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delma genevieve lawrence supervisor: prof.

Dr aziah mohd yussof

1. 2. 3. To study the demand of MD2 pineapple locally and internationally. To show how micropropagation can overcome shortage in planting material for large-scale production of MD2 pineapple. To determine of any the steps in micropropagation can be automated or mechanized to overcome the high cost of labour and meet the high demand of the planting materials.

Pineapple= Anana comosus Pineapple is one of the most important tropical fruit crops in the world. It has excellent nutritive qualities and good taste and these characteristics result in a fruit that is in great demand in the international market. in Malaysia ,cultivars like Sarawak (Smooth Cayenne), Josapine, N36, Moris and Gandol are commercially planted through conventional vegetative propagation using the crown and suckers .

MD2 is a hybrid developed by the Hawaiian Pineapple Research Institute. MD stands for Mrs. Dillard- the wife of its producer. resistant to internal browning, which is the general problem faced in the pineapple production(Duval et al., 2001).

MD2 Pineapple
MD2, also named Golden Ripe. can be propagated using micropropagation, which is a type of tissue culture technology to regenerate millions of pineapple plantlets from cuttings or slips rather than propagating from seeds.

MD2 Pineapple

color and flavor superior to other varieties. gives a medium to large (1.3-2.5 kg) cylindrical, square-shouldered fruit, with large flat eyes, and an intense orangeyellow color. The clear yellow pulp is sweet, compact, and fibrous. high in sugar and ascorbic acid but lower in total acid than Smooth Cayenne. resistant to internal browning,


The plantlets as well as the fruits are highly demanded. fetch up from RM10 to RM12 per fruit, compared to RM2.50 for the ordinary pineapple. ripens faster. By the twelfth month, it can be plucked (Izwan Ismail, 2008) MD2 has taken up more than 50% of the worldwide market (United States, Europe, and Asia) for branded fresh pineapple

The Demand
MD2 pineapple is the most highly demand cultivar after Smooth Cayenne due to its benefits. Beginning in 2002, Ghana farmers set out to rapidly expand production of MD2 because market demand for Smooth Cayenne fruit from Ghana had dropped sharply after MD2 won the major market share in Europe.

The Demand
The Costa Rican MD2 or Extra Sweet variety is now in a dominant position on the market. Traditionally producers of Smooth Cayenne African countries are now turning to new varieties to meet European demand and to secure a foothold on the MD2 (Jacob & Soman, 2006).

The Demand
NCER has embarked on MD2 pineapple cultivation where the farm was harvested about 22,500 Metric tonnes in July 2011. They are interested in promoting the products to potential importers and had provided 5,000 pieces of MD2 sample for the United Kingdom market test and approval.

Problems faced in production

According to Mr Mohamad Fairudzaki Abdul Rani (2011) the major problem are; Manpower, as a great num of skilled workers are needed to do the planting in a large scale. bugs, nematodes, wilt disease, fusariosis and heart root rot. Natural induction of flowering of pineapple is a serious problem for pineapple growers during the approximately four-month period from December to the end of March.

the importation of suckers for direct planting by farmers are expensive The cost of a plantlet is dependent on the cultivar and its size For MD2 cultivars, the propagules are expensive as it is the best cultivar among pineapple varieties.

Conventional Micropropagation

Crown (quartering) Slips Suckers Ratoons

ORGANOGENESIS EMBRYOGENESIS Somatic embryogenesis is a regeneration process of somatic cells that are developed by cell division to form complete embryos which are analogous to zygotic embryos. Direct / indirect Emryo like structures develop into whole plant.

Organogenesis is a process to form and to develop shoots from meristematic tissue (Pardal, 2002). Relies on the production of organs, directly or from explants.

micropropagated plants are more or less genetically homogeneous, shoot tip culture allows the plants to become virus free. the plants can be produced irrespective of weather, season and other environment conditions. allows higher efficiency of production, in a short time span (Ammirato, 1983).

high cost production and have limited the use and exploitation of this technique at industrial level. Hence, the most challenging aspect at present is to reduce the production cost, thereby improving the production efficiency (Ziv, 1989). Expert needed.

Temporary immersion method

Using liquid media

liquid culture systems provide much more uniform culturing conditions the media can easily be renewed without changing the container, sterilization is possible by ultrafiltration container cleaning after a culture period is much easier. . Cost reduction could be achieved by increasing the multiplication rate through the manipulation of BAP and NAA concentration in culture medium

The main advantage is the reduction of the hyperhydricity. Immersion time, such as duration or frequency is the most critical parameter for system efficiency. improves plant tissue quality Temporary immersion system combined the advantages of solid and liquid medium culture. Allows explant aeration but limited contact with nutrients & permits an efficient nutrient uptake.

1. Information sources 2. Questionaire distribution 3. Data analyzing


Companies Involved in MD2 Commercial Productions

and Data Gathered from the Companies Profile.

Questions asked to the respondent (Phytotech Sdn.Bhd.) and the response.

Pineapple Productions in Malaysia of the year 2001-2010 (Metric Tonnes)




Small growers 60000 Estate 40000


0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Statistic of Exportation of Malaysian Pineapple to Singapore and West Asia (Metric Tonnes)
80000 70000




West Asia Singapore




0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Pineapple demand internationally

Customer Perceptions & Preferences

US imports of Fresh and Frozen and Canned Pineapples, 1997-2007 (in pounds and $ US)

Micropropagation as the Solution to Meet the High Demand of MD2 Planting Materials

It is reported that starting with 30 explants it is possible to produced 1,250,000 pineapple plantlets within eight months of in vitro multiplication. The micropropagation protocol has now been standardized for most of the important pineapple.

Automation in MD2 Micropropagation Stages

Selection of explant source No automation Media preparation Glass wares automated cleaning machine automated media preparator

Acclimatization and Nursing operation Automated soil mixture Automated planting container system automated misting system

Transfer operation Automated explant cutting Temporary immersion system


In conclusion, organogenesis is the technique utilized to micropropagate the planting material of MD2 which are the crowns, suckers and the slips. bright future in this business locally and globally. tissue culture of MD2 were done through regeneration by shoot culture.

RITA temporary immersion system (TIS) was integrated to reduce the labour & increase the efficiency. MD2 cultivation for both local and international should be encouraged because MD2 variety has a great potential in the horticultural industry