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PTOLEMAIC PERIOD

PTOLEMAIC PERIOD

INTRODUCTION
The Ptolemaic dynasty was a Hellenistic royal family that ruled over Egypt for nearly 300 years, from 305 BC to 30 BC. Ptolemy, a Macedonian and one of Alexander the Great's generals, was appointed satrap (a Persian title for the ruler of Egypt) after Alexander's death in 323 BC. In 305 BC, he declared himself King Ptolemy I, later known as "Soter" (saviour). The Egyptians soon accepted the Ptolemies as the successors to the pharaohs of independent Egypt. Ptolemy's family ruled Egypt until the Roman conquest of 30 BC.

PTOLEMIC EMPIRE

GEOGRAPHY

Egypt consists of a narrow strip of fertile, allurial soil along both banks of the Nile, flanked by shelves of barren land and ragged cliffs beyond which lie arid desert plateaux. The Nile was a trade route to Eastern and Western foreign trade and because of its overflowing and fertilizing waters made desert sands into fruitful fields.

GEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

Stone is abundant in Egypt in quantity and variety. This were used in buildings and for vases and personal ornaments. As the country was poor in metals for building, the kinds of stones were limestones, sandstone, alabaster and hard stone such as granite, quartite, and basalt.

GEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

The gigantic scale which distinguishes Egyptian architecture was made possible not only by the materials but also by the methods of quarrying, transporting and raising enormous blocks of stones into position. Cedar and other woods were imported. Palm leaves, reeds and rushes are used to frame or reinforce mudbrick constructions or as mats for such as panels partitions and fences had a great and permanent influence on the form and character of stone architecture.

CLIMATE
Egypt has only two seasons: spring and summer. Climate is warm, snow is unknown, rain is rare, and thus, contributed to the preservation of buildings. Simplicity of design is conduced by the brilliant sunshine; or as sufficient light reached the interior of temples through doors and roof slits.

RELIGIOUS PRACTICES

The religious practice rite of the Egyptians were traditional. The keynote of Egyptian religion was that of awe and submission to the great power represented by the sun while the chief worship was of OSIRIS, the man-god who died and rose again, the god of death, and through death of resurrection to eternal life.

SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT
Egyptian civilization is among the most ancient social and industrial conditions. Craftsmanship was very highly developed. Kings of Ancient Egypt are known as Pharaohs. Sometimes they appear as gods and demi-gods often as mystery priests.

CHARACTERISTICS

The primitive architecture in the valley of the Nile consisted of readily-available a tractable materials like reeds, papyrus and palm-branch ribs, plastered over with clay. With bundles of stems placed vertically side by side and lashed to a bundle placed horizontally near the top walls or fences could be made. The pressure of the flat reed-and-mud roofs against the tops of wall reeds may have produced the characteristic Egyptian gorge cornice.

CHARACTERISTICS

Limited tree growth prevented much use of wood as building material Ceramic art was developed because of clay deposited by the Nile Sun-dried and kiln-dried bricks were used extensively Sandstone, limestone and granite were there for obelisks, sculpture and decorative uses Flatly modeled surface decoration of granite buildings came from past mud wall ornamentation Post-and-lintel construction was developed; the type used in the Egyptians monumental buildings Walls were immensely thick

CHARACTERISTICS

Roofs were customarily flat, suited for the lack of rain and were made of huge stone blocks supported by the external walls and closely spaced columns Sloping exterior walls were covered with hieroglyphic and pictorial carvings as well as their columns and piers Egyptian ornaments are often symbolic such as the scarab, the solar disk and the vulture Hieroglyphics were for decoration and records of historic events Sculptors had the highest capacity for putting together ornamentation and essential forms of buildings They developed motifs from natural objects such as palm leaves. The papyrus plant and the buds and flowers of the lotus

PROMINENT PERSONALITIES

Ptolemy I, perhaps with advice from Demetrius of Phalerum, founded the Museum and Library of Alexandria. It was located in the royal sector of the city. the Library held close to fifty thousand books

BUILDINGS BUILT
Many Egyptian temples were rebuilt, repaired and built as new during the Ptolemaic period like the: Dendera the main temple dedicated to the goddess Hathor Edfu the temple of Horus Esna the Greco-Roman temple of Khnum Kom Ombo temples dedicated to the deities Sobek and Haroeris Philae the temple of Isis

BUILDINGS BUILT

Palaces At Memphis substantial parts of a palace building have survived. The palace was built on a platform, like some other Egyptian and Near Eastern palace buildings. Most of the walls are constructed in mud-brick, while important elements such as columns, pavements and wall cladding (at least to a certain height) are made in limestone.

BUILDINGS BUILT
Temples From many Late Period temples only the mud brick built enclosure walls survived; probably most cult centers were provided with very thick enclosure walls at this time. The temples themselves have generally been stripped of most of their stone, often leaving only hard stone elements such as door-jambs and monolithic shrines.

BUILDINGS BUILT

Platforms A feature of many monumental buildings during this period is huge platforms on which the main structures were placed. Typically there are casemates in these platforms, to give them higher stability: they should not be confused with rooms. Platforms are found in connection with palace buildings and fortresses built into temple complexes.

BUILDINGS BUILT

The Temple of Edfu

The Temple of Edfu


is an ancient Egyptian temple located on the west bank of the Nile in the city of Edfu which was known in Greco-Roman times as Apollonopolis Magna, after the chief god HorusApollo second largest temple in Egypt after Karnak and one of the best preserved The inscriptions on its walls provide important information on language, myth and religion during the Greco-Roman period in ancient Egypt. In particular, the Temple's inscribed building texts "provide details [both] of its construction, and also preserve information about the mythical interpretation of this and all other temples as the Island of Creation." There are also "important scenes and inscriptions of the Sacred Drama which related the age-old conflict between Horus and Seth. Its size reflects the relative prosperity of the time.

SAMPLE PICTURES OF PTOLEMIC STRUCTURES

SAMPLE PICTURES OF PTOLEMIC STRUCTURES

THANK YOU
SUBMITTED BY:

ARCIETE, IVANNE TONI ARMECIN, CHENNEY MAE BONGHANOY, REIMER KEN MATUNOG, CARMEL ANGELI ORILLO, KURT JOSEPH SESANTE, SENTRA

SUBMITTED TO: ARCHT SOLIS