Anda di halaman 1dari 14


By: SUSHEEMA.R.N (1SI08CS106) 8th CSE, B Section SIT

Image authentication techniques have recently gained great attention due to its importance for a large number of multimedia applications. Digital images are increasingly transmitted over non-secure channels such as the Internet. Therefore, military, medical and quality control images must be protected against attempts to manipulate them; such manipulations could tamper the decisions based on these images. The aim is to present a survey and a comparison of emerging techniques for image authentication.

Authentication techniques are performed on visual data to indicate that the data is not a forgery; they should not damage visual quality of the video data. Techniques must indicate the malicious modifications include removal or insertion of certain frames, change of faces of individual, time and background etc. Only a properly authenticated video data has got the value as legal proof.

Techniques used to authenticate the visual data recorded by the automatic video surveillance system (AVS). Automatic video surveillance systems are used for continuous and effective monitoring and reliable control of remote and dangerous sites. Visual data can be modified using sophisticated processing tools without leaving any visible trace of the modification. So digital or image data have no value as legal proof. By data authentication it is possible to ensure that data have not been tampered.


Sergio, Ricardo and yongkim Proposed two techniques for authenticating visual data. First is Cryptographic Data Authentication used to authenticate visual data in which each video camera is assigned a different public or private key pair. A document encrypted with the private key of any particular camera can be decrypted with its own public key. Calculate a digital summary or digest of the video by means of a proper hash function. The digest is then encrypted with their private key.

Drawbacks of cryptographic authentication are: Knowledge of private key Delay in transmission High requirements of video camera


Watermarking is the art and science of embedding copyright information in the original files. The information embedded is called watermarks. Digital watermark is a signal which added to a document to authenticate it and to prove the ownership. A commonly encountered digital watermark is the logo most television channels display on the top of the television screen.

Classification of Watermarking Authentication:







Fragile watermarking refers to the case where watermark inserted within the data is lost or altered as soon as host data undergoes any modification. Robust watermarking a summary of the video sequence is computed and is inserted within the video sequence. In visible digital watermarking, the information is visible in the picture or video. Typically, the information is text or a logo, which identifies the owner of the media.

In invisible digital watermarking, information is added as digital data to audio, picture, or video and its hidden. Reversible digital watermarking is a technique which enables images to be authenticated and then restored to their original form by removing the digital watermark and replacing the image data that had been overwritten.

Authentication check is a two level process. A first level decision on image authenticity is taken by comparing the watermark detection of the text image with a prespecified threshold T. If the first level decision test indicates that the image is somehow altered but authentic, a second level decision test should be performed.

This test indicates whether the alternations made on the image are concentrated in certain regions or one spread on the image. First it detects the false image then particular tampered region.


In these modern eras, visual surveillance system finds application in almost all fields, ranging from commercial to defense. The video data acquired by VS system are forming vital evidence for several legal situations. Future scope is, in 2012 they come with new technology of watermarking i.e., Tamper Localization using watermarking.