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# WAVES

By :
Porma Uli Gultom

Physics Departement Mathematics and Science Faculty PADANG STATE UNIVERSITY 2011

Outline The

## The Nature of a Wave

Waves are everywhere => sound waves, light waves, radio waves, microwaves, water waves, earthquake waves, slinky waves and still many others . Water ripples form waves. The water wave has a crest and a through and travels from one location to another

What Is A Wave?

A wave can be described as a disturbance that travels through a medium from one location to another location. A pulse is a single disturbance moving through a medium from one location to another location. Waves are said to be an energy transport phenomenon. As a disturbance moves through a medium from one particle to its adjacent particle, energy is being transported from one end of the medium to the other.

Categories Of Waves

A transverse wave is a wave in which particles of the medium move in a direction perpendicular to the direction which the wave moves.

EX: ROPE

A longitudinal wave is a wave in which particles of the medium move in a direction parallel to the direction which the wave moves..

EX : SOUND WAVE

## Categories of Waves cont.

A surface wave is a wave in which particles of the medium undergo a circular motion.

An electromagnetic wave is a wave which is capable of transmitting its energy through a vacuum (i.e., empty space).
A mechanical wave is a wave which is not capable of transmitting its energy through a vacuum.

## Properties of Waves The Anatomy of a Transverse Wave

Dashed line = equilibrium or rest position. The position of the rope if there was no disturbance. Crest = the point on the medium which exhibits the maximum amount of positive or upwards displacement from the rest position Amplitude = refers to the maximum amount of displacement of a a particle on the medium from its rest position. In a sense, the amplitude is the distance from rest to crest. Wavelength of a wave is simply the length of one complete wave cycle.

## Properties of Waves The Anatomy of a Longitudinal Wave

A compression is a point on a medium through which a longitudinal wave \ is traveling which has the maximum density. A rarefaction is a point on a medium through which a longitudinal wave is traveling which has the minimum density

## Frequency And Period Of A Wave

The frequency of a wave refers to how often the particles of the medium vibrate when a wave passes through the medium.

The quantity frequency is often confused with the quantity period. When an event occurs repeatedly, then we say that the event is periodic and refer to the time for the event to repeat itself as the period. The period of a wave is the time for a particle on a medium to make one complete vibrational cycle.

Period being a time is measured in units of time such as seconds, hours, days or years.

## Energy Transport and the Amplitude of a Wave

A wave is an energy transport phenomenon which transports energy along a medium without transporting matter. The energy is imparted to the medium by the person as he/she does work upon the first coil to give it kinetic energy. The amount of energy carried by a wave is related to the amplitude of the wave. A high energy wave is characterized by a high amplitude; a low energy wave is characterized by a low amplitude.

## The Wave Equation

In a time of one period, the wave has moved a distance of one wavelength. Combining this information with the equation for speed (speed=distance/time).

Wave speed is dependent upon medium properties and independent of wave properties. Speed = Wavelength * Frequency

v = *f

Conclusion

A wave can be described as a disturbance which travels through a medium, transporting energy from one location (its source) to another location without transporting matter. Each individual particle of the medium is temporarily displaced and then returns to its original equilibrium positioned