action taken Signature

Reviewed by :

Date:

106

HACCP PRINCIPLES

Establishing Corrective Actions

107

ESTABLISHING CORRECTIVE ACTIONS


Prevent deviation
Only possible if target levels in place

Correction following deviations;

- Adjust the process to bring it back to control - Deal with the materials produced during the deviation period Destroy non complying products Re-work Direct into less sampling products Release following sampling and testing Release?

108

CORRECTIVE ACTIONS
HACCP CONTROL CHART
Fruit Juice/Drinks
CCP No. Process steps Hazard Types Preventive Action Critical limits
Procedure

Monitoring
Frequency
Per batch

Corrective Action
Responsibility
Pasteurization operator

Procedure
Dont use the product

Responsibility
Shift Incharge erator

Blending Section/Batch Preparation


01
Sodium Benzoate

Proper weighing

Permissible limits

Careful weighing

UHT Section/Pasteurizationst. incharge/ Instrumentation incharge


02
Balance tank strainer

P, B

Weekly Cleaning

No choking or leakage/damage

Physical inspection for choking and leakage Temperature monitoring from panel & graph

Hourly

UHT operator

Urgently replace on choking or damage Immediate calibration

UHT operator

03

UHT Temperature

Temperature sensor calib. (Monthly)

Set point 140oC

Hourly

UHT operator

UHT incharge/ Instrumentation incharge

Aseptic Tetra Filling


04
Hydrogne peroxide Quality/dosage quantity

Quality evaluation for being food grade Measure and add exact dosage /badge

Food grade No heavy metals No arsenic or lead Exact quantity as per standard Set point Temperature 360 0oC Pressure 0.5 bar

Check lab release for quality Record dosage/ check end usage Temperature monitoring from regulator Pressure form gauge

Per can/ Every can

Tetra operator/Foreman

Ask lab for product results/ Safe product should be released Immediate calibration Process gets stop in case of deviation
inbuilt security system

Tetra operator/Foreman

05

Main heater Temperature

Temperature sensor calib. Annually

Hourly

Tetra operator

Tetra incharge/ Instrumentation incharge

109

HACCP PRINCIPLES

Establishing HACCP Validation

110

VALIDATION OF HACCP PLAN


1. What is validation 2. How it can be done

111

WHAT ?
The assessment of the HACCP plan before implementation to provide confirmation that it is accurate and complete

112

HOW TO VALIDATE ?
Use personnel with audit skills Assess all elements of the HACCP plan - Process flow diagram - HACCP Control chart Assess the process area - Preventive measures - Process capability

113

HACCP PRINCIPLES

Establishing HACCP Documentation

114

HACCP DOCUMENTATION
Main Records
A summary of Hazards analysis, with rationale of determining hazards and control measures. The HACCP Plan Support documentation such as validation records Records that are generated during the operation of the plan.

115

RECORDS OF POSSIBLE RETENTION


Hazard analysis chart HACCP Control Chart CCP log sheet Hold/ Trace/ Recall records Training records Audit records HACCP Team meeting records Calibration records HACCP Plan History of amendments

Records are essential to provide evidence of safe production


116

Part III
Module 3 Implementation of HACCP Plan

117

STAGE - 3
Implementation Of HACCP Plan
Determine The Method of Implementation
Set Up Implementation Team

Agree actions & Time table


Awareness Training Set up Monitoring Sys Establish Process Capability Set up Facilities

Train Monitoring Personnel

Establish Record Keep Requirements

Verify Implementation Through Audit

Confirm Implementation Actions Completed

Take Necessary Corrective Actions

118

HACCP PLAN IMPLEMENTATION


Determine Method of Implementation

119

HACCP IMPLEMENTATION
Method Big Bang
Method

Advantages
1. 2. Rapid implementation potential Works well in companies with well established Quality Systems Whole work force involved Ease of work force briefing
1.

Disadvantages
May take longer period overall than anticipated- All HACCP monitoring and control procedure will have to be developed before implementation starts No trial of individual system elements Loss of credibility If employ see that it is poorly managed If CCP fails through poor support network Large immediate training requirement Resource thinly spread e.g. HACCP Team

All at once

3. 4.

2. 3.

120

HACCP IMPLEMENTATION
Method - Phased
Method

Advantages
1. Quality management system support can be developed as required and alongside Staged training allows more individual attention System can be trailed and refined as implementation progress More manageable approach HACCP Resource can be focused on each stage
1. 2. 3.

Disadvantages
Longer over all implementation time table Working of small group in isolation difficult to change culture Implementation may loose momentum

Phased

2. 3.

4. 5.

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HACCP IMPLEMENTATION TEAM


Team Leader (HACCP Expert) An Maintenance Engineer (Optional) A Production representative A Q. Assurance representatives Any other person who has the main concern

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PERSONNEL CONSIDERATIONS
Fundamentals to HACCP effectiveness

Key Questions
- Enough people - Ability - Time - Supervisor - Training

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TRAINING PERSONNEL
All personnel - An understanding of HACCP - How HACCP applies to process - Why monitoring is vital CCP monitors and their Supervisors - How to monitor - Monitoring frequency required - Record keeping /Deviation reporting - Use of critical limits/Target levels - Adjusting the process to maintain control - Corrective action
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ESTABLISHING PROCESS CAPABILITY


Equipments Considerations;
Availability Capability Reliability Ease of use Special facilities Other implications

Facility Considerations;
- Production - Additional space requirements - Extra facilities - Training and briefing staff - Space - Environment - Equipment

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Part III
Module 4 Maintaining the HACCP System

126

STAGE - 4
Maintaining the HACCP System
Define standards and regular audits

Ongoing Maintenance
Corrective & Preventive Action HACCP Plan Validation Documentation control Update Data analysis

Problem Solving

127

HACCP AUDITING

Types of audits

The system Audit

The compliance audit Against


- To solve any problem)

- Where ISO is used - HACCP Plan

The investigative audit

128

AUDIT CHECK LIST


Process step
Raw materials
(List of raw materials)

Considerations Auditors findings

Process
(List of process steps)

Packaging and dispatch


(List of packaging here)

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DATA CHECKING BY AUDITORS


CCP log sheet Process control charts Audit reports Customers complaints data Pest control records Minutes of meeting - HACCP - Hygiene - Quality

130

HACCP NON COMPLIANCE NOTE


HACCP Audit Non Compliance Note Location: Date: NO:

Area under review: Non Compliance:

Action required by (date): Auditors: Accepted by Audi tee: Corrective Action: Verified (Auditor): Date:

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ON GOING TRAINING REQUIREMENT

Refresher Training New Personnel - HACCP - CCP monitors - Others Updating training - New emerging hazards - Developments in HACCP Awareness training

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HACCP MAINTENANCE PLAN


HACCP System Maintenance Requirements Approved By:
HACCP Team Leader

Date: Quarterly audit of HACCP plan annual plan revalidation HACCP plan to be revised for all process ingredients changes Quarterly CCP log sheet review for deviation trend analysis Monthly review of consumer complaints data for trends 6 monthly simulation of trace/recall procedures Ongoing technical update through symposia and technical journals Quarterly analysis of training needs

133

HACCP PLAN REVIEW/AMENDMENTS


Amendments Protocol
Product safety assessments Maintain a history sheet Incorporate changes Frequency of review

134

AMENDING THE HACCP PLAN


New raw materials suppliers Changes in the process Factory enviroionment alterations New packaging HACCP audit changes after improvements HACCP review

Changes need to be documented


135

FOOD FOR AMENDMENTS


New technologies New natural foods New combinations of foods Changing legislations New information on existing issues New ways of packaging foods Changing eating habits

136

HISTORY OF AMENDMENTS
HACCP Plan Ref. Page:
Date Amendment Reason Approval Signature

137

HACCP VERIFICATION
1. 2. 3. 4. Initial validation of plan Subsequent validation of plan Verification of CCP monitoring as per plan Review of monitoring, corrective action records to show compliance with plan 5. Comprehensive HACCP system verification.

138

HACCP VERIFICATION
1. Establish procedures

2. Responsibility
3. Frequency of Verification

139

ROLE OF REGULATORY AGENCIES


Review the HACCP plan Review the CCP record Review the corrective action records on deviation Review of the critical limits Review of all the records pertaining to the HACCP plan Direct measurement or observation at CCP Sample collection & analysis product safety On-site observation and record review

140

Part IV
Module 1
FOOD SAFETY & Quality System

141

FOOD SAFETY INTEGRATED QUALITY SYSTEM

HACCP & Quality Management System e.g ISO

142

QUALITY MANAGEMENT & FOOD SAFETY


ISO 9000 ensures the products meets specification 100% of the time. HACCP specifies and ensures a safe product. Managing HACCP using ISO 9000 ensures that the specific safe product is made every time Documented procedures & records provide essential evidence of safe product manufacture

143

ISO/QS WITHOUT FOOD SAFETY

The Danger
If unsafe product is specified .. ..then it will always be produced

144

LINKING HACCP TO Q. MGT. TECHNIQUES


Quality Management system Good Practice System : : : : : : 1SO 9000 Manufacturing Distribution Laboratory Chemical control Occupational health procedures ISO 14001 Specification Audit

Health & Safety System

Environment Management system Supplier Quality Assurance


Statistical Process Control Sensory Evaluation Incident Management and recall procedures

: : :

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QUALITY PLANS ( 4.2.3 Quality Planning)


HACCP & Quality Control Chart
Process steps Control Points Preventive measures Critical limits Monitoring

DATE : Approved By:


Corrective action

Supersedes Ref No:


Responsibility

CCP

QCP

LQP

Procedure

Frequency

CCP = Critical Control Points QCP = Quality Control Points LCP = Legal Control Points

= Food Safety = Quality other than food safety = Legal Compliance

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QUALITY PLANS - KEY POINTS


Keep CCPs separate from QCPs/LCPs Enable same degree of control product spoilage, sensory attributes, legal compliance etc.. Assists with ensuring clear understanding and separation of food safety control versus non food safety control. More meaningful within process environment.
147

Part V
Module 1 System Bottlenecks

148

BOTTLENECKS IN HACCP PROJECTTENANCE)


Managements diluted vision/ Lack of interest Wrong selection of team Clarity of concept of food safety and quality Weak Supplier QA/supplier support Too many CCPs Take too long to put modifications in place Resources to implement modifications

149

BOTTLENECKS IN HACCP PROJECTTENANCE)


Coordination of HACCP Team and availability to attend the HACCP maintenance meetings People reluctance for change/ Conservation of ideas Unavailability of like GMP, GLP, preventive maintenance, sanitation and lack of personnel health Unavailability of experts Poor Traceability & Improper recall system
150

Part VI
Module 1 HACCP FUTURE

151

HACCP FUTURE
Outside Pakistan In Pakistan

152