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VALUES OF

NURSING

By: Balderama, Jonathan Bantolinao, Margery Khaye

KEY TERMS:
Values - are enduring beliefs or attitudes about the worth of a person, object, idea, or action. Values are important because they influence decisions and actions, including nurses ethical decision making.

KEY TERMS:
Value set is the small group of values held by an individual. People organize their set of values internally along a continuum from most important to least important, forming a value system.

KEY TERMS:
Value

systems are basic to a

way of life, give direction to life, and form the basis of behavior especially behavior that is based on decisions or choices.

KEY TERMS:
Beliefs are interpretations or

conclusions that people accept as true. They are based more on faith than fact and may or may not be true.

KEY TERMS:
Attitudes are mental positions or feelings toward a person, object or idea. Typically, an attitude lasts over time, whereas a belief may last only briefly. Attitudes are often judged as bad or good, positive or negative, whereas beliefs are judged as correct or incorrect. Attitudes have thinking and behavioral aspects.

KEY TERMS:
Personal

Values are learned values

from society and perceived and internalized by an individual as his own.


Professional

Values are acquired

during socialization into nursing from Code of Ethics, nursing experiences, teachers and peers.

KEY TERMS:
Values

is a process by which people identify, examine, and develop their own individual values. A principle of values clarification is that no one set of values is right for everyone. It promotes personal growth by fostering awareness, empathy, and insight. One widely used theory of values clarification was developed by Raths Harmin, and Simon (1978). They described a valuing process of thinking, feeling, and behavior that they termed choosing, prizing, and acting.

Clarification

ESSENTIAL NURSING VALUES AND BEHAVIORS


Altruism is a concern for the welfare and

well being of others. In professional practice, altruism is reflected by the nurses concern for the welfare of patients, other nurses, and other health care providers.

ESSENTIAL NURSING VALUES AND BEHAVIORS


Autonomy is the right to self

determination. Professional practice reflects autonomy when the nurse respects patients rights to make decisions about their health.

ESSENTIAL NURSING VALUES AND BEHAVIORS


Human

dignity - is respect for the

inherent worth and the uniqueness of individuals and populations. In professional practice, human dignity is reflected when nurse values and respects all patients and colleagues.

ESSENTIAL NURSING VALUES AND BEHAVIORS


Integrity is acting in accordance with an appropriate code of ethics and accepted standards of practice. It is reflected in professional practice when the nurse is honest and provides care based on an ethical framework that is accepted within the profession.

ESSENTIAL NURSING VALUES AND BEHAVIORS


Social

justice is upholding

moral, legal and humanistic principles. This value is reflected in professional practice when the nurse works to ensure equal treatment under the law and equal access to quality health care.

PROFESSIONAL BEHAVIORS
Demonstrates

understanding of cultures, beliefs, and perspectives of others. Advocates for patients, particularly the most vulnerable. Takes risks on behalf of patients and colleagues. Mentors other professionals.

PROFESSIONAL BEHAVIORS
Plans

care in partnership with patient. Honors the right of patients and families to make decisions about health care. Provides information so patients can make informed choices. Provides culturally competent and sensitive care. Protects the patients privacy.

PROFESSIONAL BEHAVIORS
Preserves

the confidentiality of patients and health care providers. Designs care with sensitivity to individual patient needs. Provides honest information to patients and the public. Documents care accurately and honestly. Seeks to remedy errors made by self or others.

PROFESSIONAL BEHAVIORS
Demonstrates

accountability for own

actions. Supports fairness and nondiscrimination in the delivery of care. Promotes universal access to health care. Encourages legislation and policy consistent with the advancement of nursing care and health care.

CLARIFYING THE NURSES VALUES


Nurses

and nursing students need to examine the values they hold about life, death, health and illness. One strategy for gaining awareness of personal values is to consider ones attitudes about specific issues such as abortion, or euthanasia.

CLARIFYING CLIENT VALUES


List

alternatives. Examine possible consequences of choices. Choose freely. Feel good about the choice. Affirm the choice. Act on the choice. Act with a pattern.

BEHAVIORS THAT MAY INDICATE UNCLEAR VALUES:


Ignoring

a health professionals advice. Inconsistent communication or behavior. Numerous admissions to a health agency for the same problem. Confusion or uncertainty about which course of action to take.

MORAL PRINCIPLES IN HEALTH CARE


AUTONOMY comes from the Greek

word autos meaning self and nomos meaning governance. It involves selfdetermination and freedom to choose and implement ones decision, free from deceit, duress, constraint or coercion.

MORAL PRINCIPLES IN HEALTH CARE


VERACITY

to maximize the efficiency

of health care, the patient and the health care providers are bound to tell the truth.
BENEFICENCE- promotes doing acts

of kindness and mercy that directly benefit the patient.

MORAL PRINCIPLES IN HEALTH CARE


NONMALIFECENCE- the duty to do

no harm to the patient


JUSTICE FIDELITY

the right to demand to be means to be faithful to

treated justly, fairly and equally


agreements and promises

CASE ANALYSIS
A

young, married male who was diagnosed to have AIDS, requests the doctor not to tell his diagnosis to his wife. The children of an aged grandmother suffering from metastatic cancer request the doctor not to tell their mother her diagnosis and instead to proceed with the chemotherapy.

ANALYSIS:
In the case cited above of the young, married man who has AIDS, telling the wife would be far more advantageous so that she can be examined, protected or treated as the case may be. She would be able to use proper precautionary measures for herself, understand the husbands illness, and participate in his care. In the case of the grandmother, gently telling her the truth would help convince her to participate in the treatment plan, including spiritual preparation towards peaceful death.

CASE ANALYSIS
Suppose

a nurse is approached by a friend who requests for an abortion. The nurse refuses but refers the friend to a doctor who can perform it.

ANALYSIS:
This

is a violation of the divine command, thou shall not kill. It violates the principle relating to the origin and destruction of life which states, the owner of life is man, but it is God who gave him that life, therefore no one has a right to take life except God. This is also applicable to cases of euthanasia, which is the direct killing of people who may not have committed any crime deserving of death, but because of mental, or physical conditions are considered worthless to society.