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5 Environmental Assessment Tools

Environmental Assessment Tools


5.1 Life Cycle Analysis

5.2 Eco Design


5.3 Mass Flow Analysis

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Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) atau Analisis Siklus Hidup. Berikutnya akan diperkenalkan gagasan tentang Eco-design, yang merupakan suatu aplikasi praktis dari pemikiran siklus hidup didalam disain produk.

Material Flow Analysis (MFA), yang merupakan suatu instrumen untuk mengetahui aliran material/bahan dan energi. MFA digunakan pada penelitian-penelitian pada tingkat global, regional dan lokal, serta pengelolaan sampah (padat) regional, misalnya untuk meganalisis zat-zat berbahaya.

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5 Environmental Assessment Tools

5.1 Life Cycle Analysis

5.1 Life Cycle Analysis


Analysis of Environmental, Financial and Social Impacts throughout the Life-cycle of Products and Processes
LCA merupakan suatu teknik yang digunakan untuk mengukur aspek-aspek lingkungan yang terkait dengan suatu produk, suatu proses pembuatannya, ataupun layanan yang diberikan oleh produk tersebut selama siklus hidupnya.
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5.1 Life Cycle Analysis

Aplikasi-aplikasi yang paling penting antara lain (1) analisis kontribusi tahapan-tahapan siklus hidup terhadap beban lingkungan keseluruhan, biasanya dengan tujuan untuk memprioritaskan pada perbaikanperbaikan produk atau proses dan (2) membandingkan antar produk untuk komunikasi internal.

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Siklus Hidup Kapas

Saling Terkait satu sama lain

5 Environmental Assessment Tools

5.1 Life Cycle Analysis

Contoh dari Implementasi LCA didalam Industri. Suatu industri mempertimbangkan penambahan satu tahap proses lagi terhadap lini produknya. Industri tersebut memiliki pilihan antara Mesin A ataukah Mesin B. Kedua mesin memerlukan penambahan beberapa bahan kimia dalam mendukung operasinya, masing-masing menggunakan tenaga yang sama per unit waktu operasi.

Mesin manakah yang sebaiknya dipilih untuk industri ini jika didasarkan kepada pengaruh lingkungannya?
Life Cycle of Product Systems (Source: USEPA, 2006. Life Cycle Assessment: Principles and Practice, Cincinnati, Ohio report no. 45268

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5.1 Life Cycle Analysis

Tabel dampak lingkungan dari kedua mesin, yang disajikan dalam Eco-points. Unit-unit ini dibuat dengan analisis LCA lingkungan untuk mengukur kategori-kategori dampak lingkungan yang berbeda, seperti perubahan iklim, toksisitas dan penipisan ozon.
Mesin Dampak yang ditimbulkan selama konstruksi (Ecopoints) Dampak dari bahan kimia, penggunaan energi, pemeliharaan (Ecopoints/year) Dampak pembuangannya setelah digunakan 6 15 4 10
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A 210 20

B 185 24

(Ecopoints.)

Umur Penggunaannya (years)

Life Cycle of Product Systems (Source: USEPA, 2006. Life Cycle Assessment: Principles and Practice, Cincinnati, Ohio report no. 45268

5 Environmental Assessment Tools

5.1 Life Cycle Analysis

The Concept of LCA (2)


Some products have a dominating environmental load in production, some in use, some in disposal:
80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Production Use Disposal
80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Production Use Disposal

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Production Use Disposal

Examples: books, furniture, art etc.

Examples: cars, television, airco etc.

Examples: Ni-Cd batteries, household chemicals, fireworks etc.

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5.1 Life Cycle Analysis

Methodology of LCA (1)


Life cycle assessment framework

(1) Mendefinisikan tujuan dan ruang lingkup kajian; (2) membuat model siklus hidup produk dengan semua inflow dan outflow lingkungan. Tahap ini sering diistilahkan sebagai tahap life cycle inventory (LCI); (3) memahami relevansi lingkungan dari semua inflow dan outflow, tahap ini sering disebut dengan tahap life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) dan (4) interpretasi penelitian. Diagram berikut menunjukkan kerangka kerja ini yang sesuai dengan standar-standar LCA dari ISO.

Goal and scope definition Direct applications: Product development and improvement Strategic planning Public policy making Marketing Other

Inventory analysis Interpretation -

Impact assessment

The official LCA framework according to the International Standards: ISO 14040:2006 and ISO 14044:2006

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5 Environmental Assessment Tools

5.1 Life Cycle Analysis

Methodology of LCA (2), Goal and Scope


Suatu model LCA merupakan model sistem teknis kompleks yang digunakan untuk memproduksi, memindahkan, menggunakan, dan membuang suatu produk. Suatu model adalah penyederhanaan dari suatu realitas, yang mengimplikasikan bahwa realitas akan terdistorsi dalam beberapa cara dan hasil-hasilnya tidak terpercaya. Cara terbaik untuk menghindari salah paham atau akurasi parsial adalah dengan mendefinisikan tujuan dan ruang lingkup LCA anda secara hati-hati. Didalam tujuan dan ruang lingkup, akan digambarkan tentang pilihan-pilihan yang paling penting (yang seringkali bersifat subyektif).

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5.1 Life Cycle Analysis

Methodology of LCA (3), Goal and Scope


Definition of functional unit, initial system boundaries and procedural aspects
Functional unit: comparison of products on the basis of equivalent

function, for example: comparison of 2 packaging systems for 1000 litres of milk by (a) 1000 disposable cartons or (b) 100 reusable bottles; instead of comparison of 1 carton and 1 bottle. Functional unit is basis for comparison

? =

Compare environmental impacts of packaging of 1000 litres milk in carton packages or glass bottles
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5 Environmental Assessment Tools

5.1 Life Cycle Analysis

Methodology of LCA (5), Inventory


Pengumpulan Data

Example of Product system and Inventory Table


electricity steel production distribution use reuse recycling incineration dump LCI table with environmental interventions

Crude oil from earth CO2 to air SO2 to air NOx to air Cd to water PAH to water Etc.

40000 kg 3500 20 kg 100 kg 5g 8 kg .

plastic

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5 Environmental Assessment Tools

5.1 Life Cycle Analysis

Methodology of LCA (9), Impact assessment


Pengukuran Dampak
Category indicators are quantifiable representations of impact categories (ISO) and are defined according standards, such as CML-IA, Eco indicator 99, Impact 2002+ etc.)

Intervention
CO2 P SO2 NOx DDT Dust VOC Cd PAH CFC

Effect
Greenhouse effect

Damage

Eutrophication
Acidification Pesticides Winter smog Summer smog Heavy metals Carconogenics Ozone layer depl.

Damage to Eco-systems

Indicator

Damage to human health

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5.1 Life Cycle Analysis

Methodology of LCA (8), Impact assessment:


Pengukuran Dampak Steps: Characterization, Classification and Normalization:
Determine which LCI results contribute to which impact category, e.g. CO2 and CH4 to climate change Multiply environmental interventions (resources, emissions etc.) from LCI with a characterisation factor to get indicator results Normalize to understand the relative magnitude of the indicator results and to get dimensionless score (useful for comparison)

Cat. Indicator result (kg CO2 equivalent)

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5 Environmental Assessment Tools

5.1 Life Cycle Analysis

Methodology of LCA (10), Interpretation


Phase of life cycle assessment in which the findings of either the inventory analysis or the impact assessment, or both, are combined consistent with the defined goal and scope in order to reach conclusions and recommendations (ISO) To interpret an LCA, you must check the goal and scope: Are the the general assumptions reasonable? Is the functional unit well chosen? Are ISO standards applied? Has a peer review been conducted?

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5 Environmental Assessment Tools

5.1 Life Cycle Analysis

Methodology of LCA (10), Interpretation


Conduct a sensitivity analysis: analyze the impact of important choices or assumptions What if other allocations are applied. What if other boundaries are applied. What if other impact assessment method is used. By recalculating the LCA with other assumptions, we can verify how the conclusions connect with the assumptions.

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5 Environmental Assessment Tools

5.1 Life Cycle Analysis

Extending the scope of Environmental LCA (1)


LCA is often associated with environmental impacts, but scope can be extended to include economic and social impacts. Financial LCA = Life Cycle Costing (LCC); Analysis of life cycle costs Social LCA Social impacts throughout life cycle of products and processes

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5 Environmental Assessment Tools

5.1 Life Cycle Analysis

Extending the scope of Environmental LCA (2)


What are the costs and revenues incured during the life cycle of a product or process?
R&D Production Marketing Sales Etc.

Sometimes external costs included as well (costs that are imposed on society or the environment):
Monetary valuation of environmental LCI and LCIA resultsbut is it possible to monetise all environmental services?
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5 Environmental Assessment Tools

5.1 Life Cycle Analysis

Extending the scope of Environmental LCA (3)


Social LCA analyses social impacts, such as employment and health:
Job quality Quality physical health Quality social health Earthly possessions

Challenging to model social life cycle impacts, because social conditions do change more rapidly
impacts from changes in employment conditions may dissipate emotions resulting from changes disappear with time diseases get cured people who are laid off may find new jobs)

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5.2 Eco-design

5.2 Eco-Design
Life Cycle Thinking within the Design of Products and Processes

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5.2 Eco-design

Contents
What is Eco-Design? Implications for the Design Process. Consequences for Composition and Amount of Solid Waste. Related Concepts: Design for Environment, Sustainable Product Design.

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5.2 Eco-design

What is Eco-Design?
Eco-design merupakan suatu instrumen prosedural untuk pembuatan keputusan lingkungan, yang secara khusus mengarah kepada disain dari produk dan proses. Eco-design ditujukan untuk memperbaiki kinerja lingkungan dan bisnis didalam pengembangan produk dan proses. Eco-design menggabungkan pemikiran siklus hidup didalam mengidentifikasi kemungkinankemungkinan perbaikan lingkungan.

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5.2 Eco-design

What is Eco-Design?
Eco-design juga merupakan aplikasi logis dari eco-efficiency. eco-efficiency didefinisikan sebagai kinerja fungsional dari produk-produk pada siklus hidup yang dibagi kedalam dampak-dampak lingkungan dari produk pada siklus hidupnya. Penurunan dampak lingkungan melalui efisiensi sumberdaya dan penurunan tingkat penggunaan zat-zat berbahaya akan menghasilkan rasio eco-efisiensi yang lebih baik. Aspekaspek penting dari eco-design yang berhubungan dengan masalah sampah antara lain intensitas material yang rendah, produk dengan penggunaan energi yang rendah dan penggunaan bahan dengan dampak yang rendah.

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5.2 Eco-design

Studi kasus/Latihan: Cangkir Keramik ataukah Mug dari Kertas?


(Kementrian Lingkungkan Hidup Indonesia) Manakah yang lebih ramah lingkungan, cangkir berbahan keramik ataukah mug berbahan styrofoam? Untuk menemukan jawabannya, maka penelitian harus mengukur siklus hidup cangkir keramik tersebut, yaitu dari proses produksinya yang berupa pemrosesan bahan mentah hingga tidak terpakai lagi dan dibuang ke tempat sampah. Dalam hal ini diperlukan penghitungan konsumsi bahan mentah, penggunaan energi (untuk pengolahan, transportasi dan pembersihan), output bahan-bahan berbahaya ke air dan udara serta volume kotoran yang dihasilkan.

Penghitungan ini mengabaikan beberapa dampak lingkungan lain yang biasanya bersifat lokal, seperti kebisingan, bau dan bahaya terhadap bentang alam (landscape). Cangkir dan piring keramik memiliki satu kekurangan: cangkir dan piring jenis ini harus dicuci. Untuk mencuci cangkir dan piring keramik didalam dishwasher (mesin pencuci piring) tentu memiliki dampak yang lebih besar terhadap air daripada jika kita menggunakan cangkir atau piring sekali pakai. Bahan surfactant didalam deterjen, yang selalu kita pakai

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5.2 Eco-design

Implications for the Design Process (2)


The relative complex LCA procedure and the creative slightly chaotic design process are not so easy to combine:

Problem

Idea

Decision

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5.2 Eco-design

Implications for the Design Process (3)


Availability of information on the product

Freedom to change the design

Planning

Idea generation

Concept development Detailed design

Complexity of the Design Process

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5.2 Eco-design

Implications for the Design Process (4)


Design phase Product planning Analysis Design activity Target is defined as product/market combination Refinement of target and definition of requirements Creativity techniques are used to generate new solutions Best ideas are selected and elaborated Best concept is detailed; prototype and CAD drawings LCA activity LCA information generated Strategic choices Design guidelines and eco-indicators

Assessment of strategy LCA of reference product Use of design rules and eco-indicators Short screenings and what-if analysis

Idea generation

Pre-selection of ideas

Concept

Support in concept choices

Detailed design

Specific questions and issues

Support in detailed design choices

Application of LCA results in Design for Environment

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5.2 Eco-design

Consequences for Composition and Amount of Solid Waste (2)


Eco-Design improves Eco-efficiency:
Functional performance provided by product over life cycle Eco-efficiency = Environmental Impacts of product over life cycle

eco-efficiency

resourceefficiency

reduction haz. substances

applying Eco-efficiency results in Eco-products


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5.2 Eco-design

Consequences for Composition and Amount of Solid Waste (3)


Improved material and energy content (quantity and quality) in products Reduced solid waste amount and hazardousness composition

Eco-products

Consequences for solid waste: Reduction of natural resource extractions (materials and energy) Reduction or elimination of hazardous materials within waste Reduction of toxic emissions during incineration
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5.2 Eco-design

Related Concepts: Design for Environment, Sustainable Product Design (1)


Design for Environment (DfE): the systematic consideration of design performance with respect to environmental, health, and safety objectives over the full product and process life cycle (Fiksel, 1996 in Wrisberg et al. 2002).
DfE focuses on existing products and processes that fulfil a specific function (function-oriented systems) expands the design scope towards environmental and social implications of products and processes
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Design for Environment

5 Environmental Assessment Tools

5.2 Eco-design

Related Concepts: Design for Environment, Sustainable Product Design (2)


Sustainable Product Design

Sustainable Product Design: investigates possibilities for improvement on a broader scale.


Examples: Alternative Function Fulfilment (changes the way in which a specific function or need is fulfilled) System innovation (redesigning of product production systems, creating closed-loop economies etc.)

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5.3 Material Flow Analysis

5.3 Material Flow Analysis (MFA)


Analysis of Material Flows in a Region

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5.3 Material Flow Analysis

MFA
suatu instrumen pengukuran yang menggabungkan aspek-aspek sumberdaya dan polusi dari masalahmasalah lingkungan didalam perekonomian kita. Material Flow Analysis (MFA MFA adalah suatu pengukuran sistematis dari aliranaliran bahan di suatu kawasan. Ada dua jenis MFA yaitu bulk-MFA atau b-MFA yang difokuskan kepada aliran bahan (misalnya bahan-bahan bangunan, produk sampah elektronik) dan yang kedua adalah Substance Flow Analysis (SFA) yang bertujuan untuk menganalisis aliran zat tunggal atau kelompok zat (seperti logam berat, nitrogen organik).

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5.3 Material Flow Analysis

Ada dua jenis MFA


bulk-MFA atau b-MFA yang difokuskan kepada aliran bahan (misalnya bahan-bahan bangunan, produk sampah elektronik) Substance Flow Analysis (SFA) yang bertujuan untuk menganalisis aliran zat tunggal atau kelompok zat (seperti logam berat, nitrogen organik).

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5.3 Material Flow Analysis

MFA dan Pengelolaan Sampah Modern.


Definisi dan sasaran dari pengelolaan sampah terus mengalami perubahan. Pengelolaan sampah yang terorganisir muncul ketika manusia mulai mengumpulkan sampah dan membuangnya. Apa yang dilakukan ini merupakan langkah penting untuk menjaga kebersihan dan membantu mencegah munculnya wabah (epidemik) penyakit. Masalah baru. Pertama, (landfill) menyebabkan terjadi masalah polusi air tanah dan menghasilkan gas-gas rumah kaca. Kedua, lokasi landfill semakin langka pada kawasan-kawasan berpenduduk padat. Bahkan Sanitary landfilling tidak bisa memecahkan masalah-masalah ini dalam jangka panjang.

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5.3 Material Flow Analysis

MFA dan Pengelolaan Sampah Modern.


Saat ini, pengelolaan sampah merupakan suatu konsep terpadu yang terdiri dari praktik-praktik yang berbeda dan pilihan perlakuan yang terdiri dari strategi pencegahan dan pengumpulan; langkah-langkah terpisah untuk memproduksi barang yang bisa didaur ulang atau pemrosesan berikutnya dengan menggunakan teknologi pengolahan secara biologis, fisika, kimiawi, dan thermal; dan jenis-jenis landfill yang berbeda. Setiap orang saat ini memiliki kesempatan-kesempatan (dan juga tanggungjawab) untuk memisahkan antara kertas, kaca, logam, bahan yang bisa terurai, plastik, sampah berbahaya, dan bahan-bahan lainnya kedalam kelompoknya sendirisendiri. Tujuan dari pengelolaan sampah modern adalah untuk:
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5 Environmental Assessment Tools

5.3 Material Flow Analysis

Why MFA? (1)


hence, material flows and stocks from the economy are crucial to the understanding of environmental problems

Material flows and accumulations

Throughput Throughput

Hazard Hazard potential potential Qualityaspect 38/57

Quantityaspect

5 Environmental Assessment Tools

5.3 Material Flow Analysis

Why MFA? (2)


and eventually solutions are based on an analysis of environmental problems in material/physical terms (Van der Voet, 1996)
Natural Resource Depletion Waste Absorption

Environment: resource base Environment: resource base Pollution

Environment: resource base Environment: waste sink

Extractions of materials

Quantitatively: lower materials throughput Qualitatively: less hazardous materials


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5.3 Material Flow Analysis

What is MFA? (1)


MFA is a tool for systematic research of flows and stocks of materials from cradle to grave (LCA!) in a region:

MFA is useful for: Identification of sources of environmental pollution Identification of accumulations of hazardous substances Identification of potential control points, useful for environmental management

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5.3 Material Flow Analysis

What is MFA? (2)


MFA describes the industrial metabolism of a region: the transfer, storage and transformation of substances within an anthropogenic (=human controlled) system and the exchange of these substances with the environment (Brunner and Rechberger 2004). Examples: Sources, pathways and sinks for mercury in a watershed Nitrogen flows and stocks in the Malang area Sometimes MFA is applied on systems of smaller scale; for example the flows and stocks of heavy metals in a waste incineration plant

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5.3 Material Flow Analysis

Systematic analysis of regional material flows and stocks


Systematic description of Flows and Stocks of materials in a region where activities in the anthroposhere are taking place There is an exchange of materials between and within anthropogenic (economic) and environmental subsystems

Systematic overview of material flows in a region

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5.3 Material Flow Analysis

Rationale of MFA: The Mass Balance Principle (1)


Mass balance: the law of conservation of mass Mass output = Mass input + Mass accumulation

Xp-q: Material Flow from process p to process q X0-1 = X1-2 + X1-3 X1-2 = X2-0 X1-3 = X3-0 X0-1 = X2-0+ X3-0

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5.3 Material Flow Analysis

Advantages of applying Mass Balance Principle


1. Mass balances can be applied at different system levels: Single processes Complex combinations of processes at smaller and larger scales: Household Country World 2. Valuable tool to calculate regional streams that are hardly measurable, like in waste residual outputs (Ayres 1989). 3. Efficient way to obtain accurate results even when some data are missing

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5.3 Material Flow Analysis

Framework of MFA (1)


Problem

Goal and system definition

Quantification of flows and stocks

Interpretation

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5.3 Material Flow Analysis

Framework of MFA (1)


1

Goal definition = selection of substance or material to be investigated: single element (Substance Flow Analysis) or group of substances (Material Flow Analysis) System definition = definition of system boundaries and relevant processes a. Spatial boundary: Geographical or administrative boundary (e.g. watershed or country) b. Temporal boundary: Flows per hour or month or year. Often 1 year because of data availabillity c. Selection of relevant processes: Only processes that are significant to the substance(s) under investigation

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5.3 Material Flow Analysis

Framework of MFA (2)


2

Quantification of stocks and flows: Calculate mass flows of goods that enter and leave processes (measurements or applying mass balance) Calculate substance flows within these flows (multiplying mass flows of goods with element concentrations) Calculate stocks: is there any type of accumulation occuring?

Example of mass flow of goods and a substance (Cadmium) in a municipal waste incinerator

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5.3 Material Flow Analysis

Framework of MFA (3)


Interpretation of results:
3

What is the relative contribution of processes to certain flows? Where are hotspots and potential control points? Is there a possibility of problem shifting when certain flows will be restricted?

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5.3 Material Flow Analysis

Framework of MFA (4)


MFA is a cyclical process: start with provisional data and rough estimations; refine and improve system until required data quality is achieved

Systematic overview of MFA procedures

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5.3 Material Flow Analysis

Applications of MFA: resource management


Analysis and planning of resources Identification of depletion and accumulation of materials in society; forecasting of resource scarcities and secondary sources (recycling, landfills) Example: natural resources are transformed to anthropogenic resources; stocks in landfills become important for future mining of substances

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5.3 Material Flow Analysis

Applications of MFA; resource management


Resource study: Copper cycle in Asia

Copper cycle in Asia The units are Gg Cu/year; Lith=Lithosphere

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5.3 Material Flow Analysis

Applications of MFA; environmental management


Identification of existence, size and fate of hazardous substances in a region Identification of hotspots and control points Identification of problem shifts
Example (hypothetical): A Material Flow Account of a harbour
substance

source

problem shift

watershed shows a large flow of mercury in wastewater. Laboratories are relatively the largest contributors. In wastewater treatment plants, absorption and deposition to sludge are a major removal mechanism for mercury. When mercury flows in wastewater are restricted by means of imposing advanced treatment technology to wastewater treatment plants in the region, then mercury outflows to landfills are likely to increase.
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5.3 Material Flow Analysis

Applications of MFA in soil management

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5.3 Material Flow Analysis

Applications of MFA; solid waste management


MFA discerns between flows of goods and substances Important because substances cause environmental problems, while flows of substances can only be controlled indirectly via flows of the goods that contain the substances. It is not the good leachate of a landfill that imposes danger to the groundwater. The danger resides in the cocktail of hazardous substances in the leachate of the landfill. (Brunner and Rechberger 2004) MFA can identify appropriate recycling options Elemental composition of materials determine whether a material is appropriate for recycling MFA identifies side-effects of recycling Accumulation of heavy metals in soils when sewage sludge is used as agricultural fertilizer
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