Anda di halaman 1dari 94

Implement Spanning Tree Protocols

LAN Switching and Wireless Chapter 5

ITE I Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

Objectives
1. Redundancy & Issues with Redundancy.
2. Spanning Tree Algorithm operation. 3. PVST+, RSTP and Rapid PVST+

4. Configuring rapid PVST+ NEW


5. Design STP for Trouble Avoidance NEW 6. Troubleshoot STP Operation

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

Part one

Redundancy in Switched Environment

ITE I Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

5.1.1 Redundancy
Layer 2 redundancy improves the availability of the network by implementing alternate network paths by adding equipment and cabling.

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

Need for Redundancy

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

Need for Redundancy

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

Need for Redundancy

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

Need for Redundancy

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

Need for Redundancy

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

Redundancy issues

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

10

Redundancy issues

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

11

Redundancy issues

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

12

Redundancy issues

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

13

Redundancy issues

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

14

Redundancy issues

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

15

Redundancy issues

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

16

Redundancy issues

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

17

Redundancy issues

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

18

Redundancy issues

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

19

Redundancy issues

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

20

Redundancy issues

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

21

Redundancy issues

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

22

Redundancy issues

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

23

5.1.2 Issues with Redundancy


Broadcast storm can cause the end device to malfunction because of the high processing requirements for sustaining such a high traffic load on the network interface card.

Loops result in high CPU load on all switches caught in the loop.
Because devices connected to a network are constantly sending out broadcast frames, such as ARP requests, a broadcast storm can develop in seconds. A host caught in a network loop is not accessible to other hosts on the network. Because the MAC address table is constantly changing with the updates from the broadcast frames, the switch does not know which port to forward the unicast frames out to reach the final destination
ITE 1 Chapter 6 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public

24

5.1.3 Real-world redundancy issues

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

25

5.1.3 Real-world redundancy issues


Describe how redundancy can disable a hierarchical network

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

26

Redundancy
STP has placed some switch ports in forwarding state and other switch ports in blocking state. This is to prevent loops in the Layer 2 network.

STP will only use a redundant link if there is a failure on the primary link.
Redundancy provides a lot of flexibility in path choices on a network, allowing data to be transmitted regardless of a single path or device failing in the distribution or core layers.

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

27

Part two

Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)

ITE I Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

28

Using spanning tree protocol (STP)

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

29

Using spanning tree protocol (STP)

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

30

Using spanning tree protocol (STP)

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

31

Using spanning tree protocol (STP)

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

32

Spanning Tree Operation


One root bridge per network One root port per nonroot bridge One designated port per segment Nondesignated ports are blocking

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

33

The STP Root Bridge


Reference point One root per VLAN Maintains topology Propagates timers

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

34

Using spanning tree protocol (STP)

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

35

Four-Step decision Sequence


Four-Step decision Sequence Step 1 - Lowest BID

Step 2 - Lowest Path Cost to Root Bridge


Step 3 - Lowest Sender BID Step 4 - Lowest Sender Port ID

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

36

How STP select the root bridge?


Firstly : choose the root bridge
The lowest Bridge ID (BID) The lowest bridge priority The lowest MAC address

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

37

Bridge ID

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

38

Spanning tree path cost

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

39

Spanning tree path cost

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

40

What is the BPDU?


The Bridge (switch) Protocol Data Unit (BPDU) is the frame exchanged between switches to exchange STP data and do election of root bridge and another parameters

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

41

BPDU Fields

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

42

BPDU Process

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

43

BPDU Process

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

44

BPDU Process

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

45

BPDU Process

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

46

BPDU Process

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

47

BPDU Process

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

48

BPDU Process

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

49

BPDU Process

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

50

BPDU Process

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

51

Port Roles

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

52

Definitions of each port role


Root Port: The root port exists on non-root bridges. Root ports forward traffic toward the root bridge. Only one root port is allowed per bridge.

Designated Port: The designated port exists on root and non-root bridges,
For root bridges, all switch ports are designated ports. For non-root bridges, a designated port is the switch port that receives and forwards frames toward the root bridge as needed. Only one designated port is allowed per segment.

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

53

Definitions of each port role


Non-designated Port: The non-designated port is a switch port that is blocked, so it is not forwarding data frames. A non-designated port is not a root port or a designated port. Disabled Port: The disabled port is a switch port that is administratively shut down. A disabled port does not function in the spanning-tree process.

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

54

How STP select the root port?


Secondly : choose one root port for every non-root bridge
the lowest cost path to the root bridge The lowest sender BID the lowest sender port ID

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

55

How STP choose the designated & blocked ports ?


Thirdly : choose designated ports One designated port per segment
The lowest switch path cost to root Bridge The lowest port ID (port priority + port No.) The lowest switch BID

all ports of Root Bridge are designated ports


the port which at front of each root port is a designated port

Fourthly : other ports are blocked Fifthly : any shutdown ports is disabled
ITE 1 Chapter 6 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public

56

Port Roles

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

57

Port Roles

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

58

Port Roles

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

59

Port Roles

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

60

Port Roles

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

61

Port Roles

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

62

Port Roles

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

63

STP Port states


The spanning tree is determined immediately after a switch is finished booting up. If a switch port were to transition directly from the blocking to the forwarding state, the port could temporarily create a data loop if the switch was not aware of all topology information at the time. For this reason, STP introduces five port states. The following provides some additional information on how the port states ensure that no loops are created during the creation of the logical spanning tree.

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

64

STP Port states


Blocking - The port is a non-designated port and does not participate in frame forwarding. The port receives BPDU frames to determine the location and root ID of the root bridge switch and what port roles each switch port should assume in the final active STP topology. Listening - STP has determined that the port can participate in frame forwarding according to the BPDU frames that the switch has received thus far. At this point, the switch port is not only receiving BPDU frames, it is also transmitting its own BPDU frames and informing adjacent switches that the switch port is preparing to participate in the active topology.
ITE 1 Chapter 6 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public

65

STP Port states


Learning - The port prepares to participate in frame forwarding and begins to populate the MAC address table by learning the source MACs in received frame but doesnt forward frames. Forwarding - The port is considered part of the active topology and forwards frames and also sends and receives BPDU frames. Disabled - The Layer 2 port does not participate in spanning tree and does not forward frames. The disabled state is set when the switch port is administratively shutdown.
ITE 1 Chapter 6 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public

66

Spanning Tree Port States


1. Disabled: 2. Blocked : - No cable is connected. - Port is shut down - Doesnt transmit or receive data frames. - Listen to received BPDUs. - Doesnt transmit BPDUs. - Doesnt transmit or receive data frames. - Process BPDUs for Root, RP,DP election. - First forward delay time=15 sec. - Doesnt transmit data frames. - Drops the received data frames but after learning the source Mac. - Process BPDUs for Root, RP,DP election. - Second forward delay time=15 sec.

3. Listening:

4. Learning:

5. Forwarding: - Start forwarding data frames - Process BPDUs.

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

67

Spanning Tree Port States

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

68

Spanning tree timers

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

69

Spanning tree timers

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

70

STP Timers

The time values given for each state are the default values. These values have been calculated on an assumption that there will be a maximum of seven switches in any branch of the spanning tree from the root bridge.
ITE 1 Chapter 6 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public

71

TCN

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

72

Topology change notification


At change :
If the root bridge goes down all other switches go to blocking state for 20 sec then go for listening state for 15 sec then to learning state for 15 sec then forwarding state

so convergence will take 50 sec.


If any other change happened all routers goes directly for listening state for 15 sec then to learning state for 15 sec then forwarding state

so convergence will take 30 sec.

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

73

Spanning tree enhancements

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

74

Spanning tree enhancements

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

75

5.3 STP Convergence


Define convergence for a switched network and summarize the 3 step process STP uses to create a loop free topology

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

76

Part three

Advanced STP Versions

ITE I Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

77

Cisco and STP Variants

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

78

Implement per VLAN Spanning Tree in a LAN

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

79

PVST+ Bridge ID

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

80

default spanning-tree configuration

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

81

Configure PVST+

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

82

Configure PVST+

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

83

Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP)

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

84

RTSP BPDU

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

85

RSTP port states


Describe the RSTP port states and port roles

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

86

RSTP Port Roles

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

87

RSTP edge ports


Describe RSTP edge ports

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

88

RSTP Link Types

Port (edge , non edge (root . Designated , alternate or backup)) Edge port moves directly from discarding to forwarding state Root port moves directly from discarding to forwarding state after sync. Designated port moves directly from discarding to forwarding state only If the link type parameter indicates point to point not shared. alternate or backup ports doesnt use this parameter.

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

89

RSTP port states

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

90

RSTP Proposal or Agreement Process

See animation 5.4.6


ITE 1 Chapter 6 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public

91

Implement Rapid per VLAN Spanning Tree (rapid PVST+) in a LAN


Describe how to configure rapid PVST+

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

92

Implement Rapid per VLAN Spanning Tree (rapid PVST+) in a LAN

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

93

ITE 1 Chapter 6

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

94