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Quality Principles and Philosophies

Imran Hussain

Dr. W. E. Deming

Demings Background

Main architect for introducing Total Quality into Japan Born 1900 Graduated in Electrical Engineering PhD in mathematical physics Became statistician for US govt. Sent by US govt. to Japan after WWII to advise on Japanese census.

Demings Philosophy

Quality is about people, not products Suggested quality concept for designing product Management need to understand nature of variation and how to interpret statistical data Promoted importance of leadership 85% of production faults responsibility of management, not workers

Product Development Cycle


1. 2. 3. 4.

5.

Design the product. Make it. Try to sell it. Do consumer research and test the products uses. Redesign start the cycle all over again.

Achieving Quality

Companies should direct efforts towards:


Innovation of products Innovation of processes Improvement of existing products Improvement of existing processes

Quality Approach in Context

Quality

Costs

Productivity

Prices

Market Share

Stay in business

Attributes of a Leader

Coaches not judges Strives to understand variation and its causes Strives to remove obstacles within the organization Responds to all customer forces Adopts consistency of purpose Places and emphasis on improving processes

Attributes of a Leader

Recognizes that people are not assets; they are jewels Strives to recognize those who need help and the gives help Creates and atmosphere of trust Knows the work he supervises Does not place an over-reliance on figures Encourages education and continuous improvement of each

Demings 14-point Management Philosophy


1.

Create constancy of purpose for continual improvement of products

Create constancy of purpose for improvement of systems, products and services, with the aim to become excellent, satisfy customers, and provide jobs. Reduced defects and cost of development.

Demings 14-point Management Philosophy


2.

Adopt a commitment to seek continual improvements

Constantly and forever improve the system development processes, to improve quality and productivity, and thus constantly decrease the time and cost of systems. Improving quality is not a one time effort.

Demings 14-point Management Philosophy


3.

Switch from defect detection to defect prevention

Cease dependencies on mass inspection (especially testing) to achieve quality. Reduce the need for inspection on a mass basis by building quality into the system in the first place. Inspection is not the answer. It is too late and unreliable it does not produce quality.

Demings 14-point Management Philosophy


4.

In dealing with suppliers one should end the practice of awarding business on price. Move towards quality of product, reliability of delivery and willingness to cooperate and improve. Build partnerships.

Minimize total cost. Move towards a single supplier for any one item or service, making them a partner in a long-term relationship of loyalty and trust.

Demings 14-point Management Philosophy


5.

Improvement is not confined to products and their direct processes but to all supporting services and activities

All functions in an organization need to become quality conscious to deliver a quality product.

Demings 14-point Management Philosophy


6.

Train a modern way.

Institute training on the job. Everyone must be trained, as knowledge is essential for improvement.

Demings 14-point Management Philosophy


7.

Supervision must change from chasing, to coaching and support.

Institute leadership. It is a mangers job to help their people and their systems do a better job.

Demings 14-point Management Philosophy


8.

Drive out fear and encourage twoway communication.

Drive out fear, so that everyone may work effectively. Management should be held responsible for the faults of the organization and environment.

Demings 14-point Management Philosophy


9.

Remove barriers between departments

Break down barriers between areas. People must work as a team. They must foresee and prevent problems during systems development and use.

Demings 14-point Management Philosophy


10.

Do not have unrealistic targets

Set realistic targets. Do not place people under unnecessary pressure by asking them to do things which are not achievable. Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and targets that ask for zero defects, and new levels of productivity. Slogans do not build quality systems.

Demings 14-point Management Philosophy


11.

Eliminate quotas and numerical targets

Eliminate numerical quotas and goals. Substitute it with leadership. Quotas and goals (such as schedule) address numbers not quality and methods.

Demings 14-point Management Philosophy


12.

Remove barriers that prevent employees having pride in the work that they perform

Remove barriers to pride of workmanship. The responsibility of project managers must change from schedules to quality.

Demings 14-point Management Philosophy


13.

Encourage education and selfimprovement for everyone

Institute and vigorous program of education and self-improvement for everyone. There must be a continuing commitment to training and educating software managers and professional staff.

Demings 14-point Management Philosophy


14.

Publish top managements permanent commitment to continuous improvement of quality and productivity

Juran

Jurans 10-point Program


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Identify customers Determine customer needs Translate Establishment units of measurement Establish measurements Develop product Optimize product design Develop process Optimize process capability Transfer

Crosby

Crosbys 14-step program


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Management commitment Quality improvement team Quality measurement Cost of quality evaluation Quality awareness Corrective action Zero defect program Supervisor training

Crosbys 14-step program


9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Zero defects day Goal setting Error cause removal Recognition Quality councils Do it over again

Crosbys Maturity Grid


Uncertainty (adhoc) Awakening (recognition begins but management unwilling to spend on quality) Enlightenment (management begins to support quality improvement program, culture of openness) Wisdom (management fully participates, defect prevention is now part of the culture) Certainty (the whole organization is

Shingo

Shingos Philosophy

Poka Yoke (meaning mistake proofing)


This involves identifying potential error sources in the process and monitoring these sources for errors. A variant to this approach is FMEA

Ishikawa

Ishikawas Philosophy

Quality Control Circles (QCC)

A quality control circle consists of a small group of employees who do similar work and arrange to meet regularly to identify and analyze workrelated problems, to brainstorm and to recommend and implement solutions.

Quality Control Circles


Select problem State and re-state problems Collect facts Brainstorm Build on each other ideas Choose course of action Presentation

Genichi Taguchi

Taguchis Philosophy

Defines quality in terms of loss the loss a product causes to society after being shipped, other than losses caused by its intrinsic function He defines a loss function as a measure of the cost of quality He also developed a method for determining the optimum value of process variables which will minimize the variation in a process while keeping mean on target

Peter Drucker

Druckers Philosophy

Success is threefold
Know your business Know your competencies Knowing how to keep focused on goals

Effective management and employee participation Link between the bottom line and satisfying the customer

Druckers Philosophy

Purpose of business lies outside itself that is in creating and satisfying a customer. The decision process is central, and structure has to follow strategy and management has to be management by objectives and self-control.

Druckers 5 Principles of Management


1. 2. 3. 4.

5.

Setting objectives Organizing Motivating and communicating Establishing measures of performance Developing people

Tom Peters

Peters Philosophy

Excellent firms believe in constant improvement and constant change Need to move from hierarchical management to horizontal, fast, cross-functional co-operative organization

Peters Management Guidelines


Actively create a quality revolution Put the customer first in everything you do Listen actively to all stakeholders Invest in people, training, education and recruitment Openly reward, recognize and support productivity innovation Openly support failures where people have tried to improve Involve everyone in everything at all times

Peters Management Guidelines


Setup simple and understandable measures Fight against bureaucracy and inflexibility Look through a different mirror: step outside the company and look at it from a different perspective Teamwork and trust: develop strong interpersonal and team skills Work on attitudes and attention to detail: get things done Be consistent and strive for improvements

References

A Practical Approach to Software Quality, Ch. 1 Total Quality Management: A Total Quality Approach, Ch. 1