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Part5

NO.7 Signaling System

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Agenda
NO.7 Signaling System overview The Protocol stack

Message Transfer Part


Network architecture and elements

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NO.7 Signaling System

Overview :
Signaling System SS7 is the predominant signaling system for the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) and also Public Land Mobile Networks (PLMN). SS7 defines the procedures for setting-up, managing and clearing down calls between users, as well as non-circuit related signaling.

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NO.7 Signaling System

Voice group
Switch net

. . .
signaling link

Switch net

MP

STB

DT

DT

STB

MP

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Basic concept:
Signaling link:
SS7 messages are exchanged between network elements over 64 kilobit per second (kbps) bidirectional channels called signaling links.

Signaling linkset:
Links are usually organized into groups known as linksets. A linkset is a collection of links that share the same destination . When links are collected in linksets, the total load of messages is typically shared between the active links. There can be up to 16 links in a linkset
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Route:
When one SP is in communication with another, there is said to be a route between the two. A route is the path that exists between any two SPs. The route may include a single linkset, or multiple linksets;

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SP A

A Signaling link C SP C

B
SP B

A, B and C are connected to each other via signaling links.

In each case, we see two links, united in a linkset. Each SP node can be said
to have a route to each other. However, the arrangement also allows for the possibility that any two points can be reached indirectly via a third, as well as directly.
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ROUTE3

ROUTE1 Link Set 1 ROUTE2


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Link

In the signaling hierarchy, we can see that the most fundamental unit is link. Links are grouped in linksets, which make up routes,

to the same office ,we can built several different routes.


In the same way that links within a linkset can work together to ensure secure transmission of information, the possibility of supporting alternative routes to the same destination serves to promote network security.

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Agenda
NO.7 Signaling System overview The Protocol stack

Message Transfer Part


Network architecture and elements

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NO.7 Signaling System


The earliest structure of No.7 signaling protocol system ISUP DUP TUP

MTP3network layer SCCP


MTP2Data link layer

MTP1Physical layer
The earliest No.7 signaling technical specifications were based on the circuit related phone control requirements. www.univ.zte.com.cn

NO.7 Signaling System


MAP INAP OAMP
CCITT No.7 Signaling functional class

OSI model
TCAP

OSI 7
Application layer

ISUP

TUP

DUP

OSI 4,5,6 session layer

presentation layer
Transport layer

ISP (Intermediate service part)

SCCP

OSI 1,2,3

network layer data link layer Physical layer

MTP1MTP2MTP3

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Agenda
NO.7 Signaling System overview The Protocol stack

Message Transfer Part


Network architecture and elements

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MTP (message transfer part)


MTP is further divided into MTP 1, MTP 2 and MTP 3, respectively
corresponding to layers 1, 2 and 3 of the 7-layer protocol.

1. Function of MTP1:
MTP1 is at the data link level, corresponding to the physical

layer in OSI. The 1st level defines the physical, electrical, and functional features of the signaling data link . Primarily serving as a two-way data transmission channel, it contains digital transmission channels with a basic rate of 64kb/s and signal terminal equipment.
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2. Function of MTP2:
MTP Level 2 ensures accurate end-to-end transmission of a message cross a signaling link. Level 2 implements flow control, message sequence validation, and error checking. When an error occurs on a signaling link, the message is retransmitted.

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3. Function of MTP3:
MTP3 performs the functions of a signaling network. It is combined with the SCCP to form the OSI L3 functional level. Major functions: Signal message processing: involves message routing, message identification and message distribution. Signal network management: involves management of signal traffic, signal link and signal routing.

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3.1 signaling messages Processing


Message routing: To select a signaling link for each signaling message to be sent out. Message distribution: The process in which the destination point decides, after receiving messages, to send messages to which user part or to the third level. The decision shall be made by the service analysis indication code.

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Message Discrimination:
The process in which the signaling point determines whether this point is the destination point of that message after receiving the message. Such decisions are based on analyzing the destination point codes in message channeling. If the signaling point is the destination point, the message is then sent to the message distribution function part. If it is not, and if the signaling point has the signaling transfer capacity, then the message shall be sent to the message channeling function part so that it is then sent out on another signaling link.

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MTP3

SCCP, TUP, ISUP, DUP

SI

MDT

DPC=own SPC

MDC
DPCown SPC

MRT

DPC& SLS

MDC: Message Discrimination MDT: Message Distribution

MRT: Message Routing

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MTP2

Service Indicator: MTP User


0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 signaling network management message signaling network test and maintenance message reserved SCCP the telephone user part (TUP) the ISDN user part (ISUP) the data user part (messages related to call and circuit) the DUT (performance registration and canceling message) reserved for MTP to test the user part

reserved

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The routing label:


The routing label is comprised of the destination point code (DPC), originating point code (OPC), and signaling link selection (SLS) field. The first transmitted bit SLS 4 OPC 14/24 DPC 14/24

DPC is the destination signaling point code, indicating the signaling point the message shall reach.

OPC is the original signaling point code showing the original message signaling point.

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SLS is used for:


Ensure message sequencing. Any two messages sent with the same SLS will always arrive at the destination in the same order in which they were originally sent. Allow equal load sharing of traffic among all available links. In theory, if a user part sends messages at regular intervals and assigns the SLS values in a round-robin mode, the traffic level should be equal among all links (within the combined linkset) to that destination.

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ZXC10 MP STB

NET D T

2048kb/s

NET

ZXC10 STB M P

transmission system D T semi-permanent connecting 64kb/s Level 1 Level 2 Signaling link

Level 3 Message transfer part Level 4


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Corresponding relation about ZXC10 and NO.7 system

No.7 DTI board MTP1 No.7 signaling board MTP2

MP board
MP board

MTP3
UP

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Agenda
NO.7 Signaling System overview The Protocol stack Message Transfer Part Network architecture and elements

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1)Signaling point (local exchange) It refers to the node in the signaling system that provides common channel signaling. SP can also be divided into 2 types: Source points : OPC (Originating points code) Destination points : DPC (Destination point code) Actually, SP is part of a switching system.

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2)Signal transfer point (STP)


It refers to SP that transfer signaling messages from one signaling link to another. They are the middle signaling points during signaling

transfer.
STPs are usually setted in pairs, as they are linked to ensure redundancy and achieve routing reliability. One key advantage of STP is that it enables a SP to signal to other SPs without being directly connected to them.
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Voice channels SP A 2_2_2 C STP 8_8_5 A B

Signaling link

SP B 3_3_3

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Signaling code OPC or DPC is 14-bit address for CCITT (24-bit for China) International 3bit-8bit-3bit In CHINAthe frame is 8bit-8bit-8bit

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Voice channels
2_2_2

A
Signaling link C

B 3_3_3

OPC and DPC is a opposite conception, but signaling point code (SPC) is absolute. For example, the SP of switch A is 2_2_2, and SP of switch B is 3_3_3. If you work in

switch A then 2_2_2 is OPC for A, and 3_3_3 is DSP for A. If other work in switch B, then
3_3_3 is OPC for B, and 2_2_2 is DPC for B.

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Signaling Mode
1)The associated mode In this mode, messages related to the voice channel connecting two switches are sent on the signaling link that directly connects two switches, as shown in the Figure. Voice channels A B

Signaling link

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2)The quasi-associated mode This can be called a special case of the non-associated mode. In this mode, signaling messages between switches A and B go through the several preset concatenated signaling links.
Voice channels A B Signaling link SP C

SP

STP
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The 3-level signaling network

HSTP A D D D D B D D D

HSTP

HSTP

B A1

B1 B

B2 B B C2 C1 A C

A2 A SP A area A

LSTP
A SP C area

A B area SP

SP

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The End

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