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B Y: M O N A L I . R . B H A K TA S E M : 8 TH ROLL NO: 86

Cancer is a disease in which there is an uncontrolled growth of cells due to mutation in the cell. The agents which cause cancer are called carcinogens. 2 types of cancer: 1) benign tumor: 2) malignant tumor:

donot spread highly spreading

Cancer is classified on the basis of the cell or tissue or organ in which it occur: 1) colon cancer 2) carcinoma 3) sarcoma 4) leukemia

Stem cell cancer:

Stem cell are the cell having self renewal and potency properties. Mutation in them cause the cancer. The two major gene which are mutated are: 1) proto oncogene: converted to oncogene. Activation of gene 2) tumor suppressor gene: deactivation of gene

stem cells (sc)

Stem cells cells progenitor cells mature


i.e. replenish the repertoire of identical stem cell DIFFERENTIATION i.e. create a heterogeneous progeny differentiating to mature cells EXTRAORDINARY PROLIFERATION POTENTIAL HOMEOSTATIC CONTROL according to the influence of microenvironment.

cancer stem cells (csc)

Minority of cancer cells with tumorigenic potential




CSCs have recently been identified in several solid tumors, including cancers of the:
Brain Breast Colon Ovary Pancreas Prostate Melanoma Multiple Myeloma

The origin of cancer stem cells is still an area of ongoing research. Several camps have formed within the scientific community regarding the issue, and it is possible that several answers are correct, depending on the tumor type and the phenotype the tumor presents. One important distinction that will often be raised is that the cell of origin for a tumor can not be demonstrated using the cancer stem cell as a model. This is because cancer stem cells are isolated from end-stage tumors. Therefore, describing a cancer stem cell as a cell of origin is often an inaccurate claim, even though a cancer stem cell is capable of initiating new tumor formation. Various theories define the origin of cancer stem cell they may be: mutants in developing stem or progenitor cells, mutants in adult stem cells or adult progenitor cells, or mutant cells that acquire stem like attributes. These theories often do focus on a tumor's cell of origin and as such must be approached with skepticism.

Chest x-ray showing lung cancer in the left lung. Most cancers are initially recognized either because of the appearance of signs or symptoms or through screening.

Neither of these lead to a definitive diagnosis, which requires the examination of a tissue sample by a pathologist.
People with suspected cancer are investigated with medical tests. These commonly include blood tests, X-rays, CT scans and endoscopy.

A. Surgery B. Radiation C. Chemotherapy D. Alternative treatments


Dietary Medication vaccination

1. Anand P, Kunnumakkara AB, Kunnumakara AB, et al. (September 2008). "Cancer is a Preventable Disease that Requires Major Lifestyle Changes".

2. Kinzler, Kenneth W.; Vogelstein, Bert (2002). "Introduction".The genetic basis of human cancer (2nd, illustrated, revised ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill, Medical Pub. Division. 3. Jemal, A; Bray, F, Center, MM, Ferlay, J, Ward, E, Forman, D (2011-0204). "Global cancer statistics". CA: a cancer journal for clinicians 4. O'Dell, edited by Michael D. Stubblefield, Michael W. (2009).Cancer rehabilitation principles and practice. New York: Demos Medical. 5. Sasco AJ, Secretan MB, Straif K (August 2004). "Tobacco smoking and cancer: a brief review of recent epidemiological evidence". Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands).