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DEFINITION OF TRANSLATION PROCESS OF TRANSLATING

DEFINITION AND PROCESS

DEFINITION
Translation is the replacement of textual material in one language (SL) by equivalent textual material in another language (TL). (Catford, 1965)

Translation is rendering the meaning of a text into another language in the way that the author intended the text.
(Newmark, 1988: 5)

DEFINITION AND PROCESS

Translation is studying the lexicon, grammatical structure, communication situation, and cultural context of the source language text, analyzing it in order to determine its meaning, and then reconstructing this same meaning using lexicon and grammatical structure which are appropriate in the receptor language and its cultural context. (Larson, 1984: 3)

DEFINITION AND PROCESS

PROCESS OF TRANSLATING

ORIGINAL TEXT (source language)

ANALYZING

DRAFTING

REVISING

FINALIZING

TRANSLATION TEXT (target language)

DEFINITION AND PROCESS

MAIN PURPOSES OF ANALYZING

Understanding what it is about (by reading)

Learning the readership (age, education, gender)

Learning the stylistic scale (degree of language)

DEFINITION AND PROCESS

Stylistic Scale
(Degree of Formality)

Official Formal Neutral Informal Colloquialism Slang Taboo


(Newmark, 1988)

DEFINITION AND PROCESS

Official The consumption of any nutriment is categorically prohibited in this establishment Formal You are requested not to consume food in this establishment Neutral Eating is not allowed here

DEFINITION AND PROCESS

Informal Please dont eat here Colloquialism You cant feed your face here Slang Lay off the nosh Taboo Lay off the fucking nosh

DEFINITION AND PROCESS

STYLISTIC SCALE and TRANSLATION


Degree of Formality

source language
(original text)

target language
(translation text)

Official Formal Neutral Informal Colloquialism Slang Taboo

Official Formal Neutral Informal Colloquialism Slang Taboo

DEFINITION AND PROCESS

THE APPROACHES TO ANALYZING


(how do we start translating)
(Newmark, 1988: 21)

You start translating sentence by sentence, for say the first paragraph or chapter, to get the feel and the tone of the text, and then you deliberately sit back, review the position, and read the rest of the SL text. (when you trust your intuition)

You read the whole text two or three times, and find the intention, register, tone, mark the difficult words and passages and start translating only when you have taken your bearings. (when you trust your
power of analysis)

DEFINITION AND PROCESS

Time Management

ANALYZING

DRAFTING

REVISING

FINALIZING

10 PERCENT

40 PERCENTS

40 PERCENTS

10 PERCENT

Understanding & identifying

general reproduction

accuracy

naturalness

METAPHOR and SIMILE

METAPHOR AND SIMILE

METAPHOR and SIMILE

DEFINITION
A figure of speech used to replace normal or literal language in order help others understand or enjoy the message.

--- The substitution of one idea or object with another ---

METAPHOR and SIMILE

KINDS OF METAPHOR

Dead Metaphor Living Metaphor

METAPHOR and SIMILE

Dead Metaphor A metaphor which has lost its poetic meaning and not considered as figurative language any longer due to its frequent use examples: economic wheel giant step - etc

Living Metaphor Considered as figurative language and still contains poetic meaning ex: An angry sky - You are a rose among thorns - etc.

METAPHOR and SIMILE

STRATEGIES TO TRANSLATE METAPHOR


1. 2. Translation of metaphor by reproducing the same image Translation of metaphor by replacing the image in SL with a standard image in TL 3. 4. 5. Translation of metaphor or simile by sense Translation of metaphor by metaphor or simile plus sense Translation of metaphor by simile

METAPHOR and SIMILE

1. TRANSLATION OF METAPHOR BY REPRODUCING THE SAME IMAGE

laut cinta sea of love

langkah raksasa giant step roda perekonomian economic wheel sinar harapan ray of hope

METAPHOR and SIMILE

economic growth pertumbuhan ekonomi stony silence kebisuan yang membatu angry sky langit yang marah

Omar Mochtar is the lion of the desert Omar Mochtar adalah singa padang pasir King Richard, the lion heart Raja Richard, si hati singa

METAPHOR and SIMILE

Tubuh manusia adalah laboratorium hidup Human body is a living laboratory Jakarta adalah jantung Indonesia. Jakarta is the heart of Indonesia Experience is the best teacher. Pengalaman adalah guru terbaik Jerusalem is the city of God. Yerusalem adalah kota Tuhan

METAPHOR and SIMILE

2. TRANSLATION OF METAPHOR BY REPLACING THE IMAGE IN SL WITH THE STANDARD IMAGE IN TL

Your car has wings

Lari mobilmu seperti setan Mobilmu kencang bagaikan terbang

METAPHOR and SIMILE

3. TRANSLATION OF METAPHOR OR SIMILE BY SENSE

Jerussalem is the city of God Yerusalem adalah tempat Tuhan menurunkan sebagian wahyu dan nabiNya. Time has wings. Waktu berlalu begitu cepat

METAPHOR and SIMILE

Bagai pungguk merindukan bulan. Dreaming the impossible thing. Dia ular berbisa. Hes very dangerous. The best advice is found on the pillow. Setelah tidur nyenyak semalaman, mungkin kita akan mendapatkan jawaban dari persoalan kita

METAPHOR and SIMILE

The pen is mightier than the sword. Tulisan dan kata-kata memiliki pengaruh yang lebih besar dari pada senjata dan perang

Stolen fruit is the sweetest. Sesuatu yang dilarang itu sangat menggoda

An apple a day keeps the doctor away. Makanan yang sehat menjauhkan kita dari penyakit.

METAPHOR and SIMILE

4. TRANSLATION OF METAPHOR by METAPHOR OR SIMILE PLUS SENSE

Jerussalem is the city of God Yerusalem adalah kota Tuhan, karena di tempat inilah Tuhan menurunkan sebagian wahyu dan nabi-Nya. Yerusalem dianggap sebagai tempat yang sangat suci oleh umat Yahudi, Kristen, dan Islam.

METAPHOR and SIMILE

Time has wings. Waktu bagai memiliki sayap, berlalu begitu cepat.

Dia ular berbisa. Hes a snake. Hes very dangerous

METAPHOR and SIMILE

5. TRANSLATION OF METAPHOR BY SIMILE

Time has wings Waktu bagaikan memiliki sayap

METAPHOR and SIMILE

SIMILE
Tempat ini seperti kuburan. This place is just like a graveyard Engkau laksana bintang. You are like a star Mohammad Ali, dance like a butterfly, sting like a bee. Mohammad Ali, menari bagai kupu-kupu, menyengat bagai lebah

METAPHOR and SIMILE

THE DIFFERENCE BEETWEN METAPHOR AND SIMILE

Metaphor is an equation while Simile is an approximation Metaphor A wire is a road for electrons Simile A good book is like a good meal Cloud is like cotton candy

SHIFT
TRANSPOSITION AND MODULATION

SHIFT (TRANSPOSITION & MODULATION)

SHIFT
(TRANSPOSITION & MODULATION)

Transposition is a translation procedure involving a change in the grammar from SL to TL


(Newmark, 1988: 85)

Modulasi melibatkan pergeseran makna karena terjadi perubahan perpektif dan sudut pandang
(Machali, 2000: 69)

SHIFT (TRANSPOSITION & MODULATION)

SHIFT 1
(transposition)

A shift from singular into plural (plural into singular)


bunga-bunga : flowers banyak rumah tiga mobil sepasang celana : many houses : three cars : a pair of trousers

SHIFT (TRANSPOSITION & MODULATION)

SHIFT 2-A
A structural change that involves word-position in phrase 1-2-3

3-2-1

rumah - bercat merah - yang besar big - red - house

SHIFT (TRANSPOSITION & MODULATION)

long - dark - hair rambut - hitam pekat - yang panjang

splendid ancient electric train

kereta api listrik kuno yang sangat bagus


(Machali, 2000)

SHIFT (TRANSPOSITION & MODULATION)

phrase with adverb 123 31-2

highly - recommended - system

sistem - yang sangat - direkomendasikan

SHIFT (TRANSPOSITION & MODULATION)

Shift 2-B
A structural change that involves word-position in sentence

Isu tentang HAM sudah kami bahas semenjak lima tahun yang lalu.

We have been discussing the issue of human rights since five years ago

Buku ini harus kamu baca

You must read the book

SHIFT (TRANSPOSITION & MODULATION)

Shift 3
a change in part of speech

noun + noun

noun + noun

adverb + verb

verb + noun

adj

+ noun

verb

+ adj

SHIFT (TRANSPOSITION & MODULATION)

mesin pembunuh killing machine bahan kimia partai politik chemical material political party

...is categorically prohibited. dikategorikan terlarang.

SHIFT (TRANSPOSITION & MODULATION)

in sentence

for the pursuit of happiness.

untuk meraih/ mengejar kebahagiaan.

SHIFT (TRANSPOSITION & MODULATION)

SHIFT 4
from explicit into implicit
(implicit into explicit)

Pria yang berdiri di sana itu adalah paman saya The man (who is) standing there is my uncle. implicit The man standing there is my uncle

SHIFT (TRANSPOSITION & MODULATION)

SHIFT 5
from clause into particular type of phrase
(phrase into clause) (phrase with adjective verb)

bayi yang menangis crying baby

binatang yang berpikir thinking animal

burung yang berkicau singing bird Jendral yang senantiasa tersenyum Smiling General

SHIFT (TRANSPOSITION & MODULATION)

SHIFT 6
from word into phrase or clause (clause into word)

cozy suasana nyaman, hangat, dan akrab incommunicado kondisi terputus komunikasi dengan dunia luar interchangeability kondisi bisa saling dipertukarkan

SHIFT (TRANSPOSITION & MODULATION)

SHIFT 7
(modulation)

specific meaning

general meaning

padi : rice gabah : rice beras : rice nasi : rice

kakak : brother, sister adik: : brother, sister

SHIFT OR TRANSPOSITIONNAD MODULATION

paklek pakde

: paman : uncle : paman : uncle

assassinate : membunuh murder kill anggur anggur : membunuh : membunuh : grape : wine

mendengar : listen mendengar : hear

SHIFT (TRANSPOSITION & MODULATION)

SHIFT 8
(modulation)

coining a new term for a series of word train training trainer trainee : berlatih : pelatihan : pelatih : peserta pelatihan

KINDS OF TRANSLATION & KINDS OF TEXT

KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT

KINDS OF TRANSLATION

1. 2. 3.

Literal translation Communicative/ dynamic/ idiomatic translation Free translation

KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT

Literal Translation

Aku

ingin

berdansa

denganmu

want

to dance

with you

KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT

Suaramu

begitu indah

Your voice

is so beautiful

KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT

Ada sejumlah anak laki-laki sedang menunggu di luar There are a number of boys waiting outside Dia tidak percaya kalau hantu itu ada He doesnt believe that ghosts exist Suharto telah meninggal dunia dengan tenang Suharto has peacefully passed away Bersatu kita teguh, bercerai kita runtuh United we stand, divided we fall.

KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT

Saya tidak tahu bagaimana dengan orang lain, tapi ketika saya masih muda dan berumur 20-an, saya takut pada pernikahan. I dont know with other people, but when I was young and about 20s, I was afraid of marriage. Kami bangsa Indonesia dengan ini menyatakan kemerderkaan Indonesia. We the people of Indonesia herewith to proclaim the independence of Indonesia

KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT

Pemindahan penduduk asli Amerika dari bagian timur Sungai Mussissipi pertama kali diusulkan Presiden Thomas Jefferson. The relocation of the American natives from eastern Mississipi River was firstly proposed by President Thomas Jefferson.

Burung laut Artik pernah lama berada di urutan teratas sebagai burung dengan jarak migrasi terpanjang. Artic seagulls (sea-birds) have long been on the top rank as the bird with the longest distance of migration.

KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT

Communicative/ Dynamic/ Idiomatic


(Communicative : Newmark) (Dynamic : Nida) (Idiomatic : Larsen)

Omong-omong By the way Tidak bisa! Nggak mungkinlah! No way! Yang benar saja Give me a break

KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT

Sangat baik! Never better! Ini hal yang sangat gampang. Its a piece of cage. Awas kaca! Glass. Dont touch! Fragile! Ayo, ambil keputusan bung! Tetapkan pilihanmu! Make up your mind man!

KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT

Aquos, unmistakably Japanese Aquos, produk Jepang yang sempurna Untuk saat ini namaku tak perlu kusebut I dont think I have to mention my name right know. My name is not important right now. Pamannya adalah warga banteng His uncle is the member of PDIP

KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT

COMPARING LITERAL TRANSLATION WITH COMMUNICATIVE-DYNAMIC-IDIOMATIC


When do we use literal translation? When do we use communicative or dynamic translation?

KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT

When literal translation is strongly suggested.

You are what you read. Kamu adalah apa yang kamu baca.
(literal)

Apa yang kamu baca itu akan menunjukkan siapa dirimu sebenarnya.
(communicative)

KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT

When communicative & dynamic translation is strongly suggested and highly recommended
Its a piece of cage Ini sepotong kue Ini hal yang sangat gampang Awas kaca! Beware of glass! Glass. Dont touch! Dia masih kosong Shes still empty She has no boyfriend

KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT

Aquos, unmistakably Japanese Aquos, produk Jepang yang tak bisa salah. Aquos, produk Jepang yang sempurna

Untuk saat ini namaku tak perlu kusebut For this time my name is not necessary to mention I dont think I have to mention my name right know My name is not important right now.

Pamanya adalah anggota banteng His uncle is the member of buffalo His uncle is the member of PDIP

KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT

It is not easy to consistently translate idiomatically. A translator may express some parts of his translation (words,
phrases, clauses, sentences) dynamic, communicative),

in very natural forms (idiomatic,

and then in other parts fall back into a literal form


(Larsen, 1984: 17)

(Italic letter is addition)

KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT

A paragraph
Sentence 1 Sentence 3 Sentence 2 Sentence 4 Sentence 5

(Sentence 1) translated by literal translation (sentence 3) translated by literal

(Sentence 2) translated by communicative/ dyn/ idio (Sentence 4) translated by literal

(Sentence 5) Translated by communicative/ dynamic/ idiomatic

KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT

KINDS OF TEXT
(BASED ON THE FUCNTION)

EXPRESSIVE TEXT INFORMATIVE TEXT VOCATIVE TEXT

KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT

EXPRESSIVE FUNCTION Emphasizing : author centered, personal use, self-oriented, creative, subjective, etc Used in Translation : poetry, speech, novel, drama, popular writing, etc. : mostly dynamic & communicative translation INFORMATIVE FUNCTION Emphasizing : the content the text, extra-linguistic information, etc Used in Translation : news, reports, agreement, academic writing, science and technology, etc : literal & dynamic/ communicative

VOCATIVE FUNCTION
Emphasizing : the readership, persuade readers to act as expected by the author/ writer, etc Used in : advertising, propaganda, campaign, announcement, instruction, regulation, etc. Translation : mostly literal

COLLOCATION

COLLOCATION

DEFINITION
Semantically arbitrary restrictions which do not follow logically from the propositional meaning of a word
(Baker, 1992: 47)

Habitual co-occurrence of individual lexical items


(Newmark, 1988)

Kolokasi merupakan kombinasi tetap beberapa kata dimana makna masing-masing kata pembentuknya pada dasarnya dipertahankan
(Simatupang, 1999: 57)

COLLOCATION

COMMON COLLOCATION
verb plus noun

noun plus adjective noun plus noun verb plus adverb

COLLOCATION

Example:

verb and noun

The verb pay collocates with noun: attention respect visit in to pay attention in to pay respect

in to pay a visit

COLLOCATION

The verb deliver collocates with noun:


speech news blow verdict baby in to deliver a speech in to deliver news in to deliver a blow in to deliver a verdict in to deliver a baby

COLLOCATION

When two words collocate, the relationship can hold between all or several of their various forms, combined in any grammatically acceptable order.
(Baker, 1992: 47)

achieve and aim achieving aims aims having been achieved achievable aims the achievement of an aim

COLLOCATION

COLLOCATION AND TRANSLATION

Where there is an accepted collocation in the source language, the translator must find and use its equivalent in the target language if it exists.

COLLOCATION

verb and noun


SOURCE TEXT TRANSLATION BASED ON LITERAL MEANING - do a trip TRANSLATION BASED ON COLLOCATION - make a trip

- melakukan perjalanan

- membantu kelahiran - melakukan kunjungan - menghasilkan uang - menciptakan perdamaian - memandu orketra - minum obat - makan waktu - melakukan usaha

- assist a baby-birth - do a visit - generate money - create peace - guide an orchestra - drink medicine - eat time - do a effort

- deliver a baby - pay a visit - make (earn) money - make peace - conduct an orchestra - take medicine - take time - make an effort

COLLOCATION

verb plus noun


- mengalami kecelakaan - mengejar bus - memberikan putusan - mencurahkan perhatian - menyampaikan pidato
- etc - experience an accident - have an accident

- pursue a bus - give a verdict - give attention - present a speech - etc

- catch a bus - deliver a verdict - pay attention - deliver a speech - etc

COLLOCATION

NOUN PLUS NOUN

pencipta perdamaian pecahnya perang meletusnya perang dampak rumahkaca penyakit mental etc

peace-creator the break of war the eruption of war greenhouse impact mental disease etc

peace-maker the outbreak of war the outbreak of war greenhouse-effect mental illness etc

COLLOCATION

NOUN AND ADJECTIVE

tinggi

tall man

high mountain

COLLOCATION

lebat dense forest ---------- heavy/ hard rain tebal thick wood ---------- dense fog cepat quick response --- fast car --- rapid progress

COLLOCATION

rusak broken chair damaged item jauh far sight kuat strong motivation powerful engine long distance

COLLOCATION

VERB AND ADVERB

sangat highly recommend - strongly suggest etc

CONNOTATION
AMBIGUITY - NEOLOGISM

Connotation Ambiguity Neologism - Jargon

WHAT IS CONNOTATION

An aura of ideas and feelings suggested by lexical words.


(Newmark, 1988)

Connotation is what you think of when you hear a word. It is the images, feelings, and thoughts that accompany words.
(answer.yahoo.com)

Connotation Ambiguity Neologism - Jargon

KINDS CONNOTATION

Positive Connotation Neutral Connotation Negative Connotation

Connotation Ambiguity Neologism - Jargon

Positive connotation

Negative connotation

Synonymy

Neutral connotation

Connotation Ambiguity Neologism - Jargon

Single meaning with different connotation

POSITIVE Slim/ Slender Afro-America Wafat/ Gugur Jenazah

NEUTRAL Thin Black Meninggal Mayat

NEGATIVE Skinny Negro Mampus Bangkai

Connotation Ambiguity Neologism - Jargon

CONNOTATION AND ASSOCIATION

flower rose lily rainbow moon horse buffalo lion tiger eagle

beauty beauty beauty beauty beauty strength strength bravery bravery bravery

Connotation Ambiguity Neologism - Jargon

CONNOTATION AND ASSOCIATION snake wolf chicken worm donkey panda sofa candle castle fly fly etc unseen danger slyness coward weakness stupidity cute comfort enlightening wealthy happiness speed

Connotation Ambiguity Neologism - Jargon

cultural connotation and association


Indonesian tikus banteng beringin ayam etc : corruptor : political party : political party : pseudonymous prostitute

Connotation Ambiguity Neologism - Jargon

Connotation and Translation

original text (source language) Positive Neutral Negative

translation text (target language) Positive Neutral Negative

Connotation Ambiguity Neologism - Jargon

TRANSLATING WITH EQUIVALENT CONNOTATION

ramping/ langsing kurus

: slim
: thin

kurus kering : skinny kerempeng : skinny

Connotation Ambiguity Neologism - Jargon

AMBIGUITY

Anak dokter yang cantik itu. The chicken is ready to eat. Flying planes can be dangerous. Hunting lions can be dangerous.

Connotation Ambiguity Neologism - Jargon

NEOLOGISM
Neologism is newly coined lexical units or existing lexical units that acquire a new sense. (Newmark, 1988: 140)

A neologism is a word, term, or phrase that has been recently created (or "coined"), often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. Neologisms are especially useful in identifying invention, new phenomena, or old ideas that have taken on a new cultural context. (wikipedia.org)

Connotation Ambiguity Neologism - Jargon

Neologism
e-mail eco-friendly supernova global-warming greenhouse-effect black hole Agrowisata jagawana etc

Connotation Ambiguity Neologism - Jargon

NEOLOGISM AND TRANSLATION


(how to translate neologism) Loan word (transference) e-mail supernova biogas naturalization biotechnology television word by word global-warming greenhouse-effect black hole

email supernova biogas

bioteknologi televisi

pemanasan global dampak rumah kaca lubang hitam